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Kiradírozták a térképet

dahalakhagrabari.jpg
  A kép közepén látható Dahala Khagrabari 1/51-es számú hétezer négyzetméteres indiai jutaföld, amelynek tulajdonosa külföldön él, a csövével jobb felé mutató pisztoly alakú területen: ez Upancsauki Bhadzsni bangladesi falu, amelyet viszont körbevesz Balapara Khagrabari indiai falu, amelyet viszont körbevesz Debigandzs bangladesi város (224 ezer lakos). Dahala Khagrabari tehát Bangladesben található Indiában található Bangladesben található India, a világ egyetlen harmadik szintű enklávéja – volt. Huszonnégy órája ez mind átváltozott Bangladessé, mert a határ déli, bangladesi oldalán fekszik.
  manikganj.jpg
  Debigandzstól északra ilyen a rendes országhatár. A kiírt városok Indiában vannak, a térkép bal és alsó része Banglades. Binnaguritól északra három bangladesi enklávé látható (valójában csak egy, Baikunthapun Teldhar, de három részből áll), a térkép nyugati szélén pedig egész felhő van belőlük. S bármerre indulunk a környéken, tucatjával hemzsegnek az enklávék. Tessék egy részlet messzebbről.
  sikarpur.jpg
  Sikarpur Indiában van, az olvasó ennek alapján kisilabizálhatja, hogy a kép melyik része melyik ország.
  S így néz ki Dahala Khagrabari, a jutaföld, ahonnan elindultunk, az életben. Éppen aratják a jutát. A szaggatott vonal az országhatár, ami a valóságban nincsen ott, csak a határkövek jelzik, az egyik látható is.
  dahalakhagrabari2.jpg
  (A kép Brendan R. Whyte Waiting for the Esquimo. An historical and documentary study of the Cooch Behar enclaves of India and Bangladesh című tanulmányából való, University of Melbourne, 2002–2004.)

Valaha létezett egy Kúcs Bihár nevű állam, a tizenhatodik században jött létre, a Mogul Birodalom szomszédja volt. A különféle rádzsák és maharadzsák ide-oda adogatták egymás között a területeket a rajtuk élőkkel együtt, amíg ez a tökéletes zűrzavar létre nem jött, több száz kisebb-nagyobb enklávéval, amelyek egy őrült bonyolultságú határ két oldalán vannak – de ez feltehetően nemigen zavart senkit, mert akkoriban aligha állt határőr mindenhol. Aztán az összes határ minden oldalán fekvő területeket bekebelezte Brit India, egyetlen ország volt, végképp nem kellett határőr. Hetven éve azonban az ország szétszakadt, a rangpuri körzet Kelet-Pakisztánhoz került, amelyet később elneveztek Bangladesnek, Nyugat-Bengál állam viszont Indiában maradt. Ettől kezdve ez egy modern értelemben vett országhatár, amin márpedig nem lehet csak úgy átsétálni, akkor sem, ha adott helyen épp nincs is szögesdrót, megbüntetik az embert. A számtalan apróbb-nagyobb cshit némelyikében nincsenek közművek, nincs kórház, nincsen semmi, mert minden a másik országban van, ahol az illetékesek széttárják a kezüket: ők nem szolgáltathatnak külföldre, tiltja a törvény, nagyon sajnálják. India és Banglades kapcsolata korántsem felhőtlen, a tömérdek széttagolt területen élő ötvenezer ember problémája elvész a két hatalmas, sok százmilliós népességű országban. Bár az is kérdés, hogy tényleg ötvenezer-e, a különböző népszámlálások teljesen más adatokat hoznak ki, annyi biztos, hogy ez nagyon sűrűn lakott vidék. Időnként megpróbáltak megegyezni, néha kötöttek is egyezményeket, amikkel egyes enklávék megszűntek, beolvadtak a környező országba, de a többség megmaradt.
  Mostanáig. A röviden csak Cooch Biharnak nevezett vidék legkevesebb százhatvan enklávéjában tavasz óta feszült várakozással ünnepelnek. Mert végre megszületett a megállapodás. Augusztus 1-jétől az enklávék dzsungele megszűnt, csak egyetlen határvonal van, bár az alighanem ugyanolyan cirkalmas, mint volt. Az enklávék, kontraenklávék és kontra-kontraenklávék beolvadnak abba az országba, amely körülveszi őket. A lakosok végre személyi igazolványt kapnak, abban az országban, ahol élnek. Aki akar, elköltözhet hazulról – „haza”. Vagy maradhat otthon, egy másik országban.

Enklávék és exklávék sokfelé vannak a világban. Az osztrák Jungholz városát csak Németországból lehet megközelíteni, bár egyetlen ponton érintkezik Ausztria többi részével, de az egy hegycsúcs. Ez a hely Ausztriának exkláve, Németországnak enkláve, mert benne van, de van Németországnak hat exklávéja is, ebből öt Belgiumban, a legkisebb (Rückschlag) csak egy kertes házat foglal magában, s ha a tulajdonos a legrövidebb úton akar hazulról a hazájába jutni, átsétál az úton, egy keskeny erdősávon és a vasúton, alig pár métert. A hatodik német exklávét Svájc veszi körül, de Svájcnak van olasz enklávéja is.
  A spanyol Llívia városát teljes egészében Franciaország veszi körül, délen két kilométerre van a rendes országhatár. Több exklávét hagytak szomszédaik területén a közép-ázsiai országok, Kirgízia, Üzbegisztán és Tadzsikisztán, de Örményország és Azerbajdzsán is kölcsönösen birtokol egypárat. S ami a Cooch Behar-i zűrzavar megszűntével világrekorderré lép elő, az a belga Baarle-Hertog és a holland Baarle-Nassau egymásba fonódott két városa, amelyeket Hollandia vesz körül, de összesen harminc apró darabkában egymást is körülveszik.
  Hollandia–Belgiumban ez játék. A helyi lakosok időnként megteszik, hogy az egyik utcára nyíló ajtót befalazzák és a másik utcára nyitnak egyet, mert az adót aszerint kell fizetni, hogy melyik országból nyílik a bejárat a házba, és a másik országban éppen kedvezőbbek a szabályok. Egyébként vígan járkálnak keresztül a határokon, amik nem jelentenek többet turistalátványosságnál. Németország–Belgiumban, Svájcban, Franciaországban szintén játék. A rendes országhatár is már nagyon régóta az, nyugodt lélekkel átsétálnak rajta. India–Bangladesben nem játék, és sehol, ahol a két ország fenekedik egymásra.
  Azaz dehogy a két ország. Csak a vezetőik.

2015.08.01., 20:07




Kedves Vaterafutár!

Először arra gondoltam, egyből tegezve írok, hátha nálatok ez a menő, de aztán arra gondoltam, maradjunk csak meg az üzleti stílusnál. Önök ugyanis egy szolgáltatócég, akik az én pénzemből élnek. Tudnának mesélni nekem valamit arról, hogy milyen szempontok vannak az alkalmazottak felvételi vizsgáján? Mert ha se jó modor nem kell hozzá, se józan ész, akkor esetleg szólnék egypár ismerősömnek, akiket pont most oltottak veszettség ellen.
  Tartottam egy kis közvélemény-kutatást baráti körömben, de senki nem tudta kitalálni, mi lehet az a szituáció, amikor az illemszabályok lehetőséget adnak rá, hogy egy negyven-ötven közötti férfi – egy szolgáltatócég alkalmazottja – letegezzen egy hetvenéves nőt, akivel azért beszél, mert az illető igénybe veszi a szolgáltatást, és egyébként soha nem találkoztak. Senki nem tudott rájönni, nekem kellett elárulnom, hogy ezt mikor szabad. Ha a nő tolókocsis.
  Elég régóta szokás minálunk, hogy a nyomit gondolkodás nélkül letegezik. Alacsonyabban van a feje, merthogy ő ül, ők meg ugyebár állnak, bár ha az adott helyzetben éppen ülnének, akkor is letegezik. Gyereket, háziállatot és nyomit le szabad tegezni. Jómagam erre azt az egyszerű stratégiát alakítottam ki, hogy ilyenkor az illetőt visszakézből visszategezem, hacsak nem olyan öreg és tekintélyes, aki már bárkit letegezhet. Néha fura arcokat vágnak, de még soha nem merte senki szóvá tenni, hogy megsértem az illemszabályt, hiszen a nyomi nem tegezheti vissza a felsőbbrendűt. Csak ugye én ezt megtehetem, mert pasi vagyok: egy másik pasival gond nélkül kialakíthatok tegező viszonyt, ha pedig nővel beszélek, az ő előjoga meghatározni a nexust – ha tegeződni óhajt, ám tegye.
  Feleségem édesanyja viszont nem pasi. De tolókocsis. Alacsonyabban van a feje, mint jelen pillanatban az Önök futárának, tehát letegezhető. Azért mondom, hogy jelen pillanatban, mert nyomi még bárkiből lehet, elég egy makacs betegség vagy egy figyelmetlen sofőr, mint minálunk.
  Ami mármost a józan észt illeti, úgy látom, alkalmazottjuk nem igazán szokott elmenni emberekhez, jobbára nyilván a raktárban tevékenykedik. Láttuk az ablakból, hogy érkezik, vártam, hogy megnyomja a kaputelefont, mert amíg nem a kapu közelében áll, hiába nyitom, ő nem hallja, hogy jelez a kapu. De a mobil szólalt meg helyette, közölte a keresztnevét és hogy csomagot hozott. Itt érdemes szólni, hogy ekkor még nem tudta, hogy tolókocsisékhoz jött, ahol felsőbbrendű emberként úgy beszél, ahogy akar, nem köteles se teljes néven bemutatkozni (ámbár idegen helyen így szokás), se a saját neve helyett a cége nevét mondani (hiszen az ő neve nem mondana semmit). Szóval a puszta keresztnevével jelentkezett a mobilban, amire én nem mondtam, hogy ilyen nevű embert nem ismerek, csak megjegyeztem, hogy amúgy van ám kaputelefon is. „Ja, nem tudtam” – felelte, és abban a pillanatban megszólalt a kaputelefon, szóval mégiscsak fölfedezte; nyomkodta gőzerővel, alig hagyta abba.
  Eltöprengtem azon, hogy ilyenkor vajon mit hisz. Hogy a mobilban nem fogtam fel, hogy ő megjött, és még egyszer értesítenie kell róla? Hogy a kaputelefon kellően vad nyomkodásától feltárul a kapu? Én tudom, hogy negyvenes IQ környékén az ember nehezen tudja elképzelni a világ működését, de nem, a kapu nem nyílik ki csak attól, hogy odakint megnyomnak egy gombot, mert akkor a betörők tolvajkulcs nélkül járnának: azt a kaput én tudom kinyitni idebentről. Én pedig már tudtam róla, hogy ő itt van. Elmondta telefonon.
  Szóval aztán bejött és letegezett egy asszonyt, aki már férjnél volt, amikor ő még a legjobb ízű cumit kereste, és nem tegezte vissza. Jó napot kívánt neki. Most jutott eszembe: javasolni fogom neki, hogy az ilyen felsőbbrendűeknek mondja azt, életkoruk szerint, hogy kisfiam vagy kisunokám.
  Akkor tegezhetik.

Szokásomtól eltérően, bár a cikk levélként lett megfogalmazva, nem küldtem el a címzettnek. Sem a Vatera, sem a Vaterafutár oldalán nem tudtam emailcímet föllelni.

2015.07.31., 20:30




Sorted List of the World’s Languages

Apparently, there’s no page on the net listing the languages of the world, sorted by the number of speakers – all languages. There are many lists of the biggest languages and that’s all. However, the information is available in Ethnologue, just we have to extract it. This was already done by Zeke Sikelianos and published here. I took this database and wrote a script to compile it to a sorted list.
  The table shows the Ethnologue three-letter abbreviation and the name of the language, then the name of the country it’s associated to, and the complete population entry from the database. To have it sorted, the script extracts the biggest number mentioned in the text, not including numbers between parentheses. However, in some cases, year numbers are shown out from parentheses and may be chosen for sorting since there’s no bigger number in the entry. So, it’s not perfect.
  The list contains 7469 languages totalling 7,441,243,311 speakers due to taking some L2 speakers into account twice.

cmn Chinese, Mandarin China 840,000,000 in China (2000 census), increasing. 70% of Chinese language users speak a Mandarin dialect as L1. Population total all countries: 847,808,270. L2 users: 178,000,000 in China
eng English United Kingdom 55,600,000 in United Kingdom (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 335,491,748. L2 users: 1,500,000 in United Kingdom (Crystal 2003). L2 users worldwide: 505,000,000
spa Spanish Spain 38,400,000 in Spain (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 398,931,840. L2 users: 7,490,000 in Spain (European Commission 2006). L2 users worldwide: 89,500,000
hin Hindi India 258,000,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 260,333,620. L2 users: 120,000,000 in India (Wiesenfeld 1999)
arb Arabic, Standard Saudi Arabia 206,000,000 L1 speakers of all Arabic varieties (Wiesenfeld 1999). L2 users: 246,000,000 L2 speakers of all Arabic varieties (Wiesenfeld 1999)
por Portuguese Portugal 10,000,000 in Portugal (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 203,352,100
ben Bengali Bangladesh 106,000,000 in Bangladesh (2011 census). Population total all countries: 189,261,200. L2 users: 19,200,000 in Bangladesh (2011 census)
rus Russian Russian Federation 137,000,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 166,167,860
ind Indonesian Indonesia 22,800,000 in Indonesia (2000), increasing. Population total all countries: 23,200,480. L2 users: 140,000,000 in Indonesia
jpn Japanese Japan 127,000,000 in Japan (2010). Population total all countries: 128,056,940
urd Urdu Pakistan 10,000,000 in Pakistan (1998 census). Population total all countries: 64,035,800. L2 users: 94,000,000 in Pakistan (1999)
fra French France 60,000,000 in France (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 75,916,150. L2 users worldwide: 87,000,000 (Francophonie 2007)
jav Javanese Indonesia 84,300,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). 25,000 in south Sulawesi, and 69,000,000 on Java, 500,000 of them being in Banten region and 2,500,000 in Cirebon region of Java. Population total all countries: 84,308,740
deu German, Standard Germany 69,800,000 in Germany (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 78,093,980. L2 users: 8,000,000 in Germany (European Commission 2012)
wuu Chinese, Wu China 77,200,000 in China (1984). Population total all countries: 77,202,480
kor Korean South Korea 48,400,000 in Korea, South (2010). Population total all countries: 77,155,030
tel Telugu India 73,800,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 74,049,000. L2 users: 5,000,000 in India
vie Vietnamese Viet Nam 65,800,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 67,778,030. Ethnic population: 73,600,000 (2009 census)
mar Marathi India 71,700,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 71,780,660. L2 users: 3,000,000 in India
tur Turkish Turkey 66,500,000 in Turkey (European Commission 2006). Population total all countries: 70,890,130. L2 users: 350,000 in Turkey (European Commission 2006)
tam Tamil India 60,700,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 68,776,460. L2 users: 8,000,000 in India
ita Italian Italy 57,700,000 in Italy (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 63,783,247
pnb Punjabi, Western Pakistan 60,600,000 in Pakistan (2000). Population total all countries: 62,613,000
yue Chinese, Yue China 52,000,000 in China (1984). Population total all countries: 62,221,560
arz Arabic, Egyptian Spoken Egypt 52,500,000 in Egypt (2006). Population total all countries: 55,039,000
pbu Pashto, Northern Pakistan 18,700,000 in Pakistan (2013 SIL). Population total all countries: 21,038,000. Ethnic population: Possibly 49,600,000 Pashto in all countries
pes Persian, Iranian Iran 45,000,000 in Iran (2011), increasing. 800,000 Eastern Farsi in Khorasan speak dialects which are transitional with Iranian Persian. Population total all countries: 47,408,100
guj Gujarati India 45,700,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 46,636,510
nan Chinese, Min Nan China 25,700,000 in China (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 46,619,500
fil Filipino Philippines L2 users: 45,000,000 (2013). Widely spoken as L2
cjy Chinese, Jinyu China 45,000,000 (1995)
lmn Lambadi India 4,150,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: Estimates range up to 40,000,000 for the total group
tha Thai Thailand 20,200,000 in Thailand (2000). 400,000 Khorat. 4,700,000 mother-tongue Thai are ethnic Chinese, or 80% of the Chinese (1984). Population total all countries: 20,396,930. L2 users: 40,000,000 in Thailand (2001 A. Diller)
bho Bhojpuri India 37,800,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 39,716,000
pol Polish Poland 36,600,000 in Poland (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 38,636,480
kan Kannada India 37,700,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 37,739,040. L2 users: 9,000,000 in India
ukr Ukrainian Ukraine 32,000,000 in Ukraine (2001 census). Population total all countries: 34,868,740. Ethnic population: 37,500,000 (2001 census)
hsn Chinese, Xiang China 36,000,000 in China (1984). Population total all countries: 36,000,290
sun Sunda Indonesia 34,000,000 (2000 census)
mai Maithili India 30,000,000 in India (2000 SIL). Population total all countries: 33,890,000. 12,000,000 monolinguals (1998)
mal Malayalam India 33,000,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 33,590,300
ory Oriya India 32,100,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 32,137,870
mya Burmese Myanmar 32,000,000 in Myanmar (2000 D. Bradley), increasing. 250,000 Beik, 20,000 Yaw (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 32,035,300. L2 users: 10,000,000 in Myanmar. Minority peoples throughout the country
ugn Ugandan Sign Language Uganda 160,000 (2008 WFD). 160,316–840,000 deaf (2008 WFD, citing various sources). 528,000–800,000 deaf (Lule and Wallin 2010, citing various sources). Over 700,000 deaf adults (Oluoch 2010, citing 2002 Uganda Bureau of Statistics). Figures range from 0.5%–2.7% of the general population of approx. 31,000,000
hak Chinese, Hakka China 25,700,000 in China (1984). Population total all countries: 30,082,810
gaz Oromo, West Central Ethiopia 8,920,000 (1994 census). 25,500,000 all Oromo speakers in Ethiopia (2007 census). Population total all countries: 8,922,200. Ethnic population: 30,000,000
pcm Pidgin, Nigerian Nigeria 30,000,000 including L1 and L2 speakers
pan Punjabi, Eastern India 28,200,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 29,514,770
arq Arabic, Algerian Spoken Algeria 26,000,000 in Algeria (2012 Sherbrooke University), increasing. Population total all countries: 26,697,000. L2 users: 3,000,000 in Algeria
gax Oromo, Borana-Arsi-Guji Ethiopia 3,630,000 in Ethiopia. 25,500,000 all Oromo speakers in Ethiopia (2007 census). Population total all countries: 3,949,600
hae Oromo, Eastern Ethiopia 4,530,000 (1994 census). 25,500,000 all Oromo speakers in Ethiopia (2007 census)
hau Hausa Nigeria 18,500,000 in Nigeria (1991 SIL). Population total all countries: 25,109,000. L2 users: 15,000,000 in Nigeria
tgl Tagalog Philippines 21,500,000 in Philippines (2000 census). Population total all countries: 24,310,000
uzn Uzbek, Northern Uzbekistan 21,300,000 in Uzbekistan (2014 World Factbook). Population total all countries: 24,039,250. Ethnic population: 22,900,000 (2014 World Factbook)
ron Romanian Romania 19,900,000 in Romania (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 23,681,610
nld Dutch Netherlands 15,700,000 in Netherlands (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 21,944,690
amh Amharic Ethiopia 21,600,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). Population total all countries: 21,811,600. 14,800,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 4,000,000 in Ethiopia
ary Arabic, Moroccan Spoken Morocco 18,800,000 in Morocco (1995). Population total all countries: 21,048,900. L2 users: 5,000,000 in Morocco
gan Chinese, Gan China 20,600,000 (1984)
snd Sindhi Pakistan 18,500,000 in Pakistan (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 20,270,500
kmr Kurdish, Northern Turkey 15,000,000 in Turkey (McCarus 2009), decreasing. Very provisional figures for Northern Kurdish speaker population. Population total all countries: 20,222,890. 3,000,000 monolinguals. Especially in Hakkari and Shirnak provinces
skr Saraiki Pakistan 20,000,000 in Pakistan (2013). Population total all countries: 20,068,000
bns Bundeli India 3,070,000 (2001 census). Population estimates range up to 20,000,000
yor Yoruba Nigeria 18,900,000 in Nigeria (Johnstone 1993). Population total all countries: 19,380,800. L2 users: 2,000,000 in Nigeria
aec Arabic, Sa’idi Spoken Egypt 19,000,000 (2006)
azb Azerbaijani, South Iran 15,500,000 in Iran (2010). Population total all countries: 16,913,280. Ethnic population: 18,700,000. L2 users: Used as L2 in Northwestern Iran
ibo Igbo Nigeria 18,000,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999)
apd Arabic, Sudanese Spoken Sudan 15,000,000 in Sudan (1991). Population now divided between Sudan and South Sudan. Population total all countries: 16,867,000. L2 users: Used as an L1 or L2 by over 29 million people in Sudan (2013 A. Persson)
bgc Haryanvi India 8,000,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 16,000,000 (1992 SIL)
zlm Malay Malaysia 10,500,000 in Malaysia (2004 census). 10 million in Peninsular Malaysia, 506,000 in Sarawak, and 30,000 in Labuan. Population total all countries: 15,848,500. L2 users: 3,000,000 in Malaysia
ceb Cebuano Philippines 15,800,000 in Philippines (2000 census). Population total all countries: 15,810,000
zul Zulu South Africa 11,600,000 in South Africa (2011 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 11,969,100. L2 users: 15,700,000 in South Africa
sin Sinhala Sri Lanka 15,500,000 in Sri Lanka (2007). Population total all countries: 15,613,980. L2 users: 2,000,000 in Sri Lanka (1997)
swh Swahili Tanzania 15,000,000 in Tanzania (2012), increasing. Population total all countries: 15,437,390. L2 users: Probably over 80% of rural people are L2 users; they use the local language for most activities, but Swahili [swh] with outsiders
npi Nepali Nepal 12,300,000 in Nepal (2011 census), increasing. 143,000 Achhami, 273,000 Baitadeli, 67,600 Bajhangi, 10,700 Bajureli, 490 Dadeldhuri, 3,100 Dailekhi, 5,930 Darchuleli, and 11,800,000 Nepali (2011 census). Population total all countries: 15,360,100
acm Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken Iraq 11,500,000 in Iraq. Population total all countries: 15,100,000
tts Thai, Northeastern Thailand 15,000,000 (1983 SIL). At least 1,000,000 in Bangkok. Kalerng has a few thousand speakers (1990 A. Diller)
rkt Rangpuri Bangladesh 10,000,000 in Bangladesh (2007). Population total all countries: 15,000,000
som Somali Somalia 6,460,000 in Somalia (2002). Population total all countries: 14,762,900
apc Arabic, North Levantine Spoken Syria 8,800,000 in Syria (1991). Population total all countries: 14,761,540
khm Khmer, Central Cambodia 12,900,000 in Cambodia (2008 census). Population total all countries: 14,224,500. L2 users: 1,000,000 in Cambodia
bar Bavarian Austria 7,830,000 in Austria (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 14,089,000
mag Magahi India 14,000,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 14,035,600
ell Greek Greece 10,700,000 in Greece (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 13,391,140
hne Chhattisgarhi India 13,300,000 (2001 census)
ctg Chittagonian Bangladesh 13,000,000 (2006 SIL)
fub Fulfulde, Adamawa Cameroon 669,000 in Cameroon (1986). Possibly 13,000,000 speakers of all Fulfulde varieties. Population total all countries: 929,500
kaz Kazakh Kazakhstan 10,300,000 in Kazakhstan (2001 census). Population total all countries: 12,881,960
asm Assamese India 12,800,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 12,828,220
dcc Deccan India 12,800,000 (2000)
hun Hungarian Hungary 9,840,000 in Hungary (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 12,605,590
fuv Fulfulde, Nigerian Nigeria 11,500,000 in Nigeria (2000), increasing. 340,000 in Sokoto. Population total all countries: 11,585,000
aeb Arabic, Tunisian Spoken Tunisia 10,800,000 in Tunisia (2014 census). Population total all countries: 11,206,900
xho Xhosa South Africa 8,150,000 in South Africa (2011 census). Population total all countries: 8,177,300. L2 users: 11,000,000 in South Africa
rmy Romani, Vlax Romania 242,000 in Romania (2002 census). 6,000,000 to 11,000,000 Gypsies in the world (1987 I. Hancock). Population total all countries: 484,780
pbt Pashto, Southern Afghanistan 6,000,000 in Afghanistan (2008). Population total all countries: 10,780,000
sna Shona Zimbabwe 10,700,000 in Zimbabwe (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000). 4,500,000 Karanga (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000), 1,700,000 Korekore (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000), 3,200,000 Zezuru (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000), 1,300,000 Shona. Population total all countries: 10,741,700. L2 users: 1,800,000 in Zimbabwe (Chebanne 2000)
mnc Manchu China 20 (Bradley 2007). Some additional semi-speakers in 3 remote villages (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 10,700,000 (2000 census)
ces Czech Czech Republic 10,400,000 in Czech Republic (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 10,619,340
uig Uyghur China 10,100,000 in China (2010 census). Population total all countries: 10,416,910. Some are monolingual
mnp Chinese, Min Bei China 10,300,000 in China (1984). Population total all countries: 10,304,000
syl Sylheti Bangladesh 7,000,000 in Bangladesh. Population total all countries: 10,300,000. L2 users: 1,500,000 in Bangladesh
afr Afrikaans South Africa 6,860,000 in South Africa (2011 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 7,096,810. L2 users: 10,300,000 in South Africa
run Rundi Burundi 10,000,000 in Burundi (2006 World Factbook), increasing. Population total all countries: 10,150,000. 4,000,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 10,000,000
nya Chichewa Malawi 7,000,000 in Malawi (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 10,036,700
bam Bamanankan Mali 4,000,000 in Mali (2012 V. Vydrin), increasing. 75,000 Ganadugu (Vanderaa 1991), 164,000 Wasulu (2009 census). Population total all countries: 4,072,040. L2 users: 10,000,000 in Mali (2012 V. Vydrine)
nds Saxon, Low Germany 1,000. 10,000,000 understand it in Germany, but many fewer are native speakers (1996 R. Hahn)
ars Arabic, Najdi Spoken Saudi Arabia 8,000,000 in Saudi Arabia. Population total all countries: 9,870,000
prs Dari Afghanistan 7,600,000 in Afghanistan (2011 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 9,600,000. Ethnic population: 7,600,000. L2 users: All other language groups have Dari speakers, especially those who live in the city of Kabul
bjj Kanauji India 9,500,000 (2001 USCWM)
swe Swedish Sweden 8,840,000 in Sweden (European Commission 2012). 5,000 speakers of Gutniska (1998 S. Håkansson), and 30,000 of Jamska. Population total all countries: 9,197,090
cdo Chinese, Min Dong China 8,820,000 in China (2000). Population total all countries: 9,115,930
swc Swahili, Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. L2 users: 9,100,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1991 UBS)
nso Sotho, Northern South Africa 4,620,000 in South Africa (2011 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 4,631,000. L2 users: 9,100,000 in South Africa
mww Hmong Daw China 233,000 in China (2004). Population total all countries: 1,698,400. Ethnic population: All Hmong in China: 8,950,000 (2000 census)
hms Miao, Southern Qiandong China 500,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). All Miao in China: 8,950,000 (2000 census)
srp Serbian Serbia 6,620,000 in Serbia (2002 census). Population total all countries: 8,638,906
aka Akan Ghana 8,300,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL). Population includes 2,800,000 Asante Twi, 1,900,000 Fante, 555,000 Akuapem Twi (2004). Population total all countries: 8,314,600. L2 users: 1,000,000 in Ghana
tjs Tujia, Southern China 1,500 (Brassett and Brassett 2005), decreasing. Monolinguals are mainly women, children, and older adults. Ethnic population: 8,030,000 (2000 census). Includes 70,000 in Northern Tujia
tji Tujia, Northern China 70,000 (Brassett and Brassett 2005). Regularly used but increasingly the young prefer to speak Chinese and are encouraged by their parents. In most areas children acquire a passive knowledge only. No longer used in southeastern Sichuan, northeastern Guizhou, and southwestern Hubei provinces. No longer used or moribund in northwestern Hunan and severely endangered in the remaining areas (Bradley 2007). 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 8,030,000 (2000 census). Ethnic population includes 1,500 speakers of Southern Tujia [tjs]
azj Azerbaijani, North Azerbaijan 6,100,000 in Azerbaijan (2007 census). Population total all countries: 7,313,660. 4,000,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,230,000. L2 users: 8,000,000 in Azerbaijan
bel Belarusan Belarus 2,220,000 in Belarus (2009 census). The majority of Belarusans speak Russian [rus] as their L1. Population total all countries: 3,188,730. Ethnic population: 7,960,000 (2009 census)
tgk Tajiki Tajikistan 6,380,000 in Tajikistan (2010 census). Population total all countries: 7,864,250. Ethnic population: 6,370,000 (2010 census)
bul Bulgarian Bulgaria 7,020,000 in Bulgaria (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 7,799,970
hat Haitian Haiti 6,960,000 in Haiti (2001). Population total all countries: 7,731,240
ayn Arabic, Sanaani Spoken Yemen 7,600,000 (1996)
tuk Turkmen Turkmenistan 3,430,000 in Turkmenistan (1995). Population total all countries: 7,561,110. Ethnic population: 3,470,000 (1995)
plt Malagasy, Plateau Madagascar 7,520,000 in Madagascar (2006). Population total all countries: 7,529,640
kin Rwanda Rwanda 6,490,000 in Rwanda (1998). Population total all countries: 7,189,900
acq Arabic, Ta’izzi-Adeni Spoken Yemen 6,760,000 in Yemen (1996). Population total all countries: 7,078,500
ilo Ilocano Philippines 6,920,000 in Philippines (2000 census). Population total all countries: 7,016,400
lin Lingala Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,040,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 2,141,300. L2 users: 7,000,000 L2 speakers together with Bangala [bxg] (Wiesenfeld 1999)
dyu Jula Côte d’Ivoire 1,500,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2012 V. Vydrin). Population total all countries: 2,550,000. L2 users: 7,000,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2012 V. Vydrin)
vah Varhadi-Nagpuri India 6,970,000 (1995)
tir Tigrigna Ethiopia 4,320,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). Population total all countries: 6,915,000. 2,820,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 147,000 in Ethiopia
mad Madura Indonesia 6,770,000 in Indonesia (2000 census), decreasing. 86,000 Bawean. 2000 census reports large population decrease. Due to intermarriage, language attitudes, and other socioeconomic issues, the Madurese population is likely underreported. Population total all countries: 6,770,900
ckb Kurdish, Central Iraq 3,500,000 in Iraq (2009). Population total all countries: 6,750,000
kik Gikuyu Kenya 6,623,000 (2009 census), increasing
pst Pashto, Central Pakistan 6,520,000 (2013 SIL)
ajp Arabic, South Levantine Spoken Jordan 3,500,000 in Jordan (1996). Population total all countries: 6,466,000
gsw German, Swiss Switzerland 4,490,000 in Switzerland (2012 census). Population total all countries: 6,319,000
lua Luba-Kasai Democratic Republic of the Congo 6,300,000 (1991 UBS). L2 users: 700,000
ayp Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken Iraq 5,400,000 in Iraq (1992). Population total all countries: 6,300,000
sat Santhali India 5,940,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 6,228,500
nod Thai, Northern Thailand 6,000,000 in Thailand (1983 SIL). Population total all countries: 6,029,500
acw Arabic, Hijazi Spoken Saudi Arabia 6,000,000 in Saudi Arabia (1996). Population total all countries: 6,023,900
umb Umbundu Angola 6,000,000 (2012 World Factbook)
ins Indian Sign Language India 5,930,000 in India (2014 IMB). Possibly over 10 million profoundly deaf, assuming 0.6%–1.2% of the general population (over 1.21 billion according to the 2011 census), which is a typical range for developing countries
hye Armenian Armenia 3,140,000 in Armenia (2001 census). Population total all countries: 5,900,080
hil Hiligaynon Philippines 5,770,000 in Philippines (2000 census)
nap Napoletano-Calabrese Italy 5,700,000 (2002)
sot Sotho, Southern Lesotho 1,770,000 in Lesotho (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 5,634,000
rwr Marwari India 5,600,000 in India (2007 SIL). Population total all countries: 5,622,600
hrv Croatian Croatia 4,200,000 in Croatia (European Commission 2006). Population total all countries: 5,609,290
kab Kabyle Algeria 5,000,000 in Algeria (2012). Population total all countries: 5,586,000
kas Kashmiri India 5,360,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 5,580,830
mup Malvi India 5,560,000 (2001 census). 1,110,000 monolinguals
min Minangkabau Indonesia 5,530,000 (2007). 500,000 in Jakarta
dan Danish Denmark 5,380,000 in Denmark (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 5,520,860
suk Sukuma Tanzania 5,430,000 (2006), increasing
fin Finnish Finland 5,100,000 in Finland (European Commission 2012). 30,000 speakers of Tornedalen Finnish. Population total all countries: 5,392,180
afb Arabic, Gulf Spoken Kuwait 1,000,000 in Kuwait (2014). Population total all countries: 5,342,000
tat Tatar Russian Federation 4,280,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population may include L2 speakers. Population total all countries: 5,157,010. Ethnic population: 5,310,000 (2010 census)
heb Hebrew Israel 4,850,000 in Israel (1998). Spoken by all Israelis as L1 or L2. Some who use it as L1 now in Israel learned it as L2 originally. Population total all countries: 5,302,770
slk Slovak Slovakia 4,750,000 in Slovakia (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 5,187,740
tsn Tswana Botswana 1,070,000 in Botswana (Johnstone 1993). Population total all countries: 5,181,700. L2 users: 150,000 in Botswana
cat Catalan Spain 3,750,000 in Spain (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 4,079,420. L2 users: 5,150,000 in Spain (European Commission 2012)
mtr Mewari India 5,100,000 (2001 census)
mos Mòoré Burkina Faso 5,000,000 in Burkina Faso. 15,700 Yana (1991). Population total all countries: 5,075,300
bug Bugis Indonesia 5,000,000 in Indonesia (2000 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 5,017,800. L2 users: 500,000 in Indonesia
kng Koongo Democratic Republic of the Congo 3,000,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1982 UBS). Population total all countries: 5,016,500. L2 users: 5,000,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo
gpe Ghanaian Pidgin English Ghana 5,000,000 (2011 V. Velupillai). L2 users: 2,000 (1990 UBS)
hrx Hunsrik Brazil 3,000,000 in Brazil. Ethnic population: 5,000,000
bgp Balochi, Eastern Pakistan 1,800,000 in Pakistan (1998). 5,000,000 including L2 users of all Balochi languages. Population total all countries: 1,800,800
bew Betawi Indonesia 5,000,000 (2000 census). Population count imprecise due to vague ethnic and linguistic definition of ‘Betawi’
vmf Mainfränkisch Germany 4,910,000 (2006)
gug Guaraní, Paraguayan Paraguay 4,650,000 in Paraguay (1995), decreasing. Population total all countries: 4,850,000. 2,500,000 monolinguals (2002 census)
nor Norwegian Norway 4,640,000 in Norway. Population total all countries: 4,741,780
scn Sicilian Italy 4,700,000 (2002)
czh Chinese, Huizhou China 4,600,000 (2000 census). Jixi dialect: 988,000; Xiuyi dialect: 861,000; Qide dialect: 798,000; Yanzhou dialect: 638,000; Jingzhan dialect: 134,000
bod Tibetan, Central China 1,070,000 in China (1990 census). 570,000 Dbus, 460,000 Gtsang, 40,000 Mngahris out of 4,593,000 in the official nationality. Population total all countries: 1,172,940. 920,000 monolinguals
cts Bikol, Northern Catanduanes Philippines 77,500 (2000 census). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). L2 users: Used by those intermarrying with local speakers and for business purposes
fbl Bikol, West Albay Philippines 260,000 (2009 SIL). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). 0 monolinguals
ubl Bikol, Buhi’non Philippines 73,600 (2009 SIL). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). 0 monolinguals
bto Bikol, Rinconada Philippines 234,000 (2000 census), increasing. Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). 2,300 monolinguals. Monolingual speakers are elderly; boast of their identity as Rinconada. Ethnic population: 320,000. L2 users: Used by those intermarrying with locals
bln Bikol, Southern Catanduanes Philippines 135,000 (2000 census). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census)
bcl Bikol, Central Philippines 2,500,000 (1990 census), increasing. Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). L2 users: Also used by migrants and those who marry into the area as L2
rbl Bikol, Miraya Philippines 300,000 (2009 SIL). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). 0 monolinguals
lbl Bikol, Libon Philippines 68,800 (2009 SIL). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). 0 monolinguals
sou Thai, Southern Thailand 4,500,000 (2006 Mahidol University)
ibb Ibibio Nigeria 1,500,000 (1998 B. Connell). L2 users: 4,500,000 (2013 SIL)
quz Quechua, Cusco Peru 1,500,000 (1989 UBS). Total Quechua in Peru 3,500,000–4,400,000 including Quechua I 750,000, Quechua II 2,680,000 (2000 W. Adelaar). 300,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,500,000
eus Basque Spain 468,000 in Spain (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 545,872. Ethnic population: 2,000,000 residents of 3 provinces of Basque territory; 25% born outside territory, 40% in territory born to Basque parents. 4,400,000 in Spain have Basque surname; 19% live in Basque country
kir Kyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 3,830,000 in Kyrgyzstan (2009 census). Population total all countries: 4,331,020. Ethnic population: 3,800,000 (2009 census)
ayl Arabic, Libyan Spoken Libya 4,000,000 in Libya (2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 4,320,500
aii Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Iraq 30,000 in Iraq (1994). Population total all countries: 232,300. Ethnic population: 4,250,000 (1994)
kat Georgian Georgia 3,900,000 in Georgia (1993 UBS). Population total all countries: 4,237,010. Ethnic population: 3,980,000 (1993 UBS)
brh Brahui Pakistan 4,000,000 in Pakistan (2011). Population total all countries: 4,220,000
ktu Kituba Democratic Republic of the Congo 4,200,000 (1990 UBS). L2 users: 800,000
luo Dholuo Kenya 4,044,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 4,184,000
lug Ganda Uganda 4,130,000 (2002 census), increasing. L2 users: 1,000,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999). Most widely spoken L2 in Uganda besides English [eng]
bem Bemba Zambia 3,810,000 in Zambia (2010 census), decreasing. 3,730,000 Bemba, 12,800 Chishinga, 37,900 Kabende, 15,000 Lunda, 1,680 Mukulu, 11,500 Unga (2010 census). Population total all countries: 4,110,000
tso Tsonga South Africa 2,280,000 in South Africa (2011 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 4,009,000. L2 users: 3,400,000 in South Africa
lou Louisiana Creole United States 70,000 (Neumann-Holzschuh 1985). Ethnic population: 4,000,000 (1997 M. Melançon)
kri Krio Sierra Leone 473,000 in Sierra Leone (1993). Population total all countries: 495,600. L2 users: 4,000,000 in Sierra Leone (1987 F. Jones). L2 users prefer indigenous languages for informal situations
kmb Kimbundu Angola 4,000,000 (2012 World Factbook)
tpi Tok Pisin Papua New Guinea 122,000 (2004 SIL). 50,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 4,000,000
wol Wolof Senegal 3,930,000 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 3,976,500
rmt Domari Iran 1,340,000 in Iran (2000). Population total all countries: 3,952,810
lmo Lombard Italy 3,600,000 in Italy (2002). Population total all countries: 3,903,000
wry Merwari India 3,900,000 (2001 census)
shi Tachelhit Morocco 3,890,000 in Morocco (2004 census). Population total all countries: 3,896,000
kam Kamba Kenya 3,893,000 (2009 census), increasing. L2 users: 600,000
vec Venetian Italy 3,800,000 in Italy (2002). Population total all countries: 3,852,500
myi Mina India 3,800,000 (IMA 1997)
bcc Balochi, Southern Pakistan 2,770,000 in Pakistan (1998). Population total all countries: 3,773,000
fuc Pulaar Senegal 2,740,000 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 3,691,000
gom Konkani, Goan India 3,630,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 3,633,900
emk Maninkakan, Eastern Guinea 3,000,000 in Guinea (2012 V. Vydrin). 73,500 Wasulu. Population total all countries: 3,531,800. L2 users: L2 for a considerable part of non-Manding population of Guinea, especially in the Guinée Forestière Region
bjn Banjar Indonesia 3,500,000 in Indonesia (2000 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 3,505,000
ace Aceh Indonesia 3,500,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). Population total all countries: 3,500,032
bxg Bangala Democratic Republic of the Congo Few L1 speakers. L2 users: 3,500,000 (1991 UBS)
bta Bata Nigeria 150,000 in Nigeria (1992). 3,500,000 Bwaatye (Bata and Bacama [bcy]) (2006 census). Population total all countries: 152,500
aln Albanian, Gheg Serbia 1,630,000 in Serbia. Population total all countries: 3,438,800. Ethnic population: 2,000,000 (1998 Los Angeles Times)
mvf Mongolian, Peripheral China 3,380,000 in China (1982). Population includes 299,000 Chakhar, 317,000 Bairin, 1,347,000 Khorain, 593,00 Karachin, 123,000 Ordos, 34,000 Ejine. 2,500,000 monolinguals
ban Bali Indonesia 3,330,000 (2000 census). 7,000 in South Sulawesi. Includes immigrant speakers in west Nusa Tenggara, west Lombok Islands
bhb Bhili India 3,310,000 (2001 census)
shn Shan Myanmar 3,200,000 in Myanmar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). 350,000 Tai Mao (1990 A. Diller). Population total all countries: 3,295,000. L2 users: Minority speakers in Shan State
sck Sadri India 3,290,000 in India (2001 census). 2,050,000 Sadani, 1,243,000 Nagpuria. Population total all countries: 3,291,180
lao Lao Laos 3,070,000 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 3,273,180. L2 users: 800,000 in Laos
mzn Mazanderani Iran 3,270,000 (1993), decreasing. Some monolinguals in rural areas
glk Gilaki Iran 3,270,000 (1993), decreasing. 2,000 Galeshi
knc Kanuri, Central Nigeria 3,000,000 in Nigeria (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Population total all countries: 3,240,500. L2 users: 500,000 in Nigeria
mey Hassaniyya Mauritania 2,770,000 in Mauritania (2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 3,218,190
jam Jamaican Creole English Jamaica 2,670,000 in Jamaica (2001). Population total all countries: 3,205,000
yao Yao Malawi 2,200,000 in Malawi. Population total all countries: 3,116,000
ewe Éwé Ghana 2,250,000 in Ghana (2003), increasing. Population total all countries: 3,112,000. L2 users: 500,000 in Ghana
mui Musi Indonesia 3,105,000 (2000 census)
czo Chinese, Min Zhong China 3,100,000 (2000 census)
vmw Makhuwa Mozambique 3,090,000 (2006)
awa Awadhi India 2,530,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 3,032,000
lit Lithuanian Lithuania 2,800,000 in Lithuania (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 3,001,430
bzs Brazilian Sign Language Brazil 3,000,000 use Brazilian Sign Language as their first language of communication
sdh Kurdish, Southern Iran 3,000,000 in Iran (Fattah 2000)
msi Malay, Sabah Malaysia L2 users: 3,000,000 (2013 SIL). Mostly second-language speakers, but growing number of L1 speakers
hno Hindko, Northern Pakistan 1,880,000 (1981 census), increasing. Total Hindko in Pakistan 3,000,000 (1993)
egl Emilian Italy No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 3,000,000
gdx Godwari India 3,000,000 (2001 census)
swv Shekhawati India 3,000,000 (2002 L. Gusain)
diq Zazaki, Southern Turkey 1,500,000 (Paul 1998), decreasing. A few elderly monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,000,000 (Paul 1998)
sid Sidamo Ethiopia 2,980,000 (2007 census). 2,530,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 101,000
uzs Uzbek, Southern Afghanistan 2,910,000 in Afghanistan (2011 UNSD), increasing. Population total all countries: 2,961,980. 1,000,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,910,000
pcc Bouyei China 2,600,000 in China (2000 census). Population total all countries: 2,649,200. Ethnic population: 2,950,000 (2000 census)
fuf Pular Guinea 2,550,000 in Guinea (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 2,929,200
gbm Garhwali India 2,920,000 (2000 SIL)
bfy Bagheli India 2,860,000 in India (2001 census)
quh Quechua, South Bolivian Bolivia 2,780,000 in Bolivia (1987). Population total all countries: 2,785,120
gno Gondi, Northern India 1,950,000 (1997 BSI). 2,630,000 all Gondi
meo Malay, Kedah Malaysia 2,600,000 in Malaysia (2004)
ayr Aymara, Central Bolivia 2,098,000 in Bolivia (2006 PIB). Population total all countries: 2,589,000
tum Tumbuka Malawi 2,200,000 in Malawi (2010 census). Population total all countries: 2,566,000
war Waray-Waray Philippines 2,560,000 (2000 census)
cpx Chinese, Pu-Xian China 2,520,000 in China (2000). Population total all countries: 2,558,800
wbr Wagdi India 2,510,000 (2001 census). L2 users: Merchants and government workers use it as L2
phr Pahari-Potwari Pakistan 2,500,000 in Pakistan (Lothers and Lothers 2007)
tzm Tamazight, Central Atlas Morocco 2,340,000 in Morocco (2004 census). Population total all countries: 2,490,000. 936,000 monolinguals
hoj Haroti India 2,460,000 (2001 census)
dje Zarma Niger 2,350,000 in Niger (2006). Population total all countries: 2,440,100
knn Konkani India 2,420,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 2,423,540
ndc Ndau Mozambique 1,580,000 in Mozambique (2006). Population total all countries: 2,380,000
khk Mongolian, Halh Mongolia 2,350,000 in Mongolia (1995). 32,300 Dariganga, 20,400 Darkhat. Population total all countries: 2,376,590
kfy Kumaoni India 2,360,000 (1998 survey). 472,000 monolinguals (1998 SIL)
glg Galician Spain 2,340,000 in Spain (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 2,355,000
quc K’iche’ Guatemala 2,330,000. 300,000 monolinguals
nyn Nyankore Uganda 2,330,000 (2002 census), increasing
ssw Swati Swaziland 980,000 in Swaziland (2006). Population total all countries: 2,324,200
als Albanian, Tosk Albania 1,570,000 in Albania (2011 census). Population total all countries: 1,778,200. Ethnic population: 2,310,000 ethnic Albanians (2011 census)
dgo Dogri India 2,280,000 (2001 census)
haz Hazaragi Afghanistan 1,770,000 in Afghanistan (2000). Population total all countries: 2,210,000
tiv Tiv Nigeria 2,210,000 in Nigeria (1991 UBS)
guz Ekegusii Kenya 2,205,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 2,205,300. L2 users: 500,000 in Kenya
kfx Pahari, Kullu India 109,000 (1997). All Pahari 2,170,000 (1997)
noe Nimadi India 2,150,000 (2001 census)
bci Baoulé Côte d’Ivoire 2,130,000 (1993 SIL)
mak Makasar Indonesia 2,130,000 (2000 census). L2 users: 400,000. Ethnic Chinese speakers. Many ethnic Chinese speak Makassar dialect as L1
snk Soninke Mali 1,280,000 in Mali (2009 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 2,114,000
sas Sasak Indonesia 2,100,000 (1989)
slv Slovene Slovenia 1,910,000 in Slovenia (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 2,085,160
xog Soga Uganda 2,060,000 (2002 census), increasing. 185,000 Lulamogi, 169,000 Lusiki (Busoga Cultural Research Centre)
pwr Powari India 426,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 2,000,000 (1986 All India Powar Council)
arg Aragonese Spain 10,000 (Salminen 2007). 500 monolinguals (1993). Older adults. Ethnic population: 2,000,000 (1994). L2 users: 20,000 (1993 Counsel of the Aragonese Language)
bbc Batak Toba Indonesia 2,000,000 (1991 UBS)
sxu Saxon, Upper Germany 2,000,000 (1998 A. Thomsen)
efi Efik Nigeria 400,000 in Nigeria (1998). Population total all countries: 405,260. L2 users: 2,000,000 in Nigeria. Decreasing as an L2
iii Nuosu China 2,000,000 (2000 census), increasing. 1,200,000 monolinguals (Jiafa 1994)
dua Duala Cameroon 87,700 (1982 SIL). L2 users: Used by an estimated 2,000,000 people in the city of Douala as either an L1 or an L2 (2013 SIL)
epo Esperanto Poland L2 users: 2,000,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999)
wes Pidgin, Cameroon Cameroon L2 users: 2,000,000 (1989 UBS)
zyb Zhuang, Yongbei China 1,980,000 (2007)
sgc Kipsigis Kenya 1,916,000 (2009 census), increasing
teo Teso Uganda 1,570,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,909,000
pam Pampangan Philippines 1,900,000 in Philippines (1990 census). Population total all countries: 1,905,430
mfp Malay, Makassar Indonesia L2 users: 1,880,000 (2000)
ahr Ahirani India 1,870,000 (2001 census)
dhd Dhundari India 1,870,000 (2001 census)
ymm Maay Somalia 1,860,000 in Somalia (2006)
zzj Zhuang, Zuojiang China 1,500,000 in China (2000 census). 35,000 in Jingxi and Napo counties. Population total all countries: 1,840,000
bzc Malagasy, Southern Betsimisaraka Madagascar 1,830,000 (2006 SIL)
zyn Zhuang, Yongnan China 1,800,000 in China (2000 J. Edmondson). Population total all countries: 1,810,000
kru Kurux India 1,750,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 1,804,200
adx Tibetan, Amdo China 1,800,000 (2005 C. Lhungrub)
rhg Rohingya Myanmar 800,000 in Myanmar (2012). Due to unrest, numbers are very uncertain. Population total all countries: 1,800,000
bgn Balochi, Western Pakistan 1,116,000 in Pakistan (1998). Population total all countries: 1,799,840
ijc Izon Nigeria 1,000,000 (Williamson 1989). 100,000 Kolokuma (1991 UBS). 1,770,000 all Ijo languages
tcy Tulu India 1,720,000 (2001 census)
wal Wolaytta Ethiopia 1,710,000 (2007 census). 1,000,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 89,800
xnr Kangri India 1,700,000 (1996 C. Gibson). L2 users: Surrounding Pahari dialects have high comprehension of Kangri
ven Venda South Africa 1,210,000 in South Africa (2011 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,294,000. L2 users: 1,700,000 in South Africa
lrc Luri, Northern Iran 1,500,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 1,700,000 (2001)
avl Arabic, Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Spoken Egypt 860,000 in Egypt (2006). Population total all countries: 1,690,000
mer Kimîîru Kenya 1,660,000 (2009 census), increasing
lgg Lugbara Uganda 797,000 in Uganda (2004), increasing. 90,800 in Vurra, 171,000 in Ayivu, 146,000 in Maracha, 158,000 in Terego, 95,500 in Madi Okollo, 42,400 in Arua Municipality, 93,800 in Koboko. Population total all countries: 1,637,000
tyz Tày Viet Nam 1,630,000 in Viet Nam (2009 census)
kbd Kabardian Russian Federation 516,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 1,628,500. 36,700 monolinguals (2002 census). Ethnic population: 590,000 (2010 census)
mrd Magar, Western Nepal 308,000 (2001 census), decreasing. 789,000 all Magar in Nepal (2011 census). Census statistics likely include non-ethnic Magars and many that do not speak Magar. Ethnic population: 1,620,000 (2001 census). Includes Eastern and Western Magar
mgp Magar, Eastern Nepal 462,000 in Nepal (2001 census), decreasing. 789,000 all Magar in Nepal (2011 census). The identification of Magars is complicated by the fact that a number of other ethnic groups (Chantyal, Kham, Kaike, Kusunda, Raute, Raji) have claimed to be Magars to outsiders. Population total all countries: 533,700. Isolated enclaves of monolinguals are found in Nawalparasi and southern Tanahu districts. Ethnic population: 1,620,000 (2001 census). Includes Eastern and Western Magar
xmw Malagasy, Tsimihety Madagascar 1,615,000 (2011)
dnj Dan Côte d’Ivoire 1,300,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2012 V. Vydrin). 650,000 in Eastern Dan, 650,000 in western Dan. Population total all countries: 1,610,800
gju Gujari India 690,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 992,000. Ethnic population: 1,600,000 (2002). In Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab, Delhi
sag Sango Central African Republic 350,000 in Central African Republic (1988 census). Population total all countries: 404,000. L2 users: 1,600,000 in Central African Republic. More men than women speak it as L2
pms Piemontese Italy 1,600,000 in Italy (2002)
pse Malay, Central Indonesia 1,590,000 (2000 census)
bak Bashkort Russian Federation 1,150,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 1,218,590. Ethnic population: 1,590,000 (2010 census)
cgg Chiga Uganda 1,580,000 (2002 census), increasing
nde Ndebele Zimbabwe 1,550,000 in Zimbabwe (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 1,572,800
nse Nsenga Zambia 405,000 in Zambia (2010 census). 76,000 Ngoni, 329,000 Nsenga (2010 census). Population total all countries: 613,100. Ethnic population: 1,570,000 (2010 census). 503,000 Ngoni, 661,000 Nsenga (2010 census)
zlj Zhuang, Liujiang China 1,560,000 (2007)
lvs Latvian, Standard Latvia 1,470,000 in Latvia (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 1,552,260. L2 users: 497,000 in Latvia (European Commission 2012)
tkt Tharu, Kathariya Nepal 106,000 in Nepal (2006). Population for all Tharu varieties: 1,530,000 (2011 census). L2 users: 46,600 L2 speakers for all Tharu languages (1991 census)
thl Tharu, Dangaura Nepal 500,000 in Nepal (2003), increasing. Population for all Tharu varieties: 1,530,000 (2011 census). Population total all countries: 674,000. 28,500 monolinguals. L2 users: 46,600 L2 speakers for all Tharu languages (1991 census)
the Tharu, Chitwania Nepal 285,000 in Nepal (2001 census), increasing. Population for all Tharu varieties: 1,530,000 (2011 census). L2 users: 46,600 L2 speakers for all Tharu languages (1991 census)
thq Tharu, Kochila Nepal 258,000 in Nepal (2003), increasing. Population for all Tharu varieties: 1,530,000 (2011 census). Mostly illiterate older women are monolingual. L2 users: 46,600 L2 speakers for all Tharu languages (1991 census)
thr Tharu, Rana Nepal 336,000 in Nepal (2006), increasing. Population for all Tharu varieties: 1,530,000 (2011 census). Population total all countries: 486,000. L2 users: 46,600 L2 speakers for all Tharu languages (1991 census)
lub Luba-Katanga Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,510,000 (1991 UBS)
ydd Yiddish, Eastern Israel 215,000 in Israel (1986). Population total all countries: 1,505,030
xmm Malay, Manado Indonesia 850,000 (2001). L2 users: 1,500,000. In North Sulawesi
lir Liberian English Liberia L2 users: 1,500,000 (1984 census)
ngl Lomwe Mozambique 1,500,000 (2006)
qxq Kashkay Iran 1,500,000 (1997)
zgb Zhuang, Guibei China 1,500,000 (2007)
sco Scots United Kingdom 90,000 in United Kingdom (1999 B. Kay). 60,000 in Lallans, 30,000 in Doric. Population total all countries: 100,000. L2 users: 1,500,000 in United Kingdom
men Mende Sierra Leone 1,480,000 in Sierra Leone (2006). Population total all countries: 1,499,700
laj Lango Uganda 1,490,000 (2002 census), increasing
mni Meitei India 1,470,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 1,485,000
ksw Karen, S’gaw Myanmar 1,280,000 in Myanmar (1983 census). Population total all countries: 1,480,000. L2 users: 80,000 in Myanmar (2013 SIL)
rif Tarifit Morocco 1,270,000 in Morocco (2004 census). Population total all countries: 1,470,000
toi Tonga Zambia 1,330,000 in Zambia (2010 census), increasing. 55,600 Toka-Leya, 1,270,000 Tonga (2010 census). Population total all countries: 1,467,000
sgj Surgujia India 1,460,000 (2001 census)
gog Gogo Tanzania 1,440,000 (2006), increasing
chv Chuvash Russian Federation 1,043,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 1,077,420. Ethnic population: 1,440,000 (2010 census). L2 users: 200,000 in Russian Federation
fon Fon Benin 1,400,000 in Benin (2006). Population total all countries: 1,435,500
bxk Lubukusu Kenya 1,433,000 (2009 census), increasing
che Chechen Russian Federation 1,350,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 1,393,900. 233,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,430,000 (2010 census)
mkd Macedonian Macedonia 1,340,000 in Macedonia (2011 census). Population total all countries: 1,408,340
abs Malay, Ambonese Indonesia 200,000 in Indonesia (1987 J. Collins). Population total all countries: 245,020. L2 users: 1,400,000 in Indonesia (2013 M. Connor)
nbl Ndebele South Africa 1,090,000 (2011 census). L2 users: 1,400,000
shy Tachawit Algeria 1,400,000 (1993)
cqd Miao, Chuanqiandian Cluster China 1,400,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
kxm Khmer, Northern Thailand 1,400,000 (2006 Mahidol University), decreasing. Very few monolingual
anw Anaang Nigeria 1,400,000 (1991)
khg Tibetan, Khams China 1,380,000 in China (1994). 996,000 Eastern, 135,000 Southern, 158,000 Western, 91,000 Northern. Population total all countries: 1,380,300
nhn Nahuatl, Central Mexico 40,000 (1980 census). All Nahuatl variety speakers: 1,380,000. 1,000 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 63,000 (1986)
aar Afar Ethiopia 1,280,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). Population total all countries: 1,379,200. 906,000 monolinguals (1994 census). L2 users: 22,800 in Ethiopia
alz Alur Democratic Republic of the Congo 750,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 1,367,000
tdg Tamang, Western Nepal 323,000 (2000), increasing. Population for all Tamang varieties: 1,350,000 (2011 census). Mostly monolingual below school age or over 60 years of age
tge Tamang, Eastern Gorkha Nepal 3,980 (2000). Population for all Tamang varieties: 1,350,000 (2011 census)
taj Tamang, Eastern Nepal 1,180,000 in Nepal (2001 census), increasing. Southwestern Tamang: 109,000 (1991 census). Population for all Tamang varieties: 1,350,000 (2011 census). Population total all countries: 1,197,500. In some remote communities, particularly women, children and elderly people are monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,290,000 (2001 census). L2 users: 23,600 in Nepal (1991 census). L2 speakers of all Tamang
tmk Tamang, Northwestern Nepal 55,000 (1991 census), increasing. Population for all Tamang varieties: 1,350,000 (2011 census)
mgh Makhuwa-Meetto Mozambique 963,000 in Mozambique (2006). Population total all countries: 1,348,000
mnk Mandinka Senegal 669,000 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 1,346,000
kde Makonde Tanzania 980,000 in Tanzania (2006). Population total all countries: 1,340,000
seh Sena Mozambique 1,340,000 (2006). 86,000 Podzo in Mozambique (Johnstone 1993)
brx Bodo India 1,330,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 1,334,380
bos Bosnian Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,120,000 in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2014 World Factbook). Population total all countries: 1,333,990
lim Limburgish Netherlands 700,000 in Netherlands (2001). Population total all countries: 1,300,000
tdx Malagasy, Tandroy-Mahafaly Madagascar 1,300,000 (2006). Tandroy 865,000; Mahafaly 330,000; Karimbola 103,000
hay Haya Tanzania 1,300,000 (2006)
mas Maasai Kenya 842,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,297,000
mtq Muong Viet Nam 1,140,000 (1999 census). Ethnic population: 1,270,000 (2009 census)
new Newar Nepal 847,000 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 861,000. Many women are monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,260,000. Includes 1,245,000 Newar and 11,500 Pahari
hea Miao, Northern Qiandong China 1,250,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995), decreasing
hdy Hadiyya Ethiopia 1,250,000 (2007 census). 595,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 151,000
lic Hlai China 667,000 (1999 O. Jueya). 160,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,248,000 (2000 census). Includes about 52,300 Jiamao [jio] speakers
fuh Fulfulde, Western Niger Niger 450,000 in Niger (2007). Population total all countries: 1,230,000. Ethnic population: 1,000,000 (all Fulani)
tem Themne Sierra Leone 1,230,000 (2006). L2 users: 240,000 (1981 D. Cranmer)
sjp Surjapuri India 1,220,000 (2001 census)
skg Malagasy, Sakalava Madagascar 1,210,000 (2014 SIL). Based on extrapolations of latest census figures to report on Malagasy people groups (2014 L. Bouwer)
vls Vlaams Belgium 1,070,000 in Belgium (1998 University of Ghent). Population total all countries: 1,204,000
kea Kabuverdianu Cape Verde Islands 492,000 in Cape Verde Islands (2010 census), increasing. 325,000 Kabuverdianu-Sotaventu, 167,000 Kabuverdianu-Barlavente. Population total all countries: 1,202,000. 80,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000,000. L2 users: Most immigrants in Cape Verde tend to learn Kabuverdianu, in order to interact effectively with all segments of society, especially those involved in business, including a large population of Chinese
zeh Zhuang, Eastern Hongshuihe China 1,200,000 (2007)
btd Batak Dairi Indonesia 1,200,000 (1991 UBS)
nyk Nyaneka Angola 300,000 (1996 UBS). All Nyaneka variants together amount to 1,200,000 speakers (2012 Nyaneka Language Association)
cbk Chavacano Philippines 1,200,000 (Quilis 1996). 155,000 Zamboangueño (Holm 1989); 359,000 Zamboangueño (Rubino 2008); 27,800 Caviteño; 3,750 Ternateño (1975 census); 5,470 Cotabato Chavacano (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
hac Gurani Iran 1,000,000 in Iran (2014 Hawrami Cultural Centre). Population total all countries: 1,200,000
ryu Okinawan, Central Japan 984,000 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,200,000 (2000 Y. Uemura)
vas Vasavi India 1,200,000 (2002 FMPB)
bts Batak Simalungun Indonesia 1,200,000 (2000)
ach Acholi Uganda 1,170,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Population total all countries: 1,197,000
bej Bedawiyet Sudan 951,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL). 30,000 Hadendoa, 15,000 Bisharin (1992). Population total all countries: 1,186,000
abr Abron Ghana 1,050,000 in Ghana (2003). Population total all countries: 1,183,000
tsc Tswa Mozambique 1,160,000 in Mozambique (2006). Population total all countries: 1,180,000
pnt Pontic Greece 400,000 in Greece (2009 Z. Diakonikolaou). Population total all countries: 1,178,000
pag Pangasinan Philippines 1,160,000 in Philippines (1990 census). Population total all countries: 1,162,140
srr Serer-Sine Senegal 1,130,000 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 1,161,900
mkw Kituba Congo 1,160,000 (1987 SIL)
zne Zande Democratic Republic of the Congo 730,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Population total all countries: 1,142,000
shu Arabic, Chadian Spoken Chad 896,000 in Chad (2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,139,000
ekk Estonian, Standard Estonia 1,040,000 in Estonia (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 1,132,500
tkg Malagasy, Tesaka Madagascar 1,130,000 (2010 T. Bergman)
unr Mundari India 1,110,000 in India (2001 census). 1,060,000 Mundari, 47,400 Bhumij. Population total all countries: 1,120,280
myx Masaaba Uganda 1,120,000 (2002 census), increasing
gmv Gamo Ethiopia 1,110,000 (2007 census), increasing. 600,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 24,400
nyy Nyakyusa-Ngonde Tanzania 805,000 in Tanzania (2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,105,000
btm Batak Mandailing Indonesia 1,100,000 (2000 census)
mdh Maguindanaon Philippines 1,100,000 (2010 SIL)
rgn Romagnol Italy No known L1 speakers in Italy. Ethnic population: 1,100,000
ext Extremaduran Spain 200,000 in Spain. 500,000 able to use it, including some monolinguals (1994 T. Erickson). Most use northern dialect. Population total all countries: 201,500. Ethnic population: 1,100,000 (1994)
acx Arabic, Omani Spoken Oman 720,000 in Oman (1996). Population total all countries: 1,090,900
fan Fang Equatorial Guinea 589,000 in Equatorial Guinea (2013 S. Smith), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,081,900. L2 users: 35,000 in Equatorial Guinea (2013 S. Smith)
zch Zhuang, Central Hongshuihe China 1,080,000 (2007)
tsg Tausug Philippines 900,000 in Philippines (2000 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,062,000. 250,000 monolinguals
sus Susu Guinea 906,000 in Guinea (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 1,060,280
tig Tigré Eritrea 1,050,000 in Eritrea (2006), increasing
kjp Karen, Pwo Eastern Myanmar 1,000,000 in Myanmar (1998). Population total all countries: 1,050,000
hoc Ho India 1,040,000 (2001 census)
mxc Manyika Zimbabwe 861,000 in Zimbabwe (2000). Population total all countries: 1,025,000
rki Rakhine Myanmar 800,000 in Myanmar (2013 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,000,000. L2 users: 1,020,000 in Myanmar (2013 SIL). Minority peoples in Rakhine and Chin states, Paletwa Township
nga Ngbaka Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,010,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 1,016,650. 600,000 monolinguals
grt Garo India 889,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 1,009,000
ffm Fulfulde, Maasina Mali 1,000,000 in Mali (2007 S. Crickmore). Population total all countries: 1,008,500
kbp Kabiyè Togo 975,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Population total all countries: 1,005,000
eth Ethiopian Sign Language Ethiopia 250,000 (2008 WFD). 1,000,000 (2005 Ethiopian National Association of the Deaf). Unknown number of isolated deaf in rural areas. 250,000 deaf (2008 WFD)
bom Berom Nigeria 1,000,000 (2010 SIL)
mfa Malay, Pattani Thailand 1,000,000 (2006 Mahidol University)
sop Songe Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,000,000 (Hoffman 1991). 150,000 in Western Kalebwe (1982 UBS)
awn Awngi Ethiopia 489,000 (2007 census), increasing. 323,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000,000. L2 users: 64,400 (1994 census)
bmm Malagasy, Northern Betsimisaraka Madagascar 1,000,000 (2006)
zgn Zhuang, Guibian China 1,000,000 (2007). 420,000 monolinguals
dga Dagaare, Southern Ghana 700,000 (2003), increasing. 1,000,000 including Northern Dagara in Burkina Faso (2003)
jax Malay, Jambi Indonesia 1,000,000 (2000 census)
bqi Bakhtiâri Iran 1,000,000 (2001). 350,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000,000 (2001)
bfz Pahari, Mahasu India 1,000,000 (2002)
mnw Mon Myanmar 743,000 in Myanmar (2004), decreasing. Population total all countries: 851,000. Ethnic population: 1,000,000
gle Irish Ireland 138,000 in Ireland (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 276,310. L2 users: 1,000,000 in Ireland (European Commission 2012)
trf Trinidadian Creole English Trinidad and Tobago 1,000,000 (2011 J. Ferreira)
igb Ebira Nigeria 1,000,000 (1989 J. Adive). 900,000 monolinguals
bin Edo Nigeria 1,000,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999)
kmc Dong, Southern China 1,000,000
lki Laki Iran 1,000,000 (Fattah 2000). 150,000 monolinguals
gor Gorontalo Indonesia 1,000,000 (2000 census)
haq Ha Tanzania 990,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Many monolinguals
tuv Turkana Kenya 989,000 (2009 census). 593,000 monolinguals
cjk Cokwe Angola 456,000 in Angola (1991). Population total all countries: 983,280
nym Nyamwezi Tanzania 980,000 (2006). 73% are in the traditional area
drs Gedeo Ethiopia 975,000 (2007 census). 439,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 48,000
nut Nung Viet Nam 969,000 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Ethnic population: 969,000 (2009 census)
sba Ngambay Chad 896,000 in Chad (2006). Population total all countries: 953,000
niq Nandi Kenya 949,000 (2009 census)
chw Chuwabu Mozambique 947,000 (2006)
nyf Kigiryama Kenya 944,000 (2009 census), increasing. 752,000 Giryama; 25,400 Kambe; 98,700 Rabai; 14,500 Ribe; 52,900 Kauma
lis Lisu China 600,000 in China (2000 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 942,700
kac Jingpho Myanmar 900,000 in Myanmar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 940,000
stv Silt’e Ethiopia 935,000 (2007 census)
kxu Kui India 916,000 (2001 census). 410,000 ethnic Kui Khond who speak Kui plus additional ethnic groups
tly Talysh Azerbaijan 800,000 in Azerbaijan (1996). Population total all countries: 915,400
ava Avar Russian Federation 715,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 761,960. Ethnic population: 912,000 (2010 census)
nnb Nande Democratic Republic of the Congo 903,000 (1991 UBS)
fvr Fur Sudan 744,000 in Sudan (2004 SIL). Population total all countries: 745,800. Ethnic population: 900,000 (2014 SIL)
yaf Yaka Democratic Republic of the Congo 700,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 SIL). Population total all countries: 900,000
mqy Manggarai Indonesia 900,000
quy Quechua, Ayacucho Peru 900,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 300,000 monolinguals
luz Luri, Southern Iran 875,000 (1999), increasing. 300,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 900,000
mjl Mandeali India 900,000 (1991 census)
gux Gourmanchéma Burkina Faso 600,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Population total all countries: 896,000
nus Nuer South Sudan 740,000 in South Sudan (1982). 2,940 Western Jikany, 12,500 Lou, 1,100 Nyuong, 2,500 Thiang, 5,900 Bul, 2,400 Jagai, 6,700 Laak, 4,900 Leik, 1,600 Door, 17,600 Eastern Jikany (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Population total all countries: 891,000
nij Ngaju Indonesia 890,000 (2003)
kfr Kachchi India 823,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 873,000
zyj Zhuang, Youjiang China 870,000 (2007)
pht Phu Thai Thailand 470,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Population total all countries: 866,000
sef Sénoufo, Cebaara Côte d’Ivoire 862,000 (1993 SIL)
any Anyin Côte d’Ivoire 610,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 860,000. L2 users: 10,000 in Côte d’Ivoire
mlq Maninkakan, Western Senegal 422,000 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 858,300
bum Bulu Cameroon 858,000 (2007). L2 users: 800,000 (1991 UBS)
lon Lomwe, Malawi Malawi 850,000 (2012)
kck Kalanga Zimbabwe 700,000 in Zimbabwe (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000). Population total all countries: 850,000
ses Songhay, Koyraboro Senni Mali 430,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 300,000 monolinguals (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 850,000
gcf Guadeloupean Creole French Guadeloupe 430,000 in Guadeloupe (2001). Population total all countries: 849,000
bgq Bagri India 647,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 847,000. 162,000 monolinguals
gur Farefare Ghana 820,000 in Ghana (2003), increasing. Up to 656,000 in Upper East region, and at least 164,000 in various towns and cities in other regions (2003). Population total all countries: 845,100
kha Khasi India 843,000 in India (2001 census)
kbr Kafa Ethiopia 834,000 (2007 census). 445,000 monolinguals (1994 census). L2 users: 46,700
ljp Lampung Api Indonesia 827,000 (2000 census)
kek Q’eqchi’ Guatemala 800,000 in Guatemala (2009 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 823,500
swg Swabian Germany 819,000 in Germany (2006). Ethnic population: 820,000 (2000)
mmr Miao, Western Xiangxi China 820,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995), decreasing
ium Iu Mien China 383,000 in China (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Population total all countries: 819,800
ndo Ndonga Namibia 807,000 (2006)
mfe Morisyen Mauritius 800,000 in Mauritius (2005). Population total all countries: 806,000
prk Wa, Parauk Myanmar 400,000 in Myanmar (2000 census). Population total all countries: 805,700
heh Hehe Tanzania 805,000 (2006)
juy Juray India 801,000 (2000)
bca Bai, Central China 800,000 (2003 census). Ethnic population: 800,000
dag Dagbani Ghana 800,000 (2004 SIL), increasing
bfr Bazigar India 58,200 (1981 census). Ethnic population: 800,000
nup Nupe-Nupe-Tako Nigeria 800,000 (1990). L2 users: 200,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999)
qug Quichua, Chimborazo Highland Ecuador 800,000 (2010 UBS). High percentage of monolinguals
pga Arabic, Sudanese Creole South Sudan 20,000 (1987). With the rapidly changing demographic situation it is very difficult to know the number of 1st or 2nd language speakers and whether these numbers are increasing or decreasing. L2 users: 800,000 (2013 SIL). Many groups in South Sudan have some L2 speakers (2013 SIL)
igl Igala Nigeria 800,000 (1989 UBS)
ada Dangme Ghana 800,000 (2004 SIL)
dub Dubli India 252,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 791,000 (2007). Over half the ethnic group uses Gujarati [guj] (2007)
lez Lezgi Russian Federation 402,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 789,520. Ethnic population: 474,000 (2010 census)
iba Iban Malaysia 752,000 in Malaysia (2013 SIL). Population total all countries: 788,400. L2 users: 700,000 in Malaysia (2013 SIL)
dty Dotyali Nepal 788,000 in Nepal (2011 census)
trp Kok Borok India 778,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 783,000
mrw Maranao Philippines 776,000 (1990 census)
nia Nias Indonesia 770,000 (2000 census)
yua Maya, Yucatec Mexico 735,000 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Population total all countries: 766,000. 58,800 monolinguals (2007)
zyg Zhuang, Yang China 765,000 in China (2004). 745,000 in the Dejing area (Jingxi, Napo, and Debao Counties, Guangxi)
ktb Kambaata Ethiopia 615,000 (2007 census). 330,500 monolinguals. Includes 279,000 Kambaata, 51,600 Timbaro. Ethnic population: 764,000 (2007 census). Includes 98,600 Timbaro, 35,000 Donga (2007 census). L2 users: 79,300
blt Tai Dam Viet Nam 699,000 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 763,754
led Lendu Democratic Republic of the Congo 750,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1996 SIL). Population total all countries: 761,100
cce Chopi Mozambique 760,000 (2006)
xpe Kpelle, Liberia Liberia 760,000 (Vanderaa 1991)
hni Hani China 740,000 in China (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 758,620. 444,000 monolinguals
akb Batak Angkola Indonesia 750,000 (1991 UBS)
tll Tetela Democratic Republic of the Congo 750,000 (1991 UBS)
sda Toraja-Sa’dan Indonesia 750,000 (2000 census), increasing
anp Angika India 725,000 in India (IMA 1997). Population total all countries: 743,600
lli Teke-Laali Congo 2,100 (2006). 740,000 all Teke languages in Congo (2012 World Factbook)
ifm Teke-Fuumu Congo 8,150 (2000). 740,000 all Teke languages in Congo (2012 World Factbook)
tyx Teke-Tyee Congo 14,400. 740,000 all Teke languages in Congo (2012 World Factbook)
tyi Teke-Tsaayi Congo 95,900 (2000). 740,000 all Teke languages in Congo (2012 World Factbook)
ebo Teke-Eboo Congo 20,400 in Congo (2000). 740,000 all Teke languages in Congo (2012 World Factbook)
kkw Teke-Kukuya Congo 38,800 (2000). 740,000 all Teke languages in Congo (2012 World Factbook)
myk Sénoufo, Mamara Mali 738,000 (2000)
kdj Ng’akarimojong Uganda 736,000 (2002 census), increasing. 260,000 Karamojong, 147,000 Jie and 329,000 Dodoth
yom Yombe Democratic Republic of the Congo 669,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2002). Population total all countries: 734,400
loz Lozi Zambia 612,000 in Zambia (2010 census). Population total all countries: 724,600
rng Ronga Mozambique 721,000 in Mozambique (2006). Population total all countries: 722,000
tdd Tai Nüa China 540,000 in China (Zhou Yaowen and Luo Meizhen 2001). Population total all countries: 717,400. Ethnic population: 610,000 (Zhou Yaowen and Luo Meizhen 2001). Includes Tai Lü, Tai Hongjin, Tai Ya, Tai Dam and Tai Dón
kaa Karakalpak Uzbekistan 407,000 in Uzbekistan (1993 UBS). Population total all countries: 410,410. Ethnic population: 717,000 (2014 World Factbook)
rsl Russian Sign Language Russian Federation 121,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). 715,000 (2014 IMB)
kao Xaasongaxango Mali 700,000 in Mali (2012 V. Vydrin). Population total all countries: 710,610
shx She China 910 (1999 Mao Zongwu). 580 Luofu, 390 Lianhua (McConnell 1995). 200 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 710,000 (2000 census). 375,000 (Fujian Province), 171,000 (Zhejiang Province), 78,000 (Jiangxi Province), 45,000 (Guizhou Province), 28,000 (Guangdong)
kjg Khmu Laos 614,000 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 704,000
pko Pökoot Kenya 633,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 703,400
msb Masbatenyo Philippines 350,000 (2002 SIL), increasing. 50,000 monolinguals. Mostly children. Ethnic population: 700,000. L2 users: 250,000 (2002 SIL)
gbr Gbagyi Nigeria 700,000 (1991 SIL)
rup Aromanian Greece 50,000 in Greece (Salminen 1993). Population total all countries: 114,340. Ethnic population: 700,000 ( Association of French Aromanians)
yig Nasu, Wusa China 500,000 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 700,000
gyn Guyanese Creole English Guyana 650,000 in Guyana. 250,000 Blacks and 400,000 Hindustanis. Population total all countries: 700,000
max Malay, North Moluccan Indonesia 700,000 (2001 SIL). 100,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 300,000 (2001 R. Whisler)
aoz Uab Meto Indonesia 700,000 (2009 census)
ruf Luguru Tanzania 692,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001)
kuj Kuria Tanzania 430,000 in Tanzania (2005 SIL). Population total all countries: 690,000
lus Mizo India 675,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 687,750
bhi Bhilali India 681,000 (2001 census). 25,000–50,000 Parya Bhilali
bez Bena Tanzania 670,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001)
kua Oshiwambo Angola 421,000 in Angola (Johnstone 1993). Population total all countries: 668,000. L2 users: 40,000 in Angola (2013 SIL)
nyo Nyoro Uganda 667,000 (2002 census), increasing
ksb Shambala Tanzania 664,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001)
nih Nyiha, Tanzania Tanzania 306,000 in Tanzania (1987), increasing. Population total all countries: 662,000
zaj Zaramo Tanzania Few speakers (Brenzinger, Heine, and Sommer 1991). Ethnic population: 657,000 (2000)
shr Shi Democratic Republic of the Congo 654,000 (1991 UBS)
aiq Aimaq Afghanistan 480,000 in Afghanistan (1993). Population total all countries: 650,000
wtm Mewati India 645,000 (2001 census). 51,600 monolinguals (2006 SIL)
ttq Tamajaq, Tawallammat Niger 450,000 in Niger (1998). Population total all countries: 640,000
cps Capiznon Philippines 639,000 (2000)
bfb Bareli, Pauri India 638,000 (2001 census)
lue Luvale Zambia 171,000 in Zambia (2010 census). Population total all countries: 635,000
hnd Hindko, Southern Pakistan 625,000 (1981 census)
rue Rusyn Ukraine 560,000 in Ukraine (2000). Population total all countries: 623,500
mdj Mangbetu Democratic Republic of the Congo 620,000
rag Lulogooli Kenya 618,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 618,300
vmk Makhuwa-Shirima Mozambique 618,000 (2006)
koo Konzo Uganda 609,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing
fia Nobiin Sudan 295,000 in Sudan (1996). Population total all countries: 605,000
arn Mapudungun Chile 250,000 in Chile (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 258,620. Ethnic population: 604,000 (2002)
gaa Ga Ghana 600,000 (2004 SIL)
wln Walloon Belgium 600,000 (Salminen 2007), decreasing. Active speakers may only be 300,000 (Salminen 2007). Few monolinguals
hwc Hawai’i Pidgin United States 600,000 (2012 J. Grimes). Another 100,000 on the United States mainland. L2 users: 400,000
pov Crioulo, Upper Guinea Guinea-Bissau 206,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2006 World Factbook), increasing. Population total all countries: 483,400. L2 users: 600,000 in Guinea-Bissau
zhn Zhuang, Nong China 500,000 (Wang Mingfu and Johnson 2008). 125,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 600,000 (2007)
vav Varli India 600,000 (2003)
bhr Malagasy, Bara Madagascar 600,000 (2006)
onb Lingao China 600,000 (2000 Liang Min). 350,000 Lincheng, 170,000 Qiongshan. 100,000 monolinguals
btx Batak Karo Indonesia 600,000 (1991 UBS)
idu Idoma Nigeria 600,000 (1991 UBS)
mri Maori New Zealand 148,000 in New Zealand (2013 census). 100,000 understand but do not speak it (1995 Maori Language Commission); 30,000–50,000 adult speakers over 15 years old (1995). Population total all countries: 148,660. Ethnic population: 599,000 (2013 census)
ida Luidakho-Luisukha-Lutirichi Kenya 598,000 (2009 census), increasing. Idakho 171,000; Isukha 217,000; Tiriki 210,000 (2009 census)
old Mochi Tanzania 597,000 (2000)
rim Nyaturu Tanzania 595,000 (2006)
hlb Halbi India 593,000 (2001 census). L2 users: 200,000 (2001 C. Thomas)
gos Gronings Netherlands 592,000 (2003)
bib Bisa Burkina Faso 350,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Population does not include the Bisa southern Barka region. Population total all countries: 591,000
leb Lala-Bisa Zambia 353,000 in Zambia (2010 census). 750 Ambo, 112,000 Bisa, 201,000 Lala, 1,620 Luano, 37,700 Swaka (2010 census). Ethnic population: 590,000 (2010 census). 198,000 Bisa, 392,000 Lala (2010 census)
eza Ezaa Nigeria 590,000 (2012 SIL)
rmn Romani, Balkan Serbia 120,000 in Serbia. 100,000 Arlija, 20,000 Dzambazi. Population total all countries: 589,800
dar Dargwa Russian Federation 486,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 493,370. Ethnic population: 589,000 (2010 census)
xon Konkomba Ghana 500,000 in Ghana (2003), increasing. Population total all countries: 584,700
guw Gun Benin 320,000 in Benin (2006). Population total all countries: 579,000
kxp Koli, Wadiyara India 404,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 579,000
ewo Ewondo Cameroon 578,000 (1982 SIL)
kfq Korku India 574,000 (2001 census)
bra Braj Bhasha India 574,000 (2001 census)
gjk Koli, Kachi Pakistan 170,000 in Pakistan (1998). 80,000–100,000 Kachi Koli, 5,000–6,000 Rabari, 10,000 Kachi Bhil, 50,000 Vagri, 10,000 Katai Meghwar, 1,000 Zalavaria Koli. Population total all countries: 570,000
oss Ossetic Russian Federation 451,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 569,650. Ethnic population: 529,000 (2010 census)
ahk Akha Myanmar 200,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 563,960. L2 users: Other minority people who live among them use Ahka as L2
blk Pa’o Myanmar 560,000 in Myanmar (1983 census). Population total all countries: 560,740
bba Baatonum Benin 460,000 in Benin (1995 R. Jones). Population total all countries: 560,000
rcf Réunion Creole French Réunion 555,000 in Réunion (1987)
udm Udmurt Russian Federation 324,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 339,800. Ethnic population: 554,000 (2010 census)
mrg Mising India 551,000 (2001 census)
khb China 280,000 in China (2000 census). Population total all countries: 550,960. 140,000 monolinguals
ast Asturian Spain 100,000 in Spain (Salminen 2007). 50,000 in Central Asturian, 30,000 in Western Asturian, 20,000 in Eastern Asturian. Population total all countries: 110,000. Ethnic population: 550,000 (1996). L2 users: 450,000 in Spain (1994 F. Botas)
msh Malagasy, Masikoro Madagascar 550,000 (2006). Ethnic population: A quarter are Masikoro; the rest are Masikoro speakers from other ethnic groups
ajg Aja Benin 360,000 in Benin (2006). Population total all countries: 550,000
mhr Mari, Meadow Russian Federation 470,000 in Russian Federation (2012 T. Salminen). Population total all countries: 479,090. Ethnic population: 548,000 (2010 census)
urh Urhobo Nigeria 546,000 (Johnstone 1993)
gvr Gurung, Western Nepal 125,000 in Nepal (2007), increasing. 326,000 all Gurung languages in Nepal (2011 census). Population total all countries: 158,000. 12,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 544,000. L2 users: 18,918 L2 speakers of all Gurung languages. Mainly occupational castes who live in and serve the Gurung communities (1991 census)
ggn Gurung, Eastern Nepal 227,000 (2007), decreasing. 326,000 all Gurung languages in Nepal (2011 census). 23,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 544,000. L2 users: 18,918 L2 speakers of all Gurung languages. Mainly occupational castes who live in and serve the Gurung communities (1991 census)
dwr Dawro Ethiopia 543,000 (2007 census). 260,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 20,000
izz Izii Nigeria 540,000 (2012 SIL)
mam Mam Guatemala 530,000 in Guatemala (1991–2000). Population total all countries: 537,980
kwy Kongo, San Salvador Democratic Republic of the Congo 537,000 (2000)
cym Welsh United Kingdom 508,000 in United Kingdom (1991 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 536,890. 32,700 monolinguals (1971 census)
cor Cornish United Kingdom No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Ethnic population: 532,000 (2011 census). L2 users: A few L2 speakers in Canada, Australia, Austria, and Brittany (France)
lhu Lahu China 280,000 in China (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 530,350. L2 users: Some speakers of other languages use Lahu as L2 for commerce
mlt Maltese Malta 393,000 in Malta (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 522,000
xdy Malayic Dayak Indonesia 520,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 300 Tapitn, 100,000 Banana’, 100,000 Kayung, 200,000 Delang, 10,000 Semitau, 10,000 Suhaid, 20,000 Mentebah-Suruk
spv Sambalpuri India 519,000 (2001 census)
sce Dongxiang China 200,000 (Bradley 2007). Half in Suonanba dialect. 80,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 514,000 (Bradley 2007)
its Isekiri Nigeria 510,000 (1991 UBS)
txy Malagasy, Tanosy Madagascar 510,000 (2006)
zmi Negeri Sembilan Malay Malaysia Used as L1 by many inhabitants of Negeri Sembilan State (2011 K. Anderbeck). Ethnic population: 508,000 (2004)
hav Havu Democratic Republic of the Congo 506,000 (2002)
lij Ligurian Italy 500,000 in Italy (2002). Population total all countries: 505,100
kum Kumyk Russian Federation 426,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 426,550. Ethnic population: 503,000 (2010 census)
mgr Mambwe-Lungu Zambia 207,000 in Zambia (2010 census). 64,500 Lungu, 142,000 Mambwe (2010 census). Population total all countries: 502,000
spp Sénoufo, Supyire Mali 350,000 (2007 SIL). 100,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 500,000 (2007 SIL)
sro Sardinian, Campidanese Italy 500,000 (Salminen 2007)
bhp Bima Indonesia 500,000 (1989)
haw Hawaiian United States 2,000 (Wurm 2007). 500 with Ni’ihau Island connections, another 500 in their 70s or 80s (1995 L. Wong). 8,000 can speak and understand it (1993 K. Haugen). In 1900 there were 37,000 L1 speakers (1995 Honolulu Advertiser). 2000 census lists 27,200. Ethnic population: 336,000. 237,000 in Hawaii (1996 Hawaii State Department of Health), 19% of the population (1990 Hawaii State Department of Health), and 99,000 ethnic Hawaiians on the United States mainland (1990 census), including 24,300 in California. Ethnic Hawaiians include 8,300 pure Hawaiian, 72,800 between 50% and 99% Hawaiian, 127,500 fewer than 50% Hawaiian in Hawaii (1984 Office of Hawaiian Affairs). In 1778 there were believed to have been more than 500,000 pure Hawaiians (1995 W. Harada)
goa Guro Côte d’Ivoire 500,000 (2012 V. Vydrin)
ibg Ibanag Philippines 500,000 (1990 SIL)
qxp Quechua, Puno Peru 500,000. 100,000 monolinguals (2002)
ywt Lalo, Central China 213,000 (2010 SIL). Over 500,000 in subgroup; many living further west, south or east do not speak the language; less than half are speakers, not all fluent and not many children (Bradley 2007)
yik Lalo, Dongshanba China 30,000 (2002). Over 500,000 in the ethnic group
pmy Malay, Papuan Indonesia 500,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. L1 and L2 speakers combined. L2 users: 500,000 L1 and L2 speakers combined
asa Asu Tanzania 500,000 (2000). 25,000 monolinguals
src Sardinian, Logudorese Italy 500,000 (Salminen 1993)
xmf Mingrelian Georgia 500,000 (1989 B. Hewitt)
sfs South African Sign Language South Africa 235,000 (2011 census). Approx. 500,000 (2008 WFD)
twh Tai Dón Viet Nam 280,000 in Viet Nam (2002). Population total all countries: 495,000
dse Sign Language of the Netherlands Netherlands 7,500 in Netherlands (2014 EUD). 45,000 deaf, 495,000 hard of hearing (2005 NVVS - National Hearing Foundation). 7,500 sign language users (2014 EUD). 10,000–13,000 deaf or severely hard of hearing (Dovenschap brochure). 86,500 deaf (2014 IMB). L2 users: 15,000 in Netherlands
ady Adyghe Russian Federation 117,500 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 491,800. 0 monolinguals ( Ministry of Education, Adygea Republic). Ethnic population: 129,000 (2010 census)
ttj Tooro Uganda 488,000 (1991 census), increasing. 20,500 Tuku (2002 census)
lsm Saamia Uganda 355,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. 280,000 Basaamia and 75,300 Bagwe (2002 census). Population total all countries: 480,000
kby Kanuri, Manga Niger 280,000 in Niger (1998). Population total all countries: 480,000
bfa Bari South Sudan 420,000 in South Sudan (2000). Population total all countries: 480,000. L2 users: 175,000 in South Sudan (2013 SIL)
sah Yakut Russian Federation 450,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 478,000 (2010 census)
wci Gbe, Waci Togo 366,000 in Togo (1991). Population total all countries: 476,000
crh Crimean Tatar Ukraine 260,000 in Ukraine (2006 A. Goriainov). Population total all countries: 475,540
mdr Mandar Indonesia 475,000 (2000 census)
esl Egyptian Sign Language Egypt 474,000 (2014 IMB)
kge Komering Indonesia 470,000 (2000 census). 20,000 in Jakarta (1992). L2 users: Some immigrants from other ethnic groups
mwe Mwera Tanzania 469,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001)
unx Munda India 469,000 (2001 census)
fry Frisian Netherlands 467,000 in Netherlands (2001 census)
tet Tetun Indonesia 400,000 in Indonesia (2011). Population total all countries: 463,500. L2 users: Additional 50,000 L2 speakers in both East Timor and Indonesia
doc Dong, Northern China 463,000 in China (2003)
xmc Makhuwa-Marrevone Mozambique 463,000 (2006)
irk Iraqw Tanzania 462,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001)
kbl Kanembu Chad 461,000 (2006)
bxr Buriat, Russia Russian Federation 219,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 461,000 (2010 census)
gkp Kpelle, Guinea Guinea 460,000 (2012 V. Vydrin)
akl Inakeanon Philippines 435,000 in Philippines (2000 census). Population total all countries: 458,600
nim Nilamba Tanzania 455,000 (2006). 50,000 Iambi
kdt Kuy Thailand 400,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Population total all countries: 452,800. Few monolinguals
cak Kaqchikel Guatemala 451,000 (1990–1998 SIL)
rtw Rathawi India 451,000 (2006 IMB)
dik Dinka, Southwestern South Sudan 450,000 (1982 UBS)
fuq Fulfulde, Central-Eastern Niger Niger 450,000 (1998)
inh Ingush Russian Federation 306,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 322,900. Ethnic population: 445,000 (2010 census)
lob Lobi Burkina Faso 286,000 in Burkina Faso (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 442,000
sgw Sebat Bet Gurage Ethiopia 440,000. Chaha 130,000, Gura 20,000, Muher 90,000, Gyeto 80,000, Ezha 120,000
bwx Bunu, Bu-Nao China 258,000 (McConnell 1995). 97,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 439,000 (1982 census). 100,000 ethnic Bunu speak Central Hongshuihe Zhuang [zch] as L1
nyu Nyungwe Mozambique 439,000 (2006)
kus Kusaal Ghana 420,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL), increasing. 350,000 Agole, 70,000 Toende. Population total all countries: 438,200
mwk Maninkakan, Kita Mali 434,000 (2009 census)
sng Sanga Democratic Republic of the Congo 431,000 (1991 UBS)
lch Lucazi Angola 400,000 in Angola. Population total all countries: 430,600
iso Isoko Nigeria 423,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001)
ble Balanta-Kentohe Guinea-Bissau 397,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2006 World Factbook). Population total all countries: 423,000
anr Andh India 100,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 420,000 (2007)
pem Phende Democratic Republic of the Congo 420,000 (1991 UBS)
mjw Karbi India 420,000 (2001 census)
bax Bamun Cameroon 420,000 (2005 SIL). Based on actual population of the subdivisions where the Bamun people are present, as of the official 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm)
smo Samoan Samoa 199,000 in Samoa (1999). Population total all countries: 413,257
jra Jarai Viet Nam 242,000 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 262,800. Ethnic population: 411,000 (2009 census)
mls Masalit Sudan 350,000 in Sudan (2011 SIL). Population total all countries: 410,900
ayh Arabic, Hadrami Spoken Yemen 300,000 in Yemen (1995). Population total all countries: 410,000
lag Langi Tanzania 410,000 (2007 R. Cox), increasing. Many ethnic Burunge (Chemba, Goima, and elsewhere) and some Alagwa (Kolo, Mnenya, and elsewhere) who are L1 Langi speakers. 38,000 monolinguals
nhe Nahuatl, Eastern Huasteca Mexico 410,000 (1991 SIL)
gwr Gwere Uganda 409,000 (2002 census), increasing
bsq Bassa Liberia 403,000 in Liberia (2006). Population total all countries: 408,730
dyo Jola-Fonyi Senegal 340,000 in Senegal. 243,000 Fonyi, 96,700 Buluf. Population total all countries: 407,500. 34,000 monolinguals
swi Sui China 300,000 in China (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 300,120. Ethnic population: 407,000 (2000 census)
cdg Chamari India 406,000 (2001 IMB)
lun Lunda Zambia 225,000 in Zambia (2010 census). 214,000 Lunda, 10,900 Ndembu (2010 census). Population total all countries: 403,000
dig Chidigo Kenya 313,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 401,000
srx Sirmauri India 400,000 (2005 SIL)
mzm Mumuye Nigeria 400,000 (1993 SIL)
cja Cham, Western Cambodia 204,000 in Cambodia (2008 census). Population total all countries: 246,990. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 400,000
mxg Mbangala Angola 400,000 (2012)
tvn Tavoyan Myanmar 400,000 (2000 D. Bradley)
psi Pashai, Southeast Afghanistan 180,000 (2011 Pashai Language Development Project), increasing. 75,000 Laghman, 95,000 Nangarhar, 10,000 Kunar. 100,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 400,000
sgd Surigaonon Philippines 400,000 (2009 W. Hall)
anc Ngas Nigeria 400,000 (1998 SIL)
lol Mongo-Nkundu Democratic Republic of the Congo 400,000 (1995)
bfs Bai, Southern China 400,000 (2003)
mut Muria, Western India 400,000 (2000 IICCC)
kmw Komo Democratic Republic of the Congo 400,000 (1998 SIL)
now Nyambo Tanzania 400,000 (2003)
nhw Nahuatl, Western Huasteca Mexico 400,000 (1991 SIL)
fmu Muria, Far Western India 400,000 (2007)
kmz Khorasani Turkish Iran 400,000 (1977 G. Doerfer)
flr Fuliiru Democratic Republic of the Congo 400,000 (2012 SIL)
lea Lega-Shabunda Democratic Republic of the Congo 400,000 (1982 UBS)
dug Chiduruma Kenya 397,000 (2009 census), increasing
gsg German Sign Language Germany 80,000 (2014 German Deaf Association). 80,000 signers (2014 German Deaf Association). 200,000 signers (2014 EUD). 395,000 (2014 IMB)
pdt Plautdietsch Canada 80,000 in Canada (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 394,900
mev Mano Liberia 305,000 in Liberia (2012 V. Vydrin). Population total all countries: 390,000
dgi Dagara, Northern Burkina Faso 388,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001)
gry Grebo, Barclayville Liberia 23,700 (Vanderaa 1991). 387,000 all Grebo languages in Liberia (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001)
tdt Tetun Dili East Timor 385,000 (2009)
lif Limbu Nepal 344,000 in Nepal (2011 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 381,300. Relatively few monolinguals
dzg Dazaga Chad 331,000 in Chad (2006). Population total all countries: 381,000
ati Attié Côte d’Ivoire 381,000 (1993 SIL). 34,000 live in Abidjan
hif Hindi, Fiji Fiji 380,000 in Fiji (1991 UBS)
ycl Lolopo China 380,000 (2007)
krj Kinaray-a Philippines 378,000 (1994 SIL), increasing. 1,000 monolinguals. L2 users: Business people, intermarriage
toh Tonga Mozambique 375,000 (2006)
mji Kim Mun China 200,000 in China (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). 61,000 in Hainan Province (2000 census). Population total all countries: 374,500
rah Rabha India 165,000 (2001 census). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 374,000 (1993)
tzh Tzeltal Mexico 372,000 (2000 INALI). 50,000 monolinguals
scl Shina Pakistan 337,000 in Pakistan (1998 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 371,400
zlq Zhuang, Liuqian China 370,000 (2007)
wti Berta Ethiopia 187,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census), increasing. 3,450 Fadashi. Population total all countries: 367,000. 99,700 monolinguals. L2 users: 16,500 in Ethiopia
gru Kistane Ethiopia 255,000 (1994 census). Ethnic population: 364,000 (1994 census). Includes 4,000 Gogot. L2 users: 60,500
kyk Kamayo Philippines 363,000 (2000 census). Estimated population for Caraga, Davao Oriental, and Surigao del Sur regions
gof Gofa Ethiopia 363,000 (2007 census), increasing. 190,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 33,400
zmz Mbandja Democratic Republic of the Congo 352,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 362,460
kff Koya India 362,000 (2001 census)
xal Kalmyk-Oirat Russian Federation 80,500 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 360,800. Ethnic population: 183,000 (2010 census)
adh Adhola Uganda 360,000 (2002 census), increasing
acf Saint Lucian Creole French Saint Lucia 158,000 in Saint Lucia (2001). Population total all countries: 359,450
ziw Zigula Tanzania 355,000 (Johnstone 1993)
trd Turi India 2,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 354,000 (2007)
peg Pengo India Ethnic population: 350,000 (2000)
prd Parsi-Dari Iran 350,000 (1999). Very few monolinguals
hmq Miao, Eastern Qiandong China 350,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
lew Kaili, Ledo Indonesia 350,000 (2000 census), increasing
gby Gbari Nigeria 350,000 (2002 SIL)
rej Rejang Indonesia 350,000 (2000 census)
bbj Ghomálá’ Cameroon 350,000 (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the subdivisions where the Ghomala’ people are present, as of the official 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm)
pch Pardhan India 135,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 347,000
bcq Bench Ethiopia 347,000 (2007 census). 14,300 Mer. 150,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 22,600
ctd Chin, Tedim Myanmar 189,000 in Myanmar (1990). Population total all countries: 344,000. L2 users: Used as L2 in Tiddim political subdivision
nuj Nyole Uganda 341,000 (2002 census), increasing
div Maldivian Maldives 331,000 in Maldives (2012). Population total all countries: 340,500
rob Tae’ Indonesia 340,000 (2000 census), increasing
mfb Bangka Indonesia 340,000 (2000 census). 50 or less speakers of the Lom dialect (Wurm 2007)
xki Kenyan Sign Language Kenya 340,000 (2007 DOOR), increasing
fij Fijian Fiji 330,000 in Fiji (1996 census). 10,000 in Kadavu (1,500 Nabukelevu), 20,000 in Northeast Viti Levu. Population total all countries: 337,320. L2 users: 320,000 in Fiji (1991 UBS)
kdh Tem Togo 234,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Population total all countries: 337,000
ltz Luxembourgish Luxembourg 266,000 in Luxembourg (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 336,710. L2 users: 50,000 in Luxembourg
qwh Quechua, Huaylas Ancash Peru 336,000 (2000). 20,000 monolinguals
lia Limba, West-Central Sierra Leone 335,000 (1989 J. Kaiser)
knx Kendayan Indonesia 321,000 in Indonesia (2007 SIL). Population total all countries: 331,700
lbw Tolaki Indonesia 331,000 (2000 census). 298,000 Tolaki (Konawe), 33,000 Mekongga and 200 Wiwirano. Asera and Laiwui not separately listed, but less than 1,000
bgx Balkan Gagauz Turkish Turkey 327,000 in Turkey (Johnstone 1993). 7,000 Surguch (1965) and 320,000 Yuruk. Population total all countries: 331,000
rad Rade Viet Nam 177,000 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 331,000 (2009 census)
xmv Malagasy, Antankarana Madagascar 330,000 (2006)
nzi Nzema Ghana 262,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL). Population total all countries: 328,700
fue Fulfulde, Borgu Benin 280,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 328,200. Most monolinguals are in Borgou Department, Nikki Commune
gej Gen Togo 201,000 in Togo (1991). Population total all countries: 327,000
kqs Kissi, Northern Guinea 287,000 in Guinea (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 327,000
prp Parsi India 151,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 326,000
ccp Chakma Bangladesh 150,000 in Bangladesh (2007). Population total all countries: 326,000
rmo Romani, Sinte Serbia 31,000 in Serbia. 30,000 Serbian, 1,000 Manouche. Population total all countries: 324,090
ebu Kiembu Kenya 324,000 (2009 census), increasing
knk Kuranko Sierra Leone 268,000 in Sierra Leone (2006). Population total all countries: 323,200
guc Wayuu Colombia 122,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 321,000. Ethnic population: 199,000 (Crevels 2007)
mfq Moba Togo 319,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Population total all countries: 320,800
dip Dinka, Northeastern South Sudan 320,000 (1986 UBS)
jsl Japanese Sign Language Japan 317,000 (Van Cleve 1986)
krc Karachay-Balkar Russian Federation 305,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 310,270. Ethnic population: 314,000 (2010 census)
mhi Ma’di Uganda 296,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Numbers probably include Southern Madi speakers. Population total all countries: 314,000
eyo Keiyo Kenya 314,000 (2009 census), increasing
isl Icelandic Iceland 300,000 in Iceland (2015 S. Ager). Population total all countries: 313,840
tkq Tee Nigeria 313,000 (2006)
hnj Hmong Njua Laos 100,000 in Laos (Hattaway 2000). Population total all countries: 312,020
zdj Comorian, Ngazidja Comoros 300,000 in Comoros (2004). Population total all countries: 312,000
nyd Olunyole Kenya 311,000 (2009 census), increasing
mfv Mandjak Guinea-Bissau 184,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2006 World Factbook). Population total all countries: 310,600
abv Arabic, Baharna Spoken Bahrain 300,000 in Bahrain (1995). Population total all countries: 310,000
bfi British Sign Language United Kingdom 77,000 (2014 EUD). L2 users: 250,000 (2013 K. Crombie Smith). 310,000 (2014 IMB)
lwg Oluwanga Kenya 309,000 (2009 census)
wss Wasa Ghana 309,000 (2003)
pis Pijin Solomon Islands 24,400 (1999 SIL). L2 users: 307,000 (1999 SIL)
phu Phuan Thailand 200,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Population total all countries: 307,000
qxs Qiang, Southern China 81,300 (1999 J. Evans), decreasing. 8,300 Daqishan, 4,100 Taoping, 3,100 Longxi, 14,500 Mianchi, 31,000 Hehu. Around 130,000 total for Northern and Southern Qiang. 80,000 officially classified within Qiang nationality and speakers 50,000 within Tibetan nationality (1990 J-O. Svantesson). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 306,000 (2000 census)
hbb Nya Huba Nigeria 306,000 (2006 census)
cng Qiang, Northern China 57,800 (1999), decreasing. 14,000 Mawo, 14,000 Weigu, 11,000 Luhua, 8,000 Cimulin, and 9,000 Yadu. 130,000 total for Northern and Southern Qiang languages, including 80,000 as Qiang nationality and 50,000 as Tibetan nationality (1990 J-O. Svantesson). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 306,000 (2000 census)
tec Terik Kenya 301,000 (2009 census), increasing
mnb Muna Indonesia 300,000 (2007 R. Van den Berg)
jab Hyam Nigeria 300,000 (2014 NBTT)
kad Adara Nigeria 300,000 (2011 SIL)
ybb Yemba Cameroon 300,000, increasing
mtb Anyin Morofo Côte d’Ivoire 300,000 (2002 SIL)
pil Yom Benin 300,000 (2006 SIL). Almost no monolinguals. Ethnic population: 300,000. 230,000 Yowa; 70,000 Tangma. L2 users: 150,000
smw Sumbawa Indonesia 300,000 (1989)
hig Kamwe Nigeria 300,000 (1992)
fur Friulian Italy 300,000 (2002)
gay Gayo Indonesia 300,000 (2000 census)
tgh Tobagonian Creole English Trinidad and Tobago 300,000 (2011 J. Ferreira)
mxx Mahou Côte d’Ivoire 300,000 (2012 V. Vydrin)
luc Aringa Uganda 300,000 (2002 census), increasing
yer Tarok Nigeria 300,000 (1998 R. Blench)
ish Esan Nigeria 300,000 (Okojie 1994). 7,000 Ekpon in 7 villages (1998)
hmd Miao, Large Flowery China 300,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
nxq Naxi China 300,000 (2000 census). 100,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 300,000
hsh Hungarian Sign Language Hungary 9,000 in Hungary (2014 EUD). 49,000 (2014 IMB). 9,000 deaf sign language users (2014 EUD). 300,000 including L2 users
say Saya Nigeria 300,000 (2013 SIL). 7,000 Sigidi (1995 CAPRO)
srn Sranan Suriname 120,000 in Suriname (1993). Population total all countries: 126,400. L2 users: 300,000 in Suriname
osi Osing Indonesia 300,000 (2000 census)
bas Basaa Cameroon 300,000 (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the subdivisions where the Basaa people are present, as of the official 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm)
nsp Nepalese Sign Language Nepal 20,000 (2014 NDFN). Approximately 20,000 deaf signers out of 300,000 total deaf (2014 NDFN)
vun Vunjo Tanzania 300,000 (1992 UBS), increasing
wxa Waxianghua China 300,000 (1995)
jmc Machame Tanzania 300,000 (1992 UBS), increasing
kaj Jju Nigeria 300,000 (1988 SIL)
mde Maba Chad 296,000 (2006 E. Zürcher), decreasing. Very few monolinguals
kfs Bilaspuri India 295,000 (1991 census)
sur Mwaghavul Nigeria 295,000 (1993 SIL)
kfu Katkari India 12,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 294,000. Kathodi
gxx Wè Southern Côte d’Ivoire 293,000 (1999 SIL). 20,000 Niao (1995 SIL)
csg Chilean Sign Language Chile 21,000 (Parks, Parks, and Williams 2011). 292,700 people with some level of auditory deficiency (2005 Fondo Nacional de la Discapacidad); 66,500 people with total deafness (23,900 less than 60 years old) (2002 census)
bft Balti Pakistan 270,000 in Pakistan (1992). Population total all countries: 290,000
alw Alaba-K’abeena Ethiopia 287,000 (2007 census). 234,000 Alaba, 52,700 K’abeena (2007 census). 111,000 monolinguals (1994 census). L2 users: 29,700
kvr Kerinci Indonesia 260,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). Population total all countries: 285,000
gbl Gamit India 284,000 (2001 census)
tyv Tuva Russian Federation 254,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 283,400. Ethnic population: 268,000 (2010 census)
tap Taabwa Democratic Republic of the Congo 250,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Barrett 1982). Population total all countries: 281,600
taq Tamasheq Mali 250,000 in Mali (1991). Population total all countries: 281,200
kzn Kokola Malawi 200,000 in Malawi (2000). Population total all countries: 280,000
ior Inor Ethiopia 280,000. 50,000 Endegeny
zib Zimbabwe Sign Language Zimbabwe 280,000 (2008 WFD). 280,000 deaf members of the Zimbabwe National Association of the Deaf (2008 WFD)
mjx Mahali India 33,000 in India (2007), decreasing. Population total all countries: 36,000. Ethnic population: 278,000 (2007)
mne Naba Chad 278,000 (2006). 137,000 Bilala, 76,700 Kuka, and 19,200 Medogo
tza Tanzanian Sign Language Tanzania 278,000 (2008 WFD). 278,000 deaf signers (2008 WFD)
wni Comorian, Ndzwani Comoros 264,000 in Comoros (2000). Population total all countries: 275,000
ets Yekhee Nigeria 274,000 (1995 UBS)
zag Zaghawa Sudan 180,000 in Sudan (Osman 2006). Population total all countries: 274,000
dav Dawida Kenya 274,000 (2009 census), increasing
nle Nyala Kenya 273,000 (2009 census)
pce Palaung, Ruching Myanmar 258,000 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 272,000
ase American Sign Language United States 250,000 in United States (Mitchell, Young, Bachleda et al. 2006). Population total all countries: 271,550. L2 users: Used natively by many hearing children of deaf parents, and as L2 by many other hearing people
swk Sena, Malawi Malawi 270,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001)
tcz Chin, Thado India 243,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 269,200
gya Gbaya, Northwest Central African Republic 200,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 267,000
nav Navajo United States 171,000 (2010 census). 7,600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 266,000 (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2007)
kxd Brunei Brunei 215,000 in Brunei (1984 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 266,000
dks Dinka, Southeastern South Sudan 250,000 in South Sudan. Population total all countries: 265,900
pap Papiamentu Curacao 115,000 in Curacao (2011 SIL). Population total all countries: 263,200. L2 users: 20,000 in Curacao
njo Naga, Ao India 261,000 (2001 census)
iqw Ikwo Nigeria 260,000 (2012 SIL)
aae Albanian, Arbëreshë Italy 100,000 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 260,000 (Stephens 1976)
mse Musey Chad 209,000 in Chad (2006). Population total all countries: 259,000
aju Arabic, Judeo-Moroccan Israel 250,000 in Israel (1992 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 258,930
ijn Kalabari Nigeria 258,000 (Jenewari 1989)
las Lama Togo 198,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Population total all countries: 258,000
bjs Bajan Barbados 256,000 (1999 World Bank)
ill Iranun Philippines 241,000 in Philippines (1981 SIL). Population total all countries: 256,000
sxn Sangir Indonesia 200,000 in Indonesia (Maryott 1993), increasing. 50,000 Siau, 10,000 Tagulandang. Population total all countries: 255,000
svr Savara India 253,000 (2001)
srb Sora India 253,000 (2001 census)
lkb Lukabaras Kenya 253,000 (2009 census)
hmz Sinicized Miao China 250,000 in China (Hattaway 2000). Population total all countries: 252,000
bmb Bembe Democratic Republic of the Congo 252,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1991 UBS)
rnd Ruund Democratic Republic of the Congo 153,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 251,500
naq Khoekhoe Namibia 200,000 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 251,100
ngb Ngbandi, Northern Democratic Republic of the Congo 250,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 SIL). Population total all countries: 250,290. 75,000 monolinguals
ksh Kölsch Germany 250,000 (1997 H. Jakobs)
gul Sea Island Creole English United States 350 (2010 census). 10,000 in New York City (Holm 1989). Ethnic population: 250,000
bwr Bura-Pabir Nigeria 250,000 (1987 UBS). 200,000 Pabir (1993). 32,000 in Adamawa state (1992)
qvw Quechua, Huaylla Wanca Peru 250,000 (2002 SIL)
qxn Quechua, Northern Conchucos Ancash Peru 250,000 (2002 SIL). 65,000 monolinguals (1994 census)
thz Tamajeq, Tayart Niger 250,000 (1998)
cjm Cham, Eastern Viet Nam 72,900 in Viet Nam (2002). All Cham: 250,000 (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 73,790
mry Mandaya Philippines 250,000 (2010)
kvx Koli, Parkari Pakistan 250,000 (1995)
sfw Sehwi Ghana 250,000 (2003)
ann Obolo Nigeria 250,000 (2012 U. Aaron), increasing
nbe Naga, Konyak India 248,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 250,000
nnh Ngiemboon Cameroon 250,000 (2000 CABTAL), increasing. 80,000 monolinguals
xsm Kasem Burkina Faso 120,000 in Burkina Faso (1998 SIL). Population total all countries: 250,000
mbf Malay, Baba Singapore 10,000 in Singapore (Pakir 1986). Population total all countries: 12,000. Ethnic population: 250,000 (1986)
qxo Quechua, Southern Conchucos Ancash Peru 250,000 (1994 census), increasing. 80,000 monolinguals. L2 users: Health workers and teachers
ige Igede Nigeria 250,000 (1991 UBS)
dib Dinka, South Central South Sudan 250,000
lpo Lipo China 250,000 (Bradley 2007). Few monolinguals
bde Bade Nigeria 250,000 (2007)
twx Tewe Mozambique 250,000 (2000 Nucleus for the Study of Mozambican Languages)
ywq Yi, Wuding-Luquan China 250,000 (2007)
eto Eton Cameroon 250,000 (2005 census). Based on census results for whole Lekie division. Delpech (1985: 161), cited in Van de Velde 2006, gives 250,000 in 1982 (2014 C. Hamm)
mku Maninka, Konyanka Guinea 210,000 in Guinea (2012 V. Vydrin). Population total all countries: 249,200
okr Kirike Nigeria 248,000 (1995 UBS)
pbv Pnar India 243,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 247,000
khw Khowar Pakistan 223,000 in Pakistan (1992). Population total all countries: 242,200
kqn Kaonde Zambia 206,000 in Zambia (2010 census). Population total all countries: 242,000
kxc Konso Ethiopia 242,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census), increasing. 139,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 5,660 in Ethiopia
khr Kharia India 240,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 241,580
spy Sabaot Kenya 241,000 (2009 census), increasing
kki Kagulu Tanzania 241,000 (2006 M. Petzell)
xbr Kambera Indonesia 240,000 (2009)
lns Lamnso’ Cameroon 240,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL), increasing. 72,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 240,000
her Herero Namibia 206,000 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 237,000
saq Samburu Kenya 237,000 (2009 census), increasing. Ilchamus 27,300, Njemps 5,300 (2009 census)
mua Mundang Chad 191,000 in Chad (2006). Population total all countries: 235,700
tzo Tzotzil Mexico 235,000 (2000 INALI)
aiw Aari Ethiopia 235,000 (2007). 129,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 13,300
jbn Nafusi Libya 184,000 in Libya (2006). Population total all countries: 234,000. Preschool children are monolingual in Nafusi
tui Tupuri Cameroon 130,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the subdivision where the Tupuri people are present, as of the official 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). Population total all countries: 234,000
bkm Kom Cameroon 233,000 (2005 CABTAL), increasing. 69,900 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 233,000
mcn Masana Chad 130,000 in Chad (2006). Population total all countries: 233,000
nba Nyemba Angola 222,000 in Angola (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 231,540
ecs Ecuadorian Sign Language Ecuador 231,000 (2011 CONADIS)
njz Nyishi India 230,000 (2001 census). 23,000 speakers of Bangni dialect (Van Driem 2007)
enq Enga Papua New Guinea 230,000 (2000 census). 12,000 in Sau (1990 UBS)
maw Mampruli Ghana 220,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 230,000
gjn Gonja Ghana 230,000 (2004 SIL), increasing
mog Mongondow Indonesia 230,000 (2000 census)
kpv Komi-Zyrian Russian Federation 156,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 228,000 (2010 census)
ayb Gbe, Ayizo Benin 227,000 (2006)
mwn Nyamwanga Zambia 140,000 in Zambia (2010 census). 135,000 Nyamwanga, 4,220 Tambo (2010 census). Population total all countries: 227,000
bja Budza Democratic Republic of the Congo 226,000 (1985 census)
bah Bahamas Creole English Bahamas 225,000 in Bahamas (1987)
rkm Marka Burkina Faso 200,000 in Burkina Faso (1992 CMA). Population total all countries: 225,000
ssy Saho Eritrea 191,000 in Eritrea (2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 223,800
ngo Ngoni Tanzania 170,000 in Tanzania (1987). Population total all countries: 223,000
ukl Ukrainian Sign Language Ukraine 223,000 (2014 IMB)
klu Klao Liberia 213,000 in Liberia (2006). Population total all countries: 222,620
mfu Mbwela Angola 222,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001)
nnq Ngindo Tanzania 220,000 (1987)
nxd Ngando Democratic Republic of the Congo 220,000 (1995)
tod Toma Guinea 220,000 (2012 V. Vydrin)
zea Zeeuws Netherlands 220,000
tks Takestani Iran 220,000
mzv Mandja Central African Republic 220,000 (1996)
ndh Ndali Tanzania 150,000 in Tanzania (1987), increasing. Population total all countries: 220,000
gso Gbaya, Southwest Central African Republic 220,000 (2007 SIL)
mve Marwari Pakistan 220,000. 100,000 Northern Marwari, 120,000 or more Southern Marwari (1998). The latter 100,000 Marwari Bhil, 10,000 Marwari Meghwar, 12,000 to 13,000 Marwari Bhat
asp Algerian Sign Language Algeria 220,000 (2014 IMB)
guk Gumuz Ethiopia 179,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). Population total all countries: 219,000. 88,200 monolinguals. L2 users: 4,380 in Ethiopia
ayc Aymara, Southern Peru 219,000 (2006)
oci Occitan France 110,000 in France (Bernissan 2012). Population total all countries: 218,310
mck Mbunda Angola 135,000 in Angola (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 218,000
kne Kankanaey Philippines 150,000 (1991 SIL). All Kankanai 218,000 (1990 census)
bgw Bhatri India 217,000 (2001 census)
bud Ntcham Togo 160,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Population total all countries: 217,000. L2 users: Foreigners living in their area
ssb Sama, Southern Philippines 200,000 in Philippines (2007 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 215,000. 20,000 monolinguals
maf Mafa Cameroon 210,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the sub-divisions where the Mafa people are present (2014 C. Hamm). Population total all countries: 214,910
xan Xamtanga Ethiopia 213,000 (2007 census). 93,900 monolinguals. L2 users: 11,000
xsq Makhuwa-Saka Mozambique 212,000 (2006)
vkt Malay, Tenggarong Kutai Indonesia 210,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 100,000 in Tenggarong, 60,000 in Ancalong, 50,000 in Northern Kutai
log Logo Democratic Republic of the Congo 210,000 (1989 SIL). 100,000 Ogambi
pwo Karen, Pwo Western Myanmar 210,000, decreasing
byv Medumba Cameroon 210,000 (1991 UBS)
nsd Nisu, Southern China 210,000 (2007), decreasing
mlm Mulam China 86,000 (2005 GXLOUS). Fewer than 10,000 monolinguals (including women and preschool children). Ethnic population: 210,000 (2000 census)
cdi Chodri India 209,000 (2001 census). More speakers in Tapi district
ife Ifè Togo 127,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Population total all countries: 207,000
bre Breton France 206,000 (2013 R. Milin), decreasing
cld Chaldean Neo-Aramaic Iraq 100,000 in Iraq (1994 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 206,000
kno Kono Sierra Leone 205,000 (2006). L2 users: 25,000 (1981 D. Cranmer)
jit Jita Tanzania 205,000 (2005 SIL), increasing
mvz Mesqan Ethiopia 195,000 (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 205,000 ( Woreda Farmers’ Cooperatives Office)
tek Teke, Ibali Democratic Republic of the Congo 167,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 203,200
kfz Koromfé Burkina Faso 196,000 in Burkina Faso (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 202,000
lam Lamba Zambia 201,000 in Zambia (2010 census). 198,000 Lamba, 2,250 Lima (2010 census)
tan Tangale Nigeria 200,000 (2006 census)
gbp Gbaya-Bossangoa Central African Republic 200,000 (2005)
ckl Kibaku Nigeria 200,000 (2014 NBTT)
ort Oriya, Adivasi India 200,000 (2011 SIL). L2 users: 200,000 (1998 U. Gustafsson)
bim Bimoba Ghana 120,000 (2004 SIL). Ethnic population: 200,000
sav Saafi-Saafi Senegal 200,000 (2012), increasing
mvy Kohistani, Indus Pakistan 200,000 (1992)
pcd Picard France Population total all countries: 200,000
mdp Mbala Democratic Republic of the Congo 200,000 (Nida 1972)
iru Irula India 200,000 (2003 E. Udayakumar)
ank Goemai Nigeria 200,000 (1995)
keo Kakwa Uganda 130,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. 200,000 total (Onziga and Gilley 2012). Population total all countries: 190,000
pdc German, Pennsylvania United States 118,000 in United States (2010 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 133,000. Ethnic population: 200,000 (Kloss 1981)
nch Nahuatl, Central Huasteca Mexico 200,000 (2000 census)
rui Rufiji Tanzania 200,000 (1987)
bww Bwa Democratic Republic of the Congo 200,000 (1994 SIL)
mhm Makhuwa-Moniga Mozambique 200,000 (2003 SIL)
kny Kanyok Democratic Republic of the Congo 200,000 (1991 UBS)
gew Gera Nigeria 200,000 (1995 CAPRO)
hke Hunde Democratic Republic of the Congo 200,000 (1980 UBS)
eke Ekit Nigeria 200,000 (1989)
tye Kyanga Nigeria 11,000 in Nigeria (2012 R. Jones), decreasing. Population total all countries: 12,000. Ethnic population: 200,000
ikw Ikwere Nigeria 200,000 (1973 SIL), increasing
kss Kisi, Southern Liberia 115,000 in Liberia (1995). Population total all countries: 200,000
ltg Latgalian Latvia 200,000 in Latvia (2009 J. Eisaks)
kfa Kodava India 200,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 200,000. 100,000 in Kodagu District; 100,000 in Karnataka District and major cities
khq Songhay, Koyra Chiini Mali 200,000 (1999 SIL), increasing
nqg Nago, Southern Benin 200,000 (2002 SIL)
daq Maria, Dandami India 200,000 (2000)
emu Muria, Eastern India 200,000 (2007)
mkn Malay, Kupang Indonesia 200,000 (1997 M. Jacob). L2 users: 100,000
plk Shina, Kohistani Pakistan 200,000 (1981 census), increasing
ywu Nasu, Wumeng China 150,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 200,000
ogb Ogbia Nigeria 200,000 (1989)
yba Yala Nigeria 200,000 (2008 L. Otronyi), increasing. 50,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 200,000
qve Quechua, Eastern Apurímac Peru 200,000 (2002 SIL). 80,000 monolinguals. 30% in towns, 60%–70% in remote areas, especially at high altitudes. Ethnic population: 200,000
ogo Khana Nigeria 200,000 (1989)
rme Angloromani United Kingdom 90,000 in United Kingdom (Hancock 1990). Population total all countries: 197,900
bha Bharia India 197,000 (1981 census)
bze Bozo, Jenaama Mali 197,000 in Mali (2003 SIL), increasing
lhi Lahu Shi China 117,000 in China (Bradley 2007), increasing. Population total all countries: 196,200. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 120,000
toc Totonac, Coyutla Mexico 48,100 (2000). All Totonac languages: 196,000 (1980 census)
cab Garifuna Honduras 98,000 in Honduras (Rivas 1993). Population total all countries: 195,800. 100 monolinguals
fip Fipa Tanzania 195,000 in Tanzania (2002 census). About 140,000 speakers of Northern, 45,000 of Kwa, and 10,000 of Milanzi varieties
btz Batak Alas-Kluet Indonesia 195,000 (2000 census). Includes 80,000 Alas, 50,000 Kluet, and 65,000 Singkil
dic Dida, Lakota Côte d’Ivoire 93,800 (1993 SIL). All Dida: 195,000 (1993 SIL)
gud Dida, Yocoboué Côte d’Ivoire 102,000 (1993 SIL). 7,100 Guitry, 94,500 Divo. All Dida: 195,000 (1993 SIL)
lom Loma Liberia 195,000 (2012 V. Vydrin)
kun Kunama Eritrea 187,000 in Eritrea (2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 194,430
san Sanskrit India 14,100 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 15,770. L2 users: 194,000 in India
tdb Panchpargania India 194,000 (2001 census)
uum Urum Georgia 97,700 in Georgia (2000). Population total all countries: 192,700
suw Sumbwa Tanzania 191,000 (1987)
lyn Luyana Zambia 2,880 in Zambia (2010 census). 1,000 Kwandi, 1,400 Kwangwa, 480 Luyana (2010 census). Population total all countries: 190,380
ysp Lolopo, Southern China 190,000 (2002)
mjg Tu China 152,000 (2000 census). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 190,000
gmz Mgbolizhia Nigeria 190,000 (2012 SIL)
nbm Ngbaka Ma’bo Central African Republic 88,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 189,600
sjo Xibe China 30,000 (2000 A. Jun). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 189,000 (2000 census). L2 users: Chinese, Uyghur, or Kazakh speakers in the area can also speak Xibe
sss Laos 118,000 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 188,000
box Buamu Burkina Faso 186,000 (2000)
poy Pogolo Tanzania 185,000 (1987)
ktp Kaduo China 180,000 in China (Bradley 2007), increasing. Population total all countries: 185,000. Many monolinguals
srv Sorsoganon, Southern Philippines 185,000 (1975 census)
wof Wolof, Gambian Gambia 185,000 (2006)
saz Saurashtra India 185,000 (2001 census). Each listed district has communities of at least 5,000
coh Chichonyi-Chidzihana-Chikauma Kenya 184,000 (2009 census), increasing. Chonyi 149,000, Jibana 35,200
miq Mískito Nicaragua 154,000 in Nicaragua (1993 census). Population total all countries: 183,000. Ethnic population: 154,000 (1993)
mwm Sar Chad 183,000 (1993 census). 74,700 Madjingay (1964), 16,300 No (1964), 32,000 Nar (1977)
mgo Meta’ Cameroon 183,000 (2010 CABTAL), increasing. Menemo 83,000, Moghamo 100,000 (2013 CABTAL)
liy Banda-Bambari Central African Republic 183,000 (1996). 4,000 Gbende, 2,000 Joto, mainly Linda
tke Takwane Mozambique 181,000 (2006)
hem Hemba Democratic Republic of the Congo 181,000 (2000)
kpz Kupsapiiny Uganda 181,000 (2002 census), increasing
rmz Marma Bangladesh 150,000 in Bangladesh (2007). Population total all countries: 180,600
kfi Kurumba, Kannada India 180,000 (2000)
fui Fulfulde, Bagirmi Chad 24,000 in Chad. Population total all countries: 180,000
afu Awutu Ghana 180,000 (2003)
kel Kela Democratic Republic of the Congo 180,000 (1972 D. Barrett et al.)
kez Kukele Nigeria 180,000 (2011 U. Francis), increasing. 45,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 180,000
pua Purepecha, Western Highland Mexico 135,000 in Mexico (2005 census). 120,000 in Michoacán, 15,000 elsewhere in Mexico (2005 census). Population total all countries: 180,000
buu Budu Democratic Republic of the Congo 180,000 (1991 SIL)
enb Markweeta Kenya 180,000 (2009 census)
abl Lampung Nyo Indonesia 180,000 (2000 census)
slp Lamaholot Indonesia 180,000 (2010). L2 users: Many L2 users
dnw Dani, Western Indonesia 180,000 (1993 census)
lbe Lak Russian Federation 146,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 152,050. Ethnic population: 179,000 (2010 census)
cla Ron Nigeria 176,000 (2006 census). 20,000 Shagau (Manguna)
thk Kitharaka Kenya 176,000 (2009 census), increasing. 61,600 monolinguals
ski Sika Indonesia 175,000 (Lewis and Grimes 1995)
shk Shilluk South Sudan 175,000 (1982 SIL)
gym Ngäbere Panama 169,000 in Panama (2000 census). Population total all countries: 174,100
kdi Kumam Uganda 174,000 (2002 census), increasing
mmj Majhwar India 34,300 (1995). Ethnic population: 174,000 (2007)
mny Manyawa Mozambique 173,000 (2006). 85% monolingual in Lugela District
zgm Zhuang, Minz China 173,000 (2004)
wbq Waddar India 172,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: In India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Sri Lanka about 3 million (2003 IMA)
rsb Romano-Serbian Serbia 172,000 (2006)
smm Musasa Nepal 50,000 (2003). 20,000 Musasa and 30,000 Musasa Bantar. Ethnic population: 172,000
ahg Qimant Ethiopia 1,650 (1994 census). Ethnic population: 172,000 (1994 census). L2 users: 3,180
dzo Dzongkha Bhutan 160,000 in Bhutan (2006). Population total all countries: 171,080
lax Tiwa India 27,100 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 171,000 (2001 census)
bnx Bangubangu Democratic Republic of the Congo 171,000 (1995 SIL). 85,000 Bangubangu, 30,000 Mikebwe, 20,000 Kasenga, 32,000 Nonda, 4,000 Hombo
sxw Gbe, Saxwe Benin 170,000 (2002 census)
aba Abé Côte d’Ivoire 170,000 (1995 SIL)
njh Naga, Lotha India 170,000 (2001 census)
mzc Madagascar Sign Language Madagascar 110,000 (2014 IMB). Estimated 170,000, based on 1% of general population (2014 Rajaonary Theodoric, World Association of Sign Language Interpreters)
ogc Ogbah Nigeria 170,000 (1993 A. Ahiamadu)
tog Tonga Malawi 170,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001)
ton Tongan Tonga 96,300 in Tonga (1998). Population total all countries: 169,120
dho Dhodia India 169,000 (2001 census)
mlc Cao Lan Viet Nam 169,000 (2009 census)
fsl French Sign Language France 100,000 in France (2014 EUD). 169,000 (2014 IMB). Of these, approximately 1,000 use Marseille Sign Language (Sallagoity 1975)
xsr Sherpa Nepal 145,000 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 168,800. A few elderly monolinguals in remote villages (UNESCO). Ethnic population: 155,000 (2001 census). L2 users: Some non-Sherpas who work in the trekking trade learn some Sherpa
nnw Nuni, Southern Burkina Faso 168,000 (2000)
ifa Ifugao, Amganad Philippines 27,100 (2000 SIL). 168,000 all Ifugao (1990 census). 10,000 monolinguals. L2 users: A few speakers of other languages speak Ifugao in school, market, commerce
kdg Seba Democratic Republic of the Congo 167,000 (2002)
bap Bantawa Nepal 133,000 in Nepal (2011 census). Population total all countries: 166,600. 6,000 monolinguals
sdr Sadri, Oraon Bangladesh 166,000 (2000)
kpm Koho Viet Nam 166,000 in Viet Nam (2009 census)
mfm Marghi South Nigeria 166,000 (2006)
hns Hindustani, Sarnami Suriname 150,000 in Suriname (1986). Population total all countries: 165,600. Ethnic population: 160,000 (2003)
mrr Maria India 165,000 (2000). 141,000 Maria and 23,700 Hill Maria
xms Moroccan Sign Language Morocco 63,400. 63,400 sign language users, 155,000 total deaf (2008 WFD). 165,000 (2014 IMB)
zmp Mpuono Democratic Republic of the Congo 165,000 (Nida 1972)
bpj Binji Democratic Republic of the Congo 165,000 (2000)
mug Musgu Cameroon 140,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the sub-divisions where the Musgu people are present, as of the 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). Population total all countries: 164,400
gvl Gulay Chad 163,000 (1993 census). 23,500 Pen in 26 villages (1995 D. Djarangar)
kpo Ikposo Togo 155,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 162,500
llb Lolo Mozambique 162,000 (2006)
puu Punu Gabon 152,000 in Gabon (Idiata 2007). Population total all countries: 161,060
ruc Ruuli Uganda 160,000 (2002 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 161,000 (2002 census). 140,000 Baruli, 21,000 Banyara
yiv Nisu, Northern China 160,000, decreasing
bwq Bobo Madaré, Southern Burkina Faso 160,000 (1999 SIL)
khy Kele Democratic Republic of the Congo 160,000 (1980 UBS)
tsj Tshangla Bhutan 140,000 in Bhutan (1999 SIL). Population total all countries: 158,200
kxv Kuvi India 158,000 (2001 census)
bdq Bahnar Viet Nam 158,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census)
sbk Safwa Tanzania 158,000 (1987), increasing
mrt Marghi Central Nigeria 158,000 (2006). Madube: 4,000, Mulgwe: 6,000 (2014 SIL)
bmq Bomu Mali 102,000 in Mali (1976 census). Population total all countries: 158,000
kdn Kunda Zimbabwe 145,000 in Zimbabwe (2000). Population total all countries: 157,260
msm Manobo, Agusan Philippines 60,000 (2002 SIL). 157,000 all Manobo (1990 census)
kqy Koorete Ethiopia 157,000 (2007 census), increasing. 84,400 monolinguals (1994 census). L2 users: 2,370
wob Wè Northern Côte d’Ivoire 156,000 (1993 SIL)
diz Ding Democratic Republic of the Congo 155,000 (2002)
buf Bushoong Democratic Republic of the Congo 155,000 (2000)
lri Olumarachi Kenya 155,000 (2009 census)
shz Sénoufo, Syenara Mali 155,000 (2010 SIL), decreasing
tbz Ditammari Benin 120,000 in Benin (2006). Population total all countries: 154,300
cda Choni China 154,000 (2004)
suj Shubi Tanzania 153,000 (1987)
lnl Banda, South Central Central African Republic 150,000 in Central African Republic (1996). 55,000 Langba, 95,000 Ngbugu. Population total all countries: 153,000
lrm Olumarama Kenya 152,500 (2009 census)
cko Anufo Ghana 66,000 in Ghana (2003). Population total all countries: 151,900
yhd Arabic, Judeo-Iraqi Israel 100,000 in Israel (1994). Population total all countries: 151,820
rmc Romani, Carpathian Czech Republic 40,400 in Czech Republic (2011 census). Population total all countries: 151,500
aig Antigua and Barbuda Creole English Antigua and Barbuda 67,000 in Antigua and Barbuda (2001), increasing. It is difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. Population total all countries: 151,270
mym Me’en Ethiopia 151,000 (2007 census), increasing. 5,770 Bodi (2007 census). 143,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 6,300
jya Jiarong China 83,000 (1999 Sun Hong Kai). 25,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 151,000 (Lin Xiangrong 1993). Includes 139,000 in Situ Jiarong, 12,200 in Chabao and Sidaba
khu Nkumbi Angola 150,000 in Angola (1996 UBS). Population total all countries: 150,100
kjk Konjo, Highland Indonesia 150,000 (1991 SIL)
qvi Quichua, Imbabura Highland Ecuador 150,000 (Gómez-Rendón 2007). Many monolinguals
mzb Tumzabt Algeria 150,000 (2010 UNESCO). Women are monolingual
bri Mokpwe Cameroon 20,000 (2014 M. Engeler). Ethnic population: 150,000 (2014 M. Engeler)
tbt Tembo Democratic Republic of the Congo 150,000 (1994 SIL)
kyu Kayah, Western Myanmar 150,000 (2007). 2,000 refugees in Thailand
bqc Boko Benin 100,000 in Benin (2013 R. Jones). Population total all countries: 150,000. 28,800 monolinguals
ukw Ukwuani-Aboh-Ndoni Nigeria 150,000 (1973 SIL)
bdl Bajau, Indonesian Indonesia 150,000 (Mead, Lee, and Neveux 2007). 5,000 or more in North Maluku (Grimes 1982), 8,000 to 10,000 in South Sulawesi (Grimes and Grimes 1987), 7,000 in North Sulawesi and Gorontalo, 36,000 in Central Sulawesi, 40,000 in Southeast Sulawesi (Mead, Lee, and Neveux 2007), and several thousand in Nusa Tenggara (Wurm and Hattori 1981; Verheijen 1986)
zqe Zhuang, Qiubei China 140,000 (2007 census). 28,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 150,000
ngu Nahuatl, Guerrero Mexico 150,000 (1998 SIL)
kai Karekare Nigeria 150,000 (1995 CAPRO)
tnt Tontemboan Indonesia 150,000 (1990 J. Merrifield)
bcy Bacama Nigeria 150,000 (1992 CAPRO)
bwu Buli Ghana 150,000 (2003 GILLBT), increasing
han Hangaza Tanzania 150,000 (1987)
hui Huli Papua New Guinea 150,000 (2011 ECP), increasing
bpr Blaan, Koronadal Philippines 150,000 (2007 SIL). 40,000 monolinguals
ngc Ngombe Democratic Republic of the Congo 150,000 (Welmers 1971)
btg Bété, Gagnoa Côte d’Ivoire 150,000 (1989 SIL)
pll Palaung, Shwe Myanmar 148,000 in Myanmar (1982). Population total all countries: 150,000
psr Portuguese Sign Language Portugal 52,000 (2014 IMB). 60,000 sign language users (2014 EUD). 150,000 deaf (2010 Federação Portuguesa das Associações de Surdos)
aat Albanian, Arvanitika Greece 50,000 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 150,000
mhy Ma’anyan Indonesia 150,000 (2003)
mgv Matengo Tanzania 150,000 (1987)
nyj Nyanga Democratic Republic of the Congo 150,000 (1994 census)
mki Dhatki Pakistan 132,000 in Pakistan (2000). 100,000 in Sind (1987). Population total all countries: 148,400
mpg Marba Chad 148,000 (2006)
msr Mongolian Sign Language Mongolia Unknown number of users out of 10,000–147,330 deaf (1998)
daw Davawenyo Philippines 147,000 (1990 census)
tab Tabassaran Russian Federation 126,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 126,900. Ethnic population: 146,000 (2010 census)
nmz Nawdm Togo 146,000 in Togo (2012 SIL). 7,300 monolinguals
liw Col Indonesia 145,000 (2000 census)
ctu Chol Mexico 145,000 (2000 INALI). 10,000 in Sabanilla. 40,000 monolinguals
ria Riang India 76,500 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 77,000. Ethnic population: 144,000
bky Bokyi Nigeria 140,000 in Nigeria (1989 SIL). Population total all countries: 143,700
rjs Rajbanshi Nepal 143,000 (2011 census), increasing. 2,080 Koche, 122,000 Rajbanshi, 18,800 Tajpuriya. L2 users: 3,220 (1991 census)
nmf Naga, Tangkhul India 142,000 (2001 census)
ksp Kabba Central African Republic 72,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 142,000
aha Ahanta Ghana 142,000 (2003)
xis Kisan India 141,000 (2001 census)
dtp Dusun, Central Malaysia 141,000 (1991 SIL). 50,000 Ranau (1989 UBS), 70,000 Bundu (1990 UBS), perhaps 500 Kuala Monsok Dusun (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
gag Gagauz Moldova 105,000 in Moldova (2004 census). Population total all countries: 140,920
rbb Palaung, Rumai Myanmar 137,000 in Myanmar. Population total all countries: 140,600
pbo Papel Guinea-Bissau 136,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2006 World Factbook). Population total all countries: 140,200
chr Cherokee United States 10,400 (2010 census). Spoken by 10,000 of the 122,000 member Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma, by 1,000 of the 10,000 Eastern Band of Cherokees in North Carolina, by a high percentage of the 7,500 members of the United Keetoowah Band of Oklahoma and Arkansas (Golla 2007). 130 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 140,000 (Golla 2007)
how Honi China 140,000 (Bradley 2007)
kiu Zazaki, Northern Turkey 140,000 in Turkey
tuy Tugen Kenya 140,000 (2009 census), increasing
syb Subanen, Central Philippines 140,000 (2000), increasing
anu Anuak South Sudan 52,000 in South Sudan (1991 UBS). Population total all countries: 140,000
zga Kinga Tanzania 140,000 (2003). 57,000 in Makete District
ego Eggon Nigeria 140,000 (1990)
fmp Fe’fe’ Cameroon 140,000 (2005 SIL). Based on the population of the subdivision where the Fe’fe’ people are present; this is the best estimate available since the 1982 census (2014 C. Hamm)
teg Teke-Tege Gabon 90,000 in Gabon (2011 SIL). Population total all countries: 139,300. 22,500 monolinguals
dhn Dhanki India 139,000 (2001 census)
sxb Suba Kenya 139,000 (2009 census), increasing
tgw Sénoufo, Tagwana Côte d’Ivoire 138,000 (1993 SIL)
zin Zinza Tanzania 138,000 (1987), decreasing
svc Vincentian Creole English Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 138,000 (Holm 1989)
ami Amis China–Taiwan 138,000 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 138,000
lok Loko Sierra Leone 138,000 (2006)
wlx Wali Ghana 138,000 (2003)
lks Olushisa Kenya 137,000 (2009 census)
pmf Pamona Indonesia 137,000 (Lauder et al. 2000)
frp Arpitan France 60,000 in France (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 137,000
nzb Njebi Gabon 120,000 in Gabon (2007 R. Radke). Population total all countries: 135,100
bfq Badaga India 135,000 (2001 census)
bun Sherbro Sierra Leone 135,000 (1989 J. Kaiser)
lot Otuho South Sudan 135,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). 2,500 Koriot, 1,000 Lomya
itv Itawit Philippines 134,000 (1990 census). 120,000 Itawit, 14,500 Malaweg
ndp Ndo Uganda 33,800 in Uganda (2002 census). Population total all countries: 133,800
pdu Kayan Myanmar 133,000 in Myanmar (2005 E. Phan). Population total all countries: 133,180
dtm Dogon, Tomo Kan Mali 133,000 in Mali (1998 J. Durieux)
dta Daur China 96,100 in China (1999 D. Ying), decreasing. 35,000 Buteha dialect, 35,000 Qiqiha’er dialect, 15,500 Haila’er dialect, 4500 Ili dialect. 24,300 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 132,000 (2000 census)
ngp Ngulu Tanzania 132,000 (1987)
njm Naga, Angami India 132,000 (2001 census)
slr Salar China 70,000 (2002), increasing. Less than 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 131,000 (2010 census). L2 users: Very few
hus Huastec Mexico 131,000 (2000 INALI)
mgm Mambae East Timor 131,000 (2010 census)
aao Arabic, Algerian Saharan Spoken Algeria 100,000 in Algeria (1996). Population total all countries: 130,500
tvd Tsuvadi Nigeria 130,000 (2011 M. Hansley)
bhq Tukang Besi South Indonesia 130,000 (1995 SIL), increasing. 100,000 in Maluku
mfs Mexican Sign Language Mexico 130,000 (2010 SIL). Population based on 87,000–100,000 mainly monolingual users from 1986 (T. Smith-Stark), adjusted for population growth since 1986 (2011 S. Dufoe)
lmp Limbum Cameroon 130,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL), increasing. Based on the actual population of the subdivisions where the Limbum people are present as of the 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm)
bev Bété, Daloa Côte d’Ivoire 130,000 (1993 SIL)
bet Bété, Guiberoua Côte d’Ivoire 130,000 (1993 SIL)
lee Lyélé Burkina Faso 130,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001)
kcg Tyap Nigeria 130,000 (1993 SIL)
med Melpa Papua New Guinea 130,000 (1991 SIL)
bdt Bhogoto Central African Republic 130,000 (1996)
djm Dogon, Jamsay Mali 130,000 in Mali (1998 J. Durieux)
cdh Chambeali India 130,000 (1991 census)
biv Birifor, Southern Ghana 125,000 in Ghana (2003), increasing. Population total all countries: 129,310
sly Selayar Indonesia 128,000 (2000 census)
leh Lenje Zambia 128,000 (2010 census)
hre Hre Viet Nam 94,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 127,000 (2009 census)
mvp Duri Indonesia 127,000 (2000 census)
dtk Dogon, Tene Kan Mali 127,000 (1998 J. Durieux)
nix Hema Democratic Republic of the Congo 125,000 (2000)
cos Corsican France 30,000 in France (2009), decreasing. On Corsica, 125,000 people have some command of Corsican. Population total all countries: 31,000
lko Olukhayo Kenya 125,000 (2009 census)
suc Subanon, Western Philippines 125,000 (2011 SIL)
azz Nahuatl, Highland Puebla Mexico 125,000 (1983)
kjc Konjo, Coastal Indonesia 125,000 (1990 SIL). 50,000 Kajang, 10,000 Tiro
ajz Amri Karbi India 125,000 (2003)
cnh Chin, Haka Myanmar 100,000 in Myanmar (1991 UBS). Population total all countries: 125,000. L2 users: 40,000 in Myanmar (2013 SIL)
bgz Banggai Indonesia 125,000 (2000 census)
cyo Cuyonon Philippines 123,000 (1990 census)
nph Naga, Phom India 123,000 (2001 census)
kfb Kolami, Northwestern India 122,000 (2001 census)
lto Olutsotso Kenya 122,000 (2009 census)
sdj Suundi Congo 121,000 (2000)
tos Totonac, Highland Mexico 120,000 (1982 SIL)
nlv Nahuatl, Orizaba Mexico 120,000 (1991 SIL)
byo Biyo China 120,000 (Bradley 1997)
zmb Zimba Democratic Republic of the Congo 120,000 (1994 census)
hmo Motu, Hiri Papua New Guinea Very few L1 speakers (1992 T. Dutton). L2 users: 120,000 (1989 J. Holm)
yaz Lokaa Nigeria 120,000 (1989)
jod Wojenaka Côte d’Ivoire 120,000 (1999 SIL). 15,000 Wasulu
byk Biao China 80,000 (Liang Min and Zhang Junru 2002). 10,000 monolinguals. Women and small children are monolingual. Ethnic population: 120,000
zhd Zhuang, Dai China 100,000 in China (Wang Mingfu and Johnson 2008). Population total all countries: 100,200. Very few monolinguals, though it is L1 learned by children in most Dai Zhuang villages. Ethnic population: 120,000
khc Tukang Besi North Indonesia 120,000 in Indonesia (1995 SIL). 60,000 in Maluku
brf Bera Democratic Republic of the Congo 120,000 (1992 SIL)
vai Vai Liberia 104,000 in Liberia (2006). Population total all countries: 119,500
kgd Kataang Laos 118,000 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 119,500
kkj Kako Cameroon 100,000 in Cameroon (2003 SIL). Population total all countries: 119,460
myv Erzya Russian Federation 36,700 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 119,330. Ethnic population: 57,000 (2010 census)
pbb Páez Colombia 40,000 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 119,000 (Crevels 2007)
bni Bangi Democratic Republic of the Congo 50,900 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 118,740
boz Bozo, Tieyaxo Mali 118,000 (1987 census). Population may include Tiemacèwè Bozo [boo] and Kelengaxo Bozo [bzx]
lts Lutachoni Kenya 118,000 (2009 census)
bpy Bishnupriya India 77,500 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 117,500
lbj Ladakhi India 105,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 117,000
etu Ejagham Nigeria 67,300 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 116,700
gil Kiribati Kiribati 103,000 in Kiribati (2010 census). Population total all countries: 116,280
qul Quechua, North Bolivian Bolivia 116,000 in Bolivia (1978 census), increasing. 18,500 monolinguals
gdq Mehri Yemen 50,000 in Yemen (2011). Population total all countries: 115,200
kue Kuman Papua New Guinea 115,000 (2000 census), increasing. Few monolinguals
kya Kwaya Tanzania 115,000 (2005 SIL). Ethnic population: 115,000. 70,000 Kwaya and 45,000 Ruri
seb Sénoufo, Shempire Côte d’Ivoire 100,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1996). Population total all countries: 114,800
bsh Kati Afghanistan 15,000 in Afghanistan (1994), increasing. Population total all countries: 18,700. Ethnic population: 114,000. 110,000 in Nuristan and 4,000 in diaspora. L2 users: Some Nuristani people from other language groups can also speak Kati
qvm Quechua, Margos-Yarowilca-Lauricocha Peru 83,400 (1993 census). 14,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 114,000 (1993 census)
mel Melanau, Central Malaysia 113,000 in Malaysia (2000 census). Population total all countries: 113,280
ssc Suba-Simbiti Tanzania 113,000 (2011). Spoken by 6 ethnic groups in Tarime District: Hacha (4,200), Kine (14,500), Surwa (4,200), Sweta (12,800) and Simbiti (33,000), and Kiroba (30,000)
abk Abkhaz Georgia 101,000 in Georgia (1993). Population total all countries: 112,740
lad Ladino Israel 100,000 in Israel (1985). Population total all countries: 112,130
dis Dimasa India 112,000 (2001 census)
kex Kukna India 111,000 (2001 census). L2 users: 100,000 (1998)
mkb Mal Paharia India 51,000 (Bhaskararao 2006). Possibly 40,000 in West Bengal. Ethnic population: 111,000 (2000)
cpn Cherepon Ghana 111,000 (2003)
ibl Ibaloi Philippines 111,000 (1990 census)
cdj Churahi India 111,000 (1991 census)
ver Mom Jango Nigeria 104,000 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 110,520
dng Dungan Kyrgyzstan 56,300 in Kyrgyzstan (2009 census). Population total all countries: 110,100. Ethnic population: 58,100 (2009 census)
yky Yakoma Central African Republic 100,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 110,000
hvn Hawu Indonesia 110,000 (1997). About 30,000 outside Sabu Island
end Ende Indonesia 110,000 (2009 census)
bzj Belize Kriol English Belize 70,000 in Belize (2006). Population total all countries: 110,000
jdg Jadgali Pakistan 100,000 in Pakistan (1998). Population total all countries: 110,000
kwl Kofyar Nigeria 110,000 (2000)
bhh Bukharic Israel 50,000 in Israel (1995 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 110,000
atb Zaiwa China 80,000 in China (1999 X. Xijian). Population total all countries: 110,000. 20,000 monolinguals
gbk Gaddi India 110,000 (2007)
tik Tikar Cameroon 110,000 (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the subdivisions where the Tikar people are present, as of the official 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm)
kkv Kangean Indonesia 110,000 (2000 census)
bfo Birifor, Malba Burkina Faso 108,000 in Burkina Faso (1993). Many monolinguals
mdw Mbosi Congo 108,000 (2000)
gol Gola Liberia 99,300 in Liberia (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 107,300
cfm Chin, Falam Myanmar 69,000 in Myanmar (1983). 9,000 Tashon, 16,000 Zanniat, 7,000 Khualshim, 4,000 Lente, 14,400 Zahao, 18,600 in Laizao (1983). Population total all countries: 107,300
bza Bandi Liberia 100,000 in Liberia (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). 50,000 fled to Guinea (Johnstone 1993). Population total all countries: 107,000
ccg Samba Daka Nigeria 107,000 (2000)
mmd Maonan China 30,000 (GXLOUS 2005), decreasing. A few thousand women and children are monolingual. Ethnic population: 107,000 (2000 census)
kkh Khün Myanmar 100,000 in Myanmar (Diller and Juntanamalaga 1990). Population total all countries: 106,880
stj Samo, Matya Burkina Faso 105,000 in Burkina Faso (1995 R. Jones). Population total all countries: 106,000
bqv Koro Wachi Nigeria 106,000 (2006 SIL)
yka Yakan Philippines 106,000 (1990 census), increasing. 86,900 in Basilan Province. 35,000 monolinguals. L2 users: Few outsiders learn Yakan. Some traders for commerce purposes
bdu Oroko Cameroon 106,000 (2000)
mdt Mbere Congo 60,400 in Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 105,900
tyr Tai Daeng Viet Nam 80,000 in Viet Nam (1995 census). Population total all countries: 105,000. Ethnic population: 100,000 (Bradley 2007)
nbw Ngbandi, Southern Democratic Republic of the Congo 105,000
sml Sama, Central Philippines 90,000 in Philippines (2000). Population total all countries: 105,000. 30,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 105,000
nmq Nambya Zimbabwe 90,000 in Zimbabwe (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000). Population total all countries: 105,000
ljl Li’o Indonesia 105,000 (2009 census)
sil Sisaala, Tumulung Ghana 105,000 (2003 GILLBT)
yal Yalunka Guinea 55,500 in Guinea (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 104,500
beh Biali Benin 100,000 in Benin (2002). Population total all countries: 104,080
ciw Chippewa United States 5,000. Ethnic population: 104,000 (1990 census)
nsm Naga, Sumi India 104,000 (2001 census)
nog Nogai Russian Federation 87,100 in Russian Federation (2010 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 87,410. Ethnic population: 104,000 (2010 census)
smk Bolinao Philippines 51,200 (2007 census), decreasing. 510 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 104,000. L2 users: 5,000. Used by outsiders for marketing, politics, some teachers
kzc Kulango, Bondoukou Côte d’Ivoire 77,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 104,000
mhx Lhao Vo Myanmar 100,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 1997). Population total all countries: 103,500
lkt Lakota United States 6,000 in United States (1997 R. Pustet), decreasing. 25,000 L1 speakers of all Sioux dialects in a total population of 103,000 (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 6,190. Ethnic population: 20,000 (1997 R. Pustet). 103,255 ethnic Sioux in the United States (1990 census)
dak Dakota United States 18,800 in United States (2010 census), decreasing. 25,000 L1 speakers of all Sioux dialects in a total population of 103,000 (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 20,460. 31 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 20,500 (2000 census)
bpd Banda-Banda Central African Republic 102,000 in Central African Republic (1996)
bjo Banda, Mid-Southern Central African Republic 100,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 102,000
lai Lambya Malawi 60,000 in Malawi (2012 WFW). Population total all countries: 102,000
mkz Makasae East Timor 102,000 (2010 census)
bht Bhattiyali India 102,000 (1991 census)
dsq Tadaksahak Mali 100,000 in Mali (2007 M. Almaki), increasing. Population total all countries: 101,800. 70,000 youth are monolingual
sty Tatar, Siberian Russian Federation 101,000 (2012 M. Sagidullin)
ttr Tera Nigeria 101,000 (2000)
bgd Bareli, Rathwi India 101,000 (2001 census)
adi Adi India 97,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 100,190
nst Naga, Tase Myanmar 60,000 in Myanmar (2010). Population total all countries: 100,100
tbl Tboli Philippines 95,300 (2000). 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100,000
bss Akoose Cameroon 100,000 (2001 SIL), increasing
ekg Ekari Indonesia 100,000 (1985 M. Doble)
wmw Mwani Mozambique 100,000 (2006). L2 users: 20,000
klg Tagakaulo Philippines 83,000 (2000 census). 40,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100,000
lbx Lawangan Indonesia 100,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
kdl Tsikimba Nigeria 100,000 (2004 SIL)
zak Zanaki Tanzania 100,000 (2005 SIL)
tgn Tandaganon Philippines 100,000 (2009 B. Hall)
lej Lengola Democratic Republic of the Congo 100,000 (1998)
sdc Sardinian, Sassarese Italy 100,000 (Salminen 1993)
mdm Mayogo Democratic Republic of the Congo 100,000 (1991 SIL)
dnv Danu Myanmar 100,000 (Bradley 2007)
mbu Mbula-Bwazza Nigeria 100,000 (2012 M. Rueck, Z. Yoder, and K. Hannelová)
bli Bolia Democratic Republic of the Congo 100,000 (2000)
noi Noiri India 100,000 (2003 IICCC)
gra Garasia, Rajput India 100,000 (1999 IEM)
dob Dobu Papua New Guinea 10,000 (1998 SIL). 6,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 100,000 (1987 SIL)
psp Philippine Sign Language Philippines 100,000 deaf persons (Van Cleve 1986)
pci Duruwa India 51,200 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 100,000 (1986). 65% in Bastar, 35% in Koraput
vsv Valencian Sign Language Spain 6,000 (2014). Deaf sign language users, total for all three sign languages in Spain: 60,000–80,000 (2000 Instituto Nacional de Estadística), 100,000 (2014 EUD). Based on these numbers and proportions of total population in various regions in Spain, estimated 6,000–10,000 for LSV
ema Emai-Iuleha-Ora Nigeria 100,000 (Schaefer 1987)
auh Aushi Zambia 100,000 in Zambia (2010 census)
len Lenca Honduras No known L1 speakers. Some semi-speakers (Adelaar 2007). Ethnic population: 100,000
dio Dibo Nigeria 100,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992)
psh Pashai, Southwest Afghanistan 100,000 (2011 SIL)
jen Dza Nigeria 100,000 (2014 NBTT)
idd Ede Idaca Benin 100,000 (2002 SIL)
nto Ntomba Democratic Republic of the Congo 100,000 (1980 UBS)
sdn Sardinian, Gallurese Italy 100,000 (Salminen 1993)
mfn Mbembe, Cross River Nigeria 100,000 (1982 UBS)
yix Axi China 100,000 (Bradley 2007), decreasing. Elderly and women over 35 are monolingual. L2 users: L2 users are only those who have married into Axi families
niy Ngiti Democratic Republic of the Congo 100,000 (1991)
toq Toposa South Sudan 100,000 (2000 M. Schroeder). Most are monolingual
tjl Tai Laing Myanmar 100,000 (2010 SIL)
kqk Gbe, Kotafon Benin 100,000 (2002 SIL)
beq Beembe Congo 100,000 (2007 census)
mda Mada Nigeria 100,000 (1993 SIL)
btt Bete-Bendi Nigeria 100,000 (2006 L. Otronyi), increasing. Some elderly monolinguals
gkn Gokana Nigeria 100,000 (1989)
gwc Kalami Pakistan 100,000 (Baart and Sagar 2004), increasing
dne Ndendeule Tanzania 100,000 (2000 D. Ngonyani)
ysn Sani China 100,000 (2007)
tga Sagalla Kenya 100,000 (1992 UBS)
mqj Mamasa Indonesia 100,000 (1991 SIL)
jns Jaunsari India 100,000 (2001 USCWM)
gas Garasia, Adiwasi India 100,000 (1988 V. Patel)
ssp Spanish Sign Language Spain 45,000 (1994). Deaf sign language users, total for all three sign languages in Spain: 60,000–80,000 (2000 Instituto Nacional de Estadística), 100,000 (2014 EUD). Based on these numbers and proportions of total population in various regions in Spain, estimated 45,000–75,000 for LSE
gex Garre Somalia 57,500 (2006). Ethnic population: 100,000 (1992)
bol Bole Nigeria 100,000 (1990)
mau Mazatec, Huautla Mexico 74,600 (2000 INALI). Over 100,000 Mazatec speakers live outside the Mazatec homeland, mostly in major cities (2005 census). Probably at least half speak L1. 22,400 monolinguals
lrl Lari Iran 80,000, increasing. Ethnic population: 100,000
bkv Bekwarra Nigeria 100,000 (1989 SIL)
ygp Gepo China 100,000 (2007), decreasing
asg Cishingini Nigeria 100,000 (2004 SIL)
juk Wapan Nigeria 100,000 (1994 UBS)
ote Otomi, Mezquital Mexico 100,000 in Mexico (1990 census)
ruk Kuce Nigeria 100,000 (Blench 2003)
mfy Mayo Mexico 32,900 (2000 INALI). 120 monolinguals (1995 census). Ethnic population: 100,000 (1983)
adj Adioukrou Côte d’Ivoire 100,000 (1999 SIL)
fay Fars, Southwestern Iran 100,000 (2012)
ggo Gondi, Southern India 100,000 (2004 SIL)
bkd Binukid Philippines 100,000 (1987 SIL)
ked Kerewe Tanzania 100,000 (1987)
qxr Quichua, Cañar Highland Ecuador 100,000 (1991 UBS)
mdq Mbole Democratic Republic of the Congo 100,000 (Welmers 1971)
duh Dungra Bhil India 100,000 (2000 IICCC)
csc Catalan Sign Language Spain 9,000 (2014). Deaf sign language users, total for all three sign languages in Spain: 60,000–80,000 (2000 Instituto Nacional de Estadística), 100,000 (2014 EUD). Based on these numbers and proportions of total population in various regions in Spain, estimated 9,000–15,000 for LSC
csb Kashubian Poland 50,000 in Poland (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 100,000 (1993 T. Salminen)
yns Yansi Democratic Republic of the Congo 100,000 (1997 S. Mufwene)
bex Jur Modo South Sudan 100,000 (2004 SIL)
bkr Bakumpai Indonesia 100,000 (2003)
tsw Tsishingini Nigeria 100,000 (2004 SIL)
bfd Bafut Cameroon 100,000 (Tamanji 2009), increasing
bzw Basa Nigeria 100,000 (1973 SIL)
mke Mawchi India 99,500 (2001 census)
tlj Talinga-Bwisi Uganda 68,500 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 99,400
kra Kumhali Nepal 12,200 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 99,400
mzk Mambila, Nigeria Nigeria 99,000 (1993)
vwa Awa China 98,000 (Zhou Zhizhi, Qixiang Yan, and Guoqing Chen 2004). Masan Dialect: 33,000 in Ximeng County; Xiyun Dialect: 2,200 in Lancang and Menglian counties; Dawangnuo Dialect: 30,000 in Menglian and Ximeng counties; Awalei Dialect: 2,200 in Ximeng County; Awa proper: 30,600 In Lancan County
cwe Kwere Tanzania 98,000 (1987)
adr Adonara Indonesia 98,000 (2008 census)
sed Sedang Viet Nam 97,000 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 97,520
kbn Kare Central African Republic 93,000 in Central African Republic (1996). 57,500 Kare, 35,500 Tale. Population total all countries: 97,460
swb Comorian, Maore Mayotte 92,800 in Mayotte (Johnstone 1993). Population total all countries: 97,300
jdt Judeo-Tat Russian Federation 2,010 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Tat [ttt]. Population total all countries: 96,010
shc Sonde Democratic Republic of the Congo 96,000 (2002)
blf Buol Indonesia 96,000 (2000 census)
dyi Sénoufo, Djimini Côte d’Ivoire 95,500 (1993 SIL)
suz Sunwar Nepal 38,200 (2011 census). 37,900 Sunwar, 290 Surel (2011 census). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 95,300 (2001 census)
wne Waneci Pakistan 95,000 (1998)
pkb Kipfokomo Kenya 95,000 (2009 census), increasing
yun Bena Nigeria 95,000 (1992)
pbr Pangwa Tanzania 95,000 (2002)
gbv Gbanu Central African Republic 95,000 (1996)
mdy Male Ethiopia 95,000 (2007 census). 40,500 monolinguals. L2 users: 6,730
cha Chamorro Guam 62,500 in Guam (Bender and Rehg 1991). Population total all countries: 94,700
koi Komi-Permyak Russian Federation 63,100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 94,500 (2010 census)
rol Romblomanon Philippines 94,000 (2011 SIL)
pcg Paniya India 94,000 (2003)
rms Romanian Sign Language Romania 24,600 in Romania (2014 EUD). 93,500 (2014 IMB)
bst Basketo Ethiopia 92,600 (2007 census). 42,800 monolinguals. L2 users: 8,960
poh Poqomchi’ Guatemala 92,200 (1998–2000)
jnj Yemsa Ethiopia 92,200 (2007 census)
yim Naga, Yimchungru India 92,100 (2001 census)
tdn Tondano Indonesia 92,000 in Indonesia (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing
lzz Laz Turkey 20,000 in Turkey (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 22,000. Ethnic population: 92,000 (1980)
npl Nahuatl, Southeastern Puebla Mexico 92,000 (1991 SIL)
mxl Gbe, Maxi Benin 66,000 in Benin (Johnstone 1993). Population total all countries: 91,300
kft Kanjari India 91,200 (1995)
omi Omi Democratic Republic of the Congo 91,000 (2005 SIL)
esk Inupiatun, Northwest Alaska United States 5,580 (2010 census), decreasing. All Inuit languages: 75,000 out of 91,000 in the ethnic group (1995 M. Krauss). Census lists this as Eskimo. Ethnic population: All Inupiatun: 13,500 (includes [esi]) (Golla 2007)
byn Bilen Eritrea 91,000 (2006)
bps Blaan, Sarangani Philippines 90,800 (2000)
ldi Laari Congo 90,600 in Congo (2000)
knu Kono Guinea 90,000 (2001)
vmr Marenje Mozambique 90,000 (2006)
qva Quechua, Ambo-Pasco Peru 90,000 (1998 SIL), decreasing. 18,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 90,000. L2 users: Used by very few as L2
mco Mixe, Coatlán Mexico 5,000 (1993 SIL). All Mixe languages: 90,000 (1993 SIL)
int Intha Myanmar 90,000 (2000 D. Bradley)
ysl Yugoslavian Sign Language Serbia 10,000 in Serbia (2014 EUD). 10,000 sign language users (2014 EUD). 30,000 signers (2014 European Forum of Sign Language Interpreters). 30,000 deaf and 90,000 hard of hearing (2013 Association of the Deaf and Hard Hearing). 47,500 (2014 IMB). Population total all countries: 11,000
gdl Dirasha Ethiopia 65,300 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 90,000 (2005 SIL). 41,100 Gidole, 7,470 Kusumitta (2007 census). L2 users: 7,000
dri C’Lela Nigeria 90,000 (1993 SIL)
txs Tonsea Indonesia 90,000 (1989), decreasing
mif Mofu-Gudur Cameroon 90,000 (2008 SIL), increasing
rwk Rwa Tanzania 90,000 (1987). 50,000 Kihai
gcl Grenadian Creole English Grenada 89,200 (2001)
myb Mbay Chad 80,000 in Chad (1990 J. Keegan). Population total all countries: 88,300
gde Gude Nigeria 68,000 in Nigeria (1987). Population total all countries: 88,000
tcc Datooga Tanzania 87,800 (2000)
bsk Burushaski Pakistan 87,000 in Pakistan (2000), increasing
vro Võro Estonia 87,000 (2011 census). Seto speakers: 12,500 (2011 census)
gqr Gor Chad 87,000 (2006)
oku Oku Cameroon 87,000 (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the subdivision where the Oku people are present, as of the official 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm)
nja Nzanyi Nigeria 77,000 in Nigeria (1993). Population total all countries: 86,000
reg Kara Tanzania 86,000 (1987), decreasing
sth Shelta Ireland 6,000 in Ireland. Population total all countries: 86,000
pnz Pana Central African Republic 82,000 in Central African Republic (1996). 63,000 Pana, 10,000 Pondo, 9,000 Gonge. Population total all countries: 85,980
loc Inonhan Philippines 85,800 (2000)
acr Achi Guatemala 85,600
stt Stieng, Budeh Viet Nam 40,000 (2009 census). Part of the Xtiêng 85,436 (2009 census) official ethnic community which includes Bulo Stieng [sti]
sti Stieng, Bulo Viet Nam 45,000 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Part of the Xtiêng 85,436 (2009 census) official ethnic community which includes Budeh Stieng [stt]. Population total all countries: 51,540
stb Subanen, Northern Philippines 85,400 (2010 SIL), increasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 85,400
tiz Tai Hongjin China 85,000 (2000 census)
bks Sorsoganon, Northern Philippines 85,000 (1975 census)
sbd Samo, Southern Burkina Faso 85,000 (1998)
sse Sama, Balangingih Philippines 80,000 in Philippines (2007). Population total all countries: 85,000
kei Kei Indonesia 85,000 (2000 E. Travis). 4,500 monolinguals. L2 users: Also used by outsiders such as ethnic Chinese and Butonese who live in Kei
zai Zapotec, Isthmus Mexico 85,000 (1990 census)
tpe Tippera Bangladesh 85,000
gbo Grebo, Northern Liberia 84,500 (1999 LBT)
nsa Naga, Sangtam India 84,300 (2001 census)
tay Atayal China–Taiwan 84,300 (CIP-EY 2002)
kwn Kwangali Namibia 73,100 in Namibia (2000). 2,000 Sambyu. Population total all countries: 84,000
sfm Miao, Small Flowery China 84,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
huj Miao, Northern Guiyang China 84,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
tzj Tz’utujil Guatemala 83,800 (1990–1998 SIL), increasing. 17,000 monolinguals
nri Naga, Chokri India 83,600 (2001 census)
hmr Hmar India 83,400 (2001 census)
ilb Ila Zambia 82,900 (2010 census)
bjt Balanta-Ganja Senegal 82,800 (2006)
bru Bru, Eastern Laos 26,700 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 82,300
tld Talaud Indonesia 82,000 (2000 census)
zom Zo Myanmar 61,000 in Myanmar (2012 P. Tungdim). Population total all countries: 81,900
kyp Kang Laos 47,600 in Laos (1995 census). Population total all countries: 81,700
nrb Nara Eritrea 81,400 (2006)
nbi Naga, Mao India 81,000 (1997)
nnc Nancere Chad 81,000 (2007 B. Keineng), increasing. L2 users: Used as L2 in church and for intercultural communications
jud Worodougou Côte d’Ivoire 80,000 (1999 SIL)
diw Dinka, Northwestern South Sudan 80,000 (1986)
trw Torwali Pakistan 80,000 (Lunsford 2001)
ngi Ngizim Nigeria 80,000 (1993)
mcp Makaa Cameroon 80,000 (1987 SIL)
cuq Cun China 80,000 (1999 O. Jueya). 47,200 monolinguals. Mainly children, elders, and some women
kmg Kâte Papua New Guinea 20,000 (2011 M. Muhujupe). L2 users: 80,000 (1980 UBS)
cbj Ede Cabe Benin 80,000 (2006)
qvh Quechua, Huamalíes-Dos de Mayo Huánuco Peru 72,400 (2000). 20,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 80,000
lwo Luwo South Sudan 80,000 (1983 census)
mqg Malay, Kota Bangun Kutai Indonesia 80,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
gbx Gbe, Eastern Xwla Benin 80,000 (2002 SIL)
mpa Mpoto Tanzania 80,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
daj Daju, Dar Fur Sudan 80,000 (Bender 1983)
tes Tengger Indonesia 80,000 (2000 census)
top Totonac, Papantla Mexico 80,000 (1982 SIL)
muq Miao, Eastern Xiangxi China 80,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
yam Yamba Cameroon 80,000 in Cameroon (2000), increasing. Includes those living outside the area
sgh Shughni Tajikistan 40,000 in Tajikistan (1975 SIL). 20,000 Shugan, 1,500–2,000 Oroshor, 15,000 Rushan. Population total all countries: 80,000. Ethnic population: 73,800 (1990 A. Kibrik). Includes 50,000 Shugni, 2,000 Oroshor, 18,000 Rushan, 800 Khufi, 3,000 Bartang
moy Shekkacho Ethiopia 79,900 (2007 census). 36,500 monolinguals. L2 users: 3,480
jge Judeo-Georgian Israel 59,800 in Israel (2000). Population total all countries: 79,800
oki Okiek Kenya 79,000 in Kenya (2009 census)
key Kupia India 6,600 (2007). Ethnic population: 79,000 (2007). Valmiki
cia Cia-Cia Indonesia 79,000 (2005 SIL)
sbm Sagala Tanzania 79,000 (1987)
gbi Galela Indonesia 79,000 (1990 SIL). 41,000 Kadai, 10,000 Kadina, 24,000 Morotai, and 4,000 Sopi
otd Ot Danum Indonesia 78,800 (2007 SIL)
kiv Kimbu Tanzania 78,000 (1987), decreasing
ldb Duya Nigeria 78,000 (2012 W. Bai)
qxw Quechua, Jauja Wanca Peru 25,000 (1962 census). Ethnic population: 77,700 (2000)
wji Warji Nigeria 77,700 (2000)
kjb Q’anjob’al Guatemala 77,700 in Guatemala (1998)
gng Ngangam Togo 57,400 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Population total all countries: 77,400
thv Tamahaq, Tahaggart Algeria 40,000 in Algeria. Population total all countries: 77,000
msc Maninka, Sankaran Guinea 77,000 (2006)
eko Koti Mozambique 77,000 (2006)
rab Chamling Nepal 76,800 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. Very few monolinguals
vic Virgin Islands Creole English U.S. Virgin Islands 52,300 in U.S. Virgin Islands (1980). Population total all countries: 76,500
cnu Chenoua Algeria 76,300 (2007 Laval University). Estimated Beni Menacer population is 61,000 (2007). 15,300 for Chenoui (2007 Laval University)
ssi Sansi India 60,000 in India (Gusain 2002). Population total all countries: 76,200
bfn Bunak East Timor 55,000 in East Timor (2010 census). Population total all countries: 76,000
loe Saluan Indonesia 76,000 (1978)
ebr Ebrié Côte d’Ivoire 75,900 (1988 census)
mzj Manya Liberia 50,400 in Liberia (2006). Population total all countries: 75,400
knf Mankanya Guinea-Bissau 44,200 in Guinea-Bissau (2006 World Factbook). Population total all countries: 75,050
xtc Katcha-Kadugli-Miri Sudan 75,000 (2004 SIL). 30,000 Katcha and Kadugli (2004), 4,000 Miri
bno Bantoanon Philippines 75,000 (2011 Governor’s Office, Romblon Province), decreasing. 500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 75,000
skt Sakata Democratic Republic of the Congo 75,000 (1982 UBS)
ztp Zapotec, Loxicha Mexico 75,000 (2000 census). 22,500 monolinguals (2005 census)
orx Oro Nigeria 75,000 (1989)
org Oring Nigeria 75,000 (1989)
tou Tho Viet Nam 68,400 (1999 census). Ethnic population: 75,000 (2009 census)
nos Nisu, Eastern China 75,000 (2004), decreasing
cmr Chin, Mro-Khimi Myanmar 75,000 (2012 SIL)
jjr Bankal Nigeria 75,000 (2011 SIL)
sbp Sangu Tanzania 75,000 (1987), decreasing
atv Altai, Northern Russian Federation 57,400 (2010 census). 2,000 Tuba, several thousand Kumandy, 2,000 Chalkan (Salminen 2007). Census includes Southern Altai [alt]. Ethnic population: 74,200 (2010 census). Includes Southern Altai [alt]
alt Altai, Southern Russian Federation 57,400 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 74,200 (2010 census). Includes Northern Altai [atv]
lar Larteh Ghana 74,000 (2003 GILLBT)
maz Mazahua, Central Mexico 74,000 (2000 INALI)
amf Hamer-Banna Ethiopia 73,500 (2007 census). 46,500 Hamer, 27,000 Banna. 38,400 monolinguals (1994 census). L2 users: 7,120
kqo Krahn, Eastern Liberia 62,900 in Liberia. 20,000 Tchien (1992 UBS). Population total all countries: 73,500
nwe Ngwe Cameroon 73,200 (2001 SIL)
kjh Khakas Russian Federation 42,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Spoken by about 10% of the population of Khakasia (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 42,610. 1,500 monolinguals (2002 census). Ethnic population: 73,000 (2010 census)
dud Hun-Saare Nigeria 73,000 (1985 P. Ahmed). 10,000 outside the traditional area
crs Seselwa Creole French Seychelles 72,700 (1998). Ethnic population: 72,700
mjz Majhi Nepal 24,400 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 44,800. Ethnic population: 72,600
bth Bidayuh, Biatah Malaysia 63,900 in Malaysia (2000 census). Population total all countries: 72,380
emp Emberá, Northern Panama 22,500 in Panama (2012 SIL). Population total all countries: 72,200
ged Gade Nigeria 72,100 (2000)
ndg Ndengereko Tanzania 72,000 (Ström 2013)
kem Kemak East Timor 62,000 in East Timor (2010 census). Population total all countries: 72,000
mgw Matumbi Tanzania 72,000 (1978 MARC)
agi Agariya India 72,000 (2007)
bkx Baikeno East Timor 72,000 (2011 Baikeno Language Council). Several thousand speakers in Dili and Indonesian west Timor. 15 clans of Nu’af (mountains); 3 clans of Amnesat (plains). 15 clans of Nu’af (mountains); 3 clans of Amnesat (plains). Many monolinguals
jvn Javanese, Suriname Suriname 60,000 in Suriname (1986). Ethnic population: 71,900 (2004 census)
bfx Bantayanon Philippines 71,600 (2007 J. Lobel)
ijs Ijo, Southeast Nigeria 71,500 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). 66,600 Nembe, 4,900 Akassa
sqt Soqotri Yemen 57,000 in Yemen (1990 census). Population total all countries: 71,400
tdc Emberá-Tadó Colombia 2,300 (2014 SIL). Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998))
xwl Gbe, Western Xwla Benin 50,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 71,000
cto Emberá-Catío Colombia 15,000 in Colombia (1992 SIL). Population total all countries: 15,040. 13,500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998)
bdc Emberá-Baudó Colombia 5,000 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998)
cmi Emberá-Chamí Colombia 5,510 (2001 DNP). Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998)
haj Hajong India 63,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 71,000
sip Sikkimese India 70,300 (2001)
keu Akebu Togo 70,300 (Gblem-Poidi 2012)
bji Burji Ethiopia 46,400 in Ethiopia (2007 census). Population total all countries: 70,100. 29,300 monolinguals. L2 users: 3,050 in Ethiopia
dau Daju, Dar Sila Chad 63,100 in Chad (2000). Population total all countries: 70,100
yes Nyankpa Nigeria 70,000 (2012 SIL), increasing
agc Agatu Nigeria 70,000 (1987 UBS)
kqe Kalagan Philippines 70,000 (2002 census), decreasing. 7,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 70,000. L2 users: Used by those intermarrying with local speakers
cmo Mnong, Central Viet Nam 32,500 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 70,000
dbd Dadiya Nigeria 70,000 (2014 SIL)
bog Bamako Sign Language Mali Estimated 40,000–70,000 people with moderate to severe hearing loss in Mali (Nyst, Sylla and Magassouba 2012)
xnn Kankanay, Northern Philippines 70,000 (1987 SIL)
fpe Equatorial Guinean Pidgin Equatorial Guinea 6,000 (2011 S. Smith), increasing. Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,000. L2 users: 70,000 (2011 S. Smith)
hmg Miao, Southwestern Guiyang China 70,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
glh Pashai, Northwest Afghanistan 70,000 (2011 SIL)
jgk Gwak Nigeria 70,000 (2011 SIL)
cuh Gichuka Kenya 70,000 (1980 SIL), increasing
dgl Andaandi Sudan 70,000 (2014 M. Jaeger)
hmm Miao, Central Mashan China 70,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
dux Duungooma Mali 70,000 (1998 SIL)
hmi Miao, Northern Huishui China 70,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
mqu Mandari South Sudan 70,000 (2014 T. Stirtz)
ise Italian Sign Language Italy 40,000 (2014 EUD). 40,000 deaf sign language users (2014 EUD). 70,000 profoundly deaf people, including 9,000 school age. (Van Cleve 1986)
xsb Sambal Philippines 70,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 70,000
nyi Ama Sudan 70,000 (1982 SIL). Elderly and young children are monolingual
afe Utugwang-Irungene-Afrike Nigeria 70,000 (2012 L. Otronyi)
xkb Nago, Northern Benin 30,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 70,000
mws Mwimbi-Muthambi Kenya 70,000 (1980 SIL), increasing
adf Arabic, Dhofari Spoken Oman 70,000 (1996)
aaz Amarasi Indonesia 70,000 (2011 UBB-GMIT)
mgd Moru South Sudan 70,000 (1982 SIL). 1,200 Agi, 2,500 Andri, 5,000 Kadiro, 9,000 Miza, 400 Wa’di
cri Sãotomense São Tomé e Príncipe 69,900 (1999 SIL)
tob Toba Argentina 40,000 in Argentina (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 40,760. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 69,500 (2004 INDEC)
yeu Yerukula India 69,500 (2001 census)
bwj Bwamu, Láá Láá Burkina Faso 69,200 (2000)
ixl Ixil Guatemala 69,000 (1998 SIL)
ncu Chumburung Ghana 69,000 (2004 SIL), increasing. 2,700 Yeji
gwd Gawwada Ethiopia 68,600 (2007 census). 27,500 monolinguals. L2 users: 1,370
tah Tahitian French Polynesia 63,000 in French Polynesia (2007 census). Population total all countries: 68,260
tma Tama Chad 62,900 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 67,900
dop Lukpa Benin 50,000 in Benin (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 67,900
mvi Miyako Japan Ethnic population: 67,700 (2000)
tbi Gaam Sudan 67,200 (2000)
orc Orma Kenya 66,300 (2009 census), increasing
fao Faroese Denmark 66,000 in Denmark (2007). Population total all countries: 66,150
pwn Paiwan China–Taiwan 66,100 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 66,100
ntm Nateni Benin 66,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001)
tfi Gbe, Tofin Benin 66,000 (2006)
gid Gidar Cameroon 54,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 65,700
mkl Mokole Benin 65,500 (Vanderaa 1991)
krw Krahn, Western Liberia 53,200 in Liberia (2006). Population total all countries: 65,400
kfk Kinnauri India 65,100 (2001 census). L2 users: 15,000. In Kinnaur District
mfo Mbe Nigeria 65,000 (2011 F. Ekpong). 15,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 65,000
bxu Buriat, China China 65,000 (1982 census). 47,000 New Bargu, 14,000 Old Bargu, 4,500 Buriat
wlo Wolio Indonesia 65,000 in Indonesia (2004 D. Andersen). Population does not include those in other provinces
bzy Obanliku Nigeria 65,000 (Faraclas 1989)
avu Avokaya South Sudan 40,000 in South Sudan (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 65,000
gbs Gbe, Gbesi Benin 65,000 (2002 SIL)
mgq Malila Tanzania 65,000 (2003 SIL)
olo Livvi-Karelian Russian Federation 25,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Karelian[krl] and Ludian [lud]. Population total all countries: 30,770. Ethnic population: 65,000
xwe Gbe, Xwela Benin 65,000 (2002 SIL)
blm Beli South Sudan 65,000 (2009 SIL)
dbm Duguri Nigeria 65,000 (2008 M. Rueck), decreasing
mnh Mono Democratic Republic of the Congo 65,000 (1984 census)
ken Kenyang Cameroon 65,000 (1992 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 65,000
gec Grebo, Gboloo Liberia 64,400 (2006)
liq Libido Ethiopia 64,400 (2007 census). 14,700 monolinguals. L2 users: 9,210
pck Chin, Paite India 64,100 (2001 census)
erh Eruwa Nigeria 64,000 (2004)
cov Cao Miao China 63,600 (2000)
kbq Kamano Papua New Guinea 63,200 (2000 census)
gla Gaelic, Scottish United Kingdom 58,700 in United Kingdom (2001 census). Population total all countries: 63,130
cme Cerma Burkina Faso 61,400 in Burkina Faso (1991). Population total all countries: 63,100
eka Ekajuk Nigeria 63,000 (Yoder)
raw Rawang Myanmar 62,000 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 63,000
jgo Ngomba Cameroon 63,000 (1999 SIL), increasing
ica Ede Ica Benin 63,000 (2002 SIL)
acn Achang China 27,700 in China (1990 census). Population total all countries: 62,700. Ethnic population: 34,000 (2000 census)
ndr Ndoola Nigeria 60,400 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 62,520
gss Greek Sign Language Greece 5,000 (2014 EUD). 42,600 (Van Cleve 1986). 62,500 (2014 IMB)
nbc Naga, Chang India 62,400 (2001 census)
cnk Chin, Khumi Myanmar 60,000 in Myanmar (2006). Population total all countries: 62,090
adl Adi, Galo India 30,000. 62,000 (2001 census). A few older adult monolinguals. L2 users: Used as L2 by some commerce people from Bihar and Nepal who have settled in Adi areas
tru Turoyo Turkey 3,000 in Turkey (1994 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 62,000. Ethnic population: 50,000 (1994)
ndi Samba Leko Nigeria 62,000 in Nigeria (2000)
bus Bokobaru Nigeria 62,000 (2012 R. Jones). 10,800 in Kaiama, 51,200 in surrounding villages
lke Kenye Uganda 62,000 (2002 census), increasing
grj Grebo, Southern Liberia 61,600 in Liberia (2006)
nmc Ngam Chad 43,700 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 61,400
nre Naga, Southern Rengma India 21,000 (1997). 61,345 total Rengma (2001 census)
nnl Naga, Northern Rengma India 13,000 (1997). 61,345 total Rengma (2001 census)
vaj Northwestern !Kung Namibia 61,300 in Namibia (2006)
nbu Naga, Rongmei India 61,200 (2001 census)
hml Miao, Luopohe China 61,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
nfr Nafaanra Ghana 61,000 in Ghana (2003 GILLBT), increasing
ksd Kuanua Papua New Guinea 61,000 (1991 SIL). L2 users: 20,000 (1985 UBS)
mjt Sauria Paharia India 54,000 in India (Bhaskararao 2006). Population total all countries: 61,000
krl Karelian Russian Federation 25,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Livvi-Karelian [olo] and Ludian [lud]. Population total all countries: 35,600. Ethnic population: 60,800 (2010 census)
dsh Daasanach Ethiopia 48,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). Population total all countries: 60,500. 31,400 monolinguals. L2 users: 230 in Ethiopia
gwx Gua Ghana 60,200 (2003)
lep Lepcha India 50,600 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 60,100
mur Murle South Sudan 60,000 (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 60,001
ksf Bafia Cameroon 60,000 (1991 UBS)
did Didinga South Sudan 60,000 (2007 SIL)
agb Legbo Nigeria 60,000 (1989)
obo Manobo, Obo Philippines 60,000 (2007 SIL). 20,000 monolinguals. L2 users: Used by those intermarrying with local speakers
snm Ma’di, Southern Uganda 60,000 (2010 SIL), increasing
pww Karen, Pwo Northern Thailand 60,000 (1983 SIL)
iby Ibani Nigeria 60,000 (1989 UBS)
ncj Nahuatl, Northern Puebla Mexico 60,000 (1990 census)
jpr Dzhidi Israel 60,000 in Israel (1995)
slx Salampasu Democratic Republic of the Congo 60,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
rel Rendille Kenya 60,000 (2009 census), increasing
bpn Dzao Min China 60,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
daa Dangaléat Chad 60,000 (2005 SIL), increasing. 45,000 in Dangaléat Canton
kzj Kadazan, Coastal Malaysia Ethnic population: 60,000 (1986 SIL)
rmq Caló Spain 40,000 in Spain. Population total all countries: 60,000
twl Tawara Mozambique 60,000 (2006)
nza Mbembe, Tigon Cameroon 40,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL), increasing. Based on the actual population of the subdivision where the Tigon Mbembe people are present, as of the official 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). Population total all countries: 60,000
lik Lika Democratic Republic of the Congo 60,000 (1989 SIL). 57,000 in Wamba Territory, 3,000 in Rungu Territory
mdi Mamvu Democratic Republic of the Congo 60,000 (1991 SIL)
mqx Mamuju Indonesia 60,000 (1991 SIL). 50,000 in Mamuju dialect
zrg Mirgan India 60,000 (1998 N. Lima)
loq Lobala Democratic Republic of the Congo 60,000 (2000 D. Morgan). Very few monolinguals
drg Rungus Malaysia 55,000 (2009 PCS). Ethnic population: 60,000
sya Siang Indonesia 60,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
ggu Gban Côte d’Ivoire 60,000 (2012 V. Vydrin)
nbh Ngamo Nigeria 60,000 (1993)
frr Frisian, Northern Germany 10,000 (Stephens 1976). Ethnic population: 60,000 (Stephens 1976)
otw Ottawa Canada 7,100 in Canada (1996 First Nations Language of Origin Map). Nishnaabemwin is an emergent language, fusion of Ottawa and Eastern Ojibwa [ojg], having a couple thousand speakers (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 12,500. Ethnic population: 60,000
smy Semnani Iran 60,000 (2007)
yiz Azhe China 54,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 60,000
hmj Ge China 60,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
fit Finnish, Tornedalen Sweden 30,000 in Sweden (Parkvall 2009). Population total all countries: 60,000. L2 users: Many Saami speak as L2
tom Tombulu Indonesia 60,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing
dto Dogon, Tommo So Mali 60,000 (1998 SIL)
qvn Quechua, North Junín Peru 60,000 (1998). 7,000 monolinguals (1972 census)
szl Silesian Poland 60,000 (2002 census)
nxg Ngad’a Indonesia 60,000 (1995)
wem Gbe, Weme Benin 60,000 (Vanderaa 1991)
lay Bai, Lama China 60,000 (1995)
mdn Mbati Central African Republic 60,000 (2010 census)
ojw Ojibwa, Western Canada 10,000 (2002 W. Poser). Ethnic population: 60,000 (1997 SIL)
wja Waja Nigeria 60,000 (1989 U. Kleinewillinghöfer)
sev Sénoufo, Nyarafolo Côte d’Ivoire 60,000 (2009 L. Boese)
qus Quichua, Santiago del Estero Argentina 60,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 60,000
giz Giziga, South Cameroon 60,000 (1991 UBS)
bbo Konabéré Burkina Faso 35,000 in Burkina Faso (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 60,000
kws Kwese Democratic Republic of the Congo 60,000
kga Koyaga Côte d’Ivoire 60,000 (1999 SIL)
aks Akaselem Togo 59,200 (Gblem-Poidi 2012)
bvu Malay, Bukit Indonesia 59,000 (2007 SIL)
xac Kachari India 59,000 (IMA 1997)
wbl Wakhi Afghanistan 17,000 in Afghanistan (2011 S. Beck), increasing. Population total all countries: 58,000. Ethnic population: 17,000
mwv Mentawai Indonesia 58,000 (2000 census)
kye Krache Ghana 58,000 (2004 SIL), increasing
elm Eleme Nigeria 58,000 (1990 UBS). 2,900 monolinguals
sjm Mapun Philippines 43,000 in Philippines (2011 SIL). Population total all countries: 58,000. 4,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 43,000
mbs Manobo, Sarangani Philippines 58,000 (2000 census)
msk Mansaka Philippines 57,800 (2000)
bsb Bisaya, Brunei Brunei 37,600 in Brunei (2007 SIL). Population total all countries: 57,600
lap Laka Chad 55,100 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 57,150
cuk Kuna, San Blas Panama 57,100 (2000). 10,000 in Panama City, Colón, and on banana plantations (1991 SIL)
wyy Fijian, Western Fiji 57,000 (1977 P. Lincoln). 38,500 in Waya (Waya and Ba-Navosa), 18,500 in Nadroga
kal Inuktitut, Greenlandic Greenland 50,000 in Greenland (2007 I. Larsen). 3,000 East Greenlandic, 44,000 West Greenlandic, 800 North Greenlandic. Population total all countries: 57,000
knj Akateko Guatemala 48,500 in Guatemala (1998). Population total all countries: 56,840
sbn Sindhi Bhil Pakistan 56,500 (2000)
hmh Miao, Southwestern Huishui China 56,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
gdf Guduf-Gava Nigeria 55,900 (2000)
gyl Gayil Ethiopia 55,700 (2007 census)
blr Blang China 42,000 in China (2000 census). Population total all countries: 55,200
abu Abure Côte d’Ivoire 55,100 (1993 SIL)
ikz Ikizu Tanzania 55,000 (2005 SIL)
ngq Ngoreme Tanzania 55,000 (2005 SIL)
yey Yeyi Botswana 20,000 in Botswana (2001 LBT). Population total all countries: 55,000. Ethnic population: 47,000. L2 users: Few speak Yeyi as L2
bgi Giangan Philippines 55,000 (1990 census)
tsz Purepecha Mexico 40,000 in Mexico (2005 census). Population total all countries: 55,000
wew Wejewa Indonesia 55,000 (2011)
kzf Kaili, Da’a Indonesia 55,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 3,000–5,000 Da’a and Inde in south Sulawesi. Many monolinguals
bdr Bajau, West Coast Malaysia Ethnic population: 55,000 (2000 SIL)
lal Lalia Democratic Republic of the Congo 55,000 (1993)
ndj Ndamba Tanzania 55,000 (1987)
bdm Buduma Chad 51,600 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 54,800
mrh Chin, Mara India 34,800 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 54,800
mah Marshallese Marshall Islands 43,900 in Marshall Islands (1979 B. Bender). Population total all countries: 54,600
aee Pashai, Northeast Afghanistan 54,400 (2000)
byd Benyadu’ Indonesia 54,000 (2007)
dhw Danuwar Nepal 45,800 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals (Toba, Toba, and Rai 2005). Ethnic population: 53,200
aza Azha China 53,000 (2007)
bhd Bhadrawahi India 53,000 (2002)
ppa Pao India 53,000 (2000)
cwd Cree, Woods Canada 35,000 (1982 SIL). Ethnic population: 53,000 (1982 SIL)
crk Cree, Plains Canada 34,000 in Canada (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 34,100. Ethnic population: 53,000
tse Tunisian Sign Language Tunisia 21,200 (2008 WFD). 53,000 (2014 IMB)
rog Roglai, Northern Viet Nam 52,900 (2002)
kvj Psikye Cameroon 40,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 52,500
brt Bitare Nigeria 46,300 in Nigeria (Blench 2003). Population total all countries: 52,300
jio Jiamao China 52,300 (Wurm et al. 1987)
mge Mango Chad 52,200 (2006)
cdm Chepang Nepal 48,500 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 52,200
njx Kunyi Congo 52,000 (1984 census)
mus Muskogee United States 4,000 (Golla 2007). Spoken by 4,000–6,000 residents of the former territory of the Muscogee Nation and Seminole Nation in Oklahoma and by fewer than 200 of the Seminole Tribe of Florida (Golla 2007). 45 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 52,000 (1997 C. Pye)
xkl Kenyah, Mainstream Indonesia 12,000 in Indonesia (2007 A. Soriente), decreasing. Population total all countries: 52,000. 0 monolinguals
cse Czech Sign Language Czech Republic 10,000 (2014 EUD). 12,000 (2011 census). 10,000 sign language users (2014 EUD). 51,500 (2014 IMB)
chk Chuukese Micronesia 45,900 in Micronesia (2000 census). Population total all countries: 51,330
gui Guaraní, Eastern Bolivian Bolivia 33,700 in Bolivia (Adelaar 2004). Population total all countries: 51,230. Ethnic population: 36,900 (Adelaar 2004)
mdd Mbum Cameroon 38,600 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 51,100
gvf Golin Papua New Guinea 51,100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
tsq Thai Sign Language Thailand 51,000 profoundly, prelingually deaf people in Thailand (1997 C. Reilly). 20% of deaf children go to school to learn it
kcz Konongo Tanzania 51,000 (1987)
pmx Naga, Poumei India 51,000 (1997)
isi Nkem-Nkum Nigeria 51,000 (Yoder), increasing. 26,600 Nkem, 24,400 Nkum
jye Arabic, Judeo-Yemeni Israel 50,000 in Israel (1995 Y. Kara). Population total all countries: 51,000
bvb Bube Equatorial Guinea 51,000 (2011 S. Smith), decreasing. Few monolinguals
zmq Mituku Democratic Republic of the Congo 50,900 (2000)
ilk Ilongot Philippines 50,800 (1990 census)
ker Kera Chad 44,500 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 50,500
abi Abidji Côte d’Ivoire 50,500 (1993 SIL)
ktv Katu, Eastern Viet Nam 50,500 (1999 census)
cuu Tai Ya China 50,000 in China (2000 census). Population total all countries: 50,400. Ethnic population: 50,000 (2000 census). Based on county level Dai populations
ich Etkywan Nigeria 50,200 (2000)
sst Sinasina Papua New Guinea 50,100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
mhk Mungaka Cameroon 50,100 (1982 SIL)
sqm Suma Central African Republic 50,000 (1996)
frd Fordata Indonesia 50,000 (Marshall 2000). 25,000 in the language area and 25,000 elsewhere (Marshall 2000). Decreasing use in mixed language towns. 500 monolinguals
ynq Yendang Nigeria 50,000 (1987)
qxh Quechua, Panao Huánuco Peru 50,000 (2002 SIL). 10,000 monolinguals
dso Desiya India 50,000 (2003 Asha Kiran Society)
cen Cen Nigeria 50,000 (2006)
hrm Miao, Horned China 50,000 (Hattaway 2000)
sjs Senhaja Berber Morocco 50,000 (2013)
kke Kakabe Guinea 10,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Ethnic population: 50,000 (2012 V. Vydrin)
tiy Tiruray Philippines 50,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 50,000
xnz Mattokki Egypt 50,000 (2014), decreasing
bdv Bodo Parja India 50,000 (2001 IBT)
dii Dimbong Cameroon 140 (1992 SIL). Ethnic population: 50,000
bkh Bakoko Cameroon 50,000 (1982 SIL), increasing
bou Bondei Tanzania 50,000 (2000 M. Brenzinger)
gcr Guianese Creole French French Guiana 50,000 (1977 SIL)
izr Izere Nigeria 50,000 (1993 SIL)
wmm Maiwa Indonesia 50,000 (1990 SIL)
gow Gorowa Tanzania 50,000 (1999 R. Kiessling)
soe Songomeno Democratic Republic of the Congo 50,000 (Barrett 1982)
mgc Morokodo South Sudan 50,000 (2011 A. Persson). 280 Biti (2011 A. Persson)
atu Reel South Sudan 50,000 (1998). The Kuek and Jikeyi have many monolinguals and are regarded as having the purest form of the language (SIL)
mbt Manobo, Matigsalug Philippines 50,000 (2010 SIL), increasing. 5,000 monolinguals
tjg Tunjung Indonesia 50,000 (Nikolic 2008)
mfz Mabaan South Sudan 50,000 (1987 SIL)
lpx Lopit South Sudan 50,000 (1995 S. Randal)
bux Boghom Nigeria 50,000 (1973 SIL)
dsb Sorbian, Lower Germany 6,670 in Germany (Salminen 2007). 20,000–30,000 total Sorbian, one-third in lower Lusatia, two-thirds in upper Lusatia (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 6,860. Ethnic population: 50,000
okb Okobo Nigeria 50,000 (Connell and Hajek 1991)
mgi Lijili Nigeria 50,000 (1985 UBS)
rin Nungu Nigeria 50,000 (1999)
dnt Dani, Mid Grand Valley Indonesia 50,000 (1990 UBS)
les Lese Democratic Republic of the Congo 50,000 (1991 SIL)
neb Toura Côte d’Ivoire 50,000 (2005 V. Vydrin)
sub Suku Democratic Republic of the Congo 50,000 (1980 UBS)
sen Sénoufo, Nanerigé Burkina Faso 50,000 (1985 census)
wwa Waama Benin 50,000 (2000 SIL)
der Deori India 28,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 50,000
odk Od Pakistan 50,000 (1998)
ekr Yace Nigeria 50,000 (2002)
ikl Ikulu Nigeria 50,000 (1998)
fcs Quebec Sign Language Canada 50,000 (2010 E. Parks)
yiq Miqie China 30,000 (Bradley 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 50,000
ijj Ede Ije Benin 50,000 (2000 SIL)
nsx Songo Angola 50,000 (1978 UBS)
jiq Lavrung China 50,000 (Lin Xiangrong 1993)
luj Luna Democratic Republic of the Congo 50,000
dur Dii Cameroon 50,000 (2010 L. Bohnhoff)
ptt Enrekang Indonesia 50,000 (1986 SIL)
nzk Nzakara Central African Republic 50,000 in Central African Republic (1996)
mro Mru Bangladesh 30,000 in Bangladesh (2007). Population total all countries: 50,000
bqn Bulgarian Sign Language Bulgaria 37,000 (2014 IMB). 50,000 sign language users (2014 EUD)
yhl Phowa, Hlepho China 36,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 50,000
nyw Nyaw Thailand 50,000 (Diller 1990)
xkf Khengkha Bhutan 50,000 (2003 SIL). 30,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 15,000
mei Midob Sudan 50,000 (1993 R. Werner)
nxe Nage Indonesia 50,000 (Forth 1993)
seq Sénoufo, Senara Burkina Faso 50,000 (1995 SIL)
dts Dogon, Toro So Mali 50,000 (1998 J. Durieux)
pso Polish Sign Language Poland 38,000 (2014 IMB). 50,000 signers (2014 EUD)
dai Day Chad 49,900 (1993 census)
tth Ta’oih, Upper Laos 30,900 in Laos (1995 census). Population total all countries: 49,900. 21,500 monolinguals
otm Otomi, Eastern Highland Mexico 49,300 (2007). 4,700 monolinguals
pcl Pardhi India 49,300 (2001 census)
yih Yiddish, Western Germany 5,000 in Germany. Population total all countries: 5,400. Ethnic population: 49,200 (2000)
sdo Bidayuh, Bukar-Sadong Malaysia 49,100 in Malaysia (2000 census)
nnp Naga, Wancho India 49,100 (2001 census)
rub Gungu Uganda 49,000 (2002 census), increasing
poc Poqomam Guatemala 49,000 in Guatemala (1990–1991 SIL)
lef Lelemi Ghana 48,900 (2003), increasing
blo Anii Benin 33,600 in Benin (2011 SIL). Population total all countries: 48,900
hgm Hai||om Namibia 18,400 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 48,400
pye Krumen, Pye Côte d’Ivoire 20,000 (1993 SIL). All Krumen: 48,300 (1993 SIL)
ted Krumen, Tepo Côte d’Ivoire 28,300 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). All Krumen: 48,300 (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 31,210
zln Zhuang, Lianshan China 48,000 (2007 census)
aqg Arigidi Nigeria 48,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). 45,000 Igashi; 3,000 Uro
nyc Nyanga-li Democratic Republic of the Congo 48,000 (2002). 21,000 Gbati-ri (2002)
bqp Busa Nigeria 48,000 (2012 R. Jones). 20,000 ethnic Laaru, Lupa and Kambari
abq Abaza Russian Federation 37,800 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 47,880. Ethnic population: 43,300 (2010 census)
kix Naga, Khiamniungan India 37,800 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 47,800
igw Igwe Nigeria 47,800 (2000)
rys Yaeyama Japan Ethnic population: 47,600 (2000)
lnd Lun Bawang Indonesia 23,000 in Indonesia (2007 SIL). Population total all countries: 47,500
rut Rutul Russian Federation 30,400 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 47,400. Ethnic population: 35,200 (2010 census)
tca Ticuna Brazil 32,600 in Brazil (1998 ISA). Population total all countries: 47,200
cax Chiquitano Bolivia 5,860 in Bolivia (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 47,100 (Adelaar 2004)
yea Ravula India 26,900 (2007). 25,000 Yerava and 1,900 Adiya. Ethnic population: 47,000 (2007)
whg Wahgi, North Papua New Guinea 47,000 (1999 SIL)
nru Narua China 47,000 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 47,000
lkc Kucong Viet Nam 6,870 in Viet Nam (2007). Population total all countries: 46,870
mxv Mixtec, Metlatónoc Mexico 46,600 (2000). Many monolinguals
itb Itneg, Binongan Philippines 7,500 (2003 SIL). 46,400 in all Itneg varieties (1990 census)
jaf Jara Nigeria 46,300 (2000)
sci Sri Lankan Creole Malay Sri Lanka 46,000 (Ansaldo and Lim 2006), decreasing
kub Kutep Nigeria 44,600 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 46,000
pof Poke Democratic Republic of the Congo 46,000 (Welmers 1971)
lla Lala-Roba Nigeria 46,000 (1993)
ajt Arabic, Judeo-Tunisian Israel 45,000 in Israel (1995 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 45,500
nrf Jèrriais Jersey 1,700 in Jersey (2011 census). Population total all countries: 1,920. Ethnic population: 45,380 Norman French ethnic population in the Channel Islands (2014 A. Stuart). L2 users: 2,800 L2 speakers of Norman French in the Channel Islands (2014 A. Stuart)
dds Dogon, Donno So Mali 45,300 (1998 J. Durieux)
kwc Likwala Congo 45,300 (2000)
csk Jola-Kasa Senegal 45,100 in Senegal (2007), increasing
bxm Buriat, Mongolia Mongolia 45,100 (2010 census), decreasing
ero Horpa China 45,000 (Shearer and Sun Hong Kai 2002). sTau: 23,000, Geshitsa: 21,000, Nyagrong-Minyak: 1,000. 15,000 monolinguals
hmt Hamtai Papua New Guinea 45,000 (1998 T. Palmer)
bef Benabena Papua New Guinea 45,000 (1998 NTM)
kjs Kewa, East Papua New Guinea 45,000 (2000 census)
mgg Mpumpong Cameroon 45,000 (1991 SIL)
cdr Kamuku Nigeria 45,000 (2010 Z. Yoder et al.)
isg Irish Sign Language Ireland 21,000 (2014 IMB). 5,000 Deaf and estimated 45,000 hearing L1 and L2 users (2014 DeafVillageIreland)
kew Kewa, West Papua New Guinea 45,000 (2000 census)
nuv Nuni, Northern Burkina Faso 45,000 (1995 SIL). 15,000–25,000 in Northwestern Nuni, 25,000–35,000 in Northeastern Nuni
scg Sanggau Indonesia 45,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
kdc Kutu Tanzania 45,000 (1987)
pha Pa-Hng China 26,800 in China (McConnell 1995). 45,000 total ethnic population in China and Vietnam (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 33,610. 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 26,800
hsb Sorbian, Upper Germany 13,300 in Germany (Salminen 2007). 20,000–30,000 total Sorbian, one-third in lower Lusatia and two-thirds in upper Lusatia (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 13,490. Ethnic population: 45,000
nla Ngombale Cameroon 45,000 (1993 SIL), increasing
mye Myene Gabon 45,000 (Idiata 2007). 1,000–2,000 Dyumba, 1,000–5,000 Enenga, 2,000–11,000 Galwa, 1,000–4,000 Mpongwe, 10,000 Orungu, 20,000 Nkomi
ngz Ngungwel Congo 45,000 (1988 SIL)
rir Ribun Indonesia 45,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
mbo Mbo Cameroon 45,000 (Ewané Etamé 1995)
tis Itneg, Masadiit Philippines 7,500. 45,000 all Itnegs in Abra Province
ccl Cutchi-Swahili Tanzania 45,000 (Maho and Sands 2002). Approximately 45,000 in Tanzania in the early 1970s (Maho and Sands 2002)
lgm Lega-Mwenga Democratic Republic of the Congo 44,900 (2000)
bif Biafada Guinea-Bissau 44,900 (2006 World Factbook)
bmi Bagirmi Chad 44,800 in Chad (1993 census)
yrk Nenets Russian Federation 21,900 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 44,600 (2010 census)
kib Koalib Sudan 44,300 (Stevenson 1984)
cdz Koda India 43,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 44,300
pmm Pol Cameroon 38,700 in Cameroon (2000). Population total all countries: 44,130
dgk Dagba Central African Republic 34,000 in Central African Republic (2007). Population total all countries: 44,000
qvs Quechua, San Martín Peru 15,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 44,000 (2000)
abt Ambulas Papua New Guinea 44,000 (1991 SIL). 27,000 in Wosera, 9,000 in Maprik, 8,000 in Wingei (1991 SIL)
law Lauje Indonesia 44,000 (Himmelmann 2001). 6,000 use Ampibabo dialect (Himmelmann 2001)
res Reshe Nigeria 44,000 (1993 SIL)
lum Luimbi Angola 43,900 (2000)
agj Argobba Ethiopia 43,700 (2007 census). 100 monolinguals. L2 users: 3,240
ssh Arabic, Shihhi Spoken United Arab Emirates 21,600 in United Arab Emirates (2014). Population total all countries: 43,600
mfi Wandala Cameroon 23,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 43,500
cac Chuj Guatemala 41,600 in Guatemala (1991 SIL). Population total all countries: 43,370
bkc Baka Cameroon 40,000 in Cameroon (2007 Y. Léonard). Population total all countries: 43,200. 15,000 monolinguals. Mainly women. Ethnic population: 40,000
tkb Buksa India 43,000 (IMA 1997)
lna Langbashe Central African Republic 40,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 43,000
gqa Ga’anda Nigeria 43,000 (1992)
rou Runga Chad 21,500 in Chad (1993 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 43,000
lgz Ligenza Democratic Republic of the Congo 43,000 (1986 SIL)
nlj Nyali Democratic Republic of the Congo 43,000 (1993 SIL)
bje Biao-Jiao Mien China 43,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Biaomin (Dongshan) has a much larger speaker population (approximately 35,700) than Jiaogong (Shikou; approximately 10,900)
ifb Ifugao, Batad Philippines 43,000 (1987 SIL)
bgs Tagabawa Philippines 43,000 (1998 SIL)
nwb Nyabwa Côte d’Ivoire 42,700 (1993 SIL). 32,500 Nyabwa, 7,700 Nyedebwa, 2,500 Kouzié
bqk Banda-Mbrès Central African Republic 42,500 in Central African Republic (1996)
tuq Tedaga Chad 28,500 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 42,500
imo Imbongu Papua New Guinea 42,500 (2000 census). 6,380 monolinguals
sea Semai Malaysia Ethnic population: 42,400 (2008 JHEOA)
mgb Mararit Chad 42,400 (1993 census). 15,400 Mararit, 27,000 Abou Charib
klj Khalaj, Turkic Iran 42,100 (2000)
kjf Khalaj Azerbaijan Population total all countries: 42,100
tft Ternate Indonesia 42,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). L2 users: 20,000. North and northeast Halmahera
mmz Mabaale Democratic Republic of the Congo 42,000 (2002)
bcp Bali Democratic Republic of the Congo 42,000 (1987 UBS). 2,100 monolinguals
lse Lusengo Democratic Republic of the Congo 42,000 (2002)
bil Bille Nigeria 38,000 (2012 M. Rueck, Z. Yoder, and K. Hannelová). Elderly are monolingual. Ethnic population: 42,000
aml War-Jaintia Bangladesh 16,000 in Bangladesh (2003 SIL). Population total all countries: 41,900. 4,000 monolinguals
prt Prai Thailand 20,000 in Thailand (2001). Possibly 3,000 Ban Wen dialect speakers. Population total all countries: 41,900
kxl Kurux, Nepali Nepal 28,600 (2001 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Ethnic population: 41,800. Dhagar (Jhagar)
kcn Nubi Uganda 26,100 in Uganda (2002 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 41,730
cma Maa Viet Nam 33,300 (1999 census). Ethnic population: 41,400 (2009 census)
amj Amdang Chad 41,100 (2000). Population lower in Wadi Fira (home region) than in Batha and Ouaddaï regions
rgs Roglai, Southern Viet Nam 41,000 (1999 census)
mux Bo-Ung Papua New Guinea 40,900 (2000 census)
nkh Naga, Khezha India 40,800 (2001 census)
wbm Wa, Vo China 40,000 in China (Zhou Zhizhi, Qixiang Yan, and Guoqing Chen 2004). Population total all countries: 40,700. Many monolinguals
xrb Karaboro, Eastern Burkina Faso 35,000 in Burkina Faso (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 40,610
plc Palawano, Central Philippines 12,000 (1981 UBS). 40,500 all Palawano (1990 census)
krh Kurama Nigeria 40,300 (2000)
tpx Me’phaa, Acatepec Mexico 40,200 (2005 INALI). 15,000 monolinguals
rwm Amba Uganda 35,600 in Uganda (2002 census), decreasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Population total all countries: 40,100
xkv Kgalagadi Botswana 40,000 in Botswana (2004 R. Cook). Population total all countries: 40,100
roh Romansch Switzerland 40,000 in Switzerland (2012 census). 1 canton. Population total all countries: 40,039
keq Kamar India 40,000 (2003 BI)
uuu U China 40,000 (2000)
kfo Koro Côte d’Ivoire 40,000 (1999 SIL)
bau Mbat Nigeria 40,000 (2006 SIL), increasing
hlt Chin, Matu Myanmar 30,000 in Myanmar (2012). Population total all countries: 40,000
bip Bila Democratic Republic of the Congo 40,000 (1993 SIL)
lro Laro Sudan 40,000 (Kuku 2010)
swl Swedish Sign Language Sweden 10,000 (2014 EUD). 10,000 Deaf sign language users (2014 EUD). 40,000 Deaf (2014 IMB)
swj Sira Gabon 39,400 (2000). 30,000–40,000 (Idiata 2007)
ozm Koonzime Cameroon 40,000 (2011 SIL). 26,400 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 40,000
xmj Majera Cameroon 500 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004)
krt Kanuri, Tumari Niger 40,000 (1998). 20,000 monolinguals
kyq Kenga Chad 40,000 (1997 SIL)
mzh Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay Argentina 15,000 (1999). Ethnic population: 40,000 (2004 INDEC). 40,000 Wichí Güisnay, Wichí Vejoz and Wichí Nocten
nkw Nkutu Democratic Republic of the Congo 40,000 (Nida 1972)
hmc Miao, Central Huishui China 40,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
kot Lagwan Cameroon 10,000 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004)
ask Ashkun Afghanistan 40,000 (2011), increasing. 4,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 40,000
sad Sandawe Tanzania 40,000 (2000)
tbc Takia Papua New Guinea 40,000
hia Lamang Nigeria 40,000 (1993)
sme Saami, North Norway 20,000 in Norway (Laakso 2013). Population total all countries: 25,700. Ethnic population: 30,000 (1995 M. Krauss). 30,000–40,000
jia Jina Cameroon 1,500 (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004)
kqx Mser Cameroon 500 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004)
aal Afade Cameroon 5,000 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004)
kvq Karen, Geba Myanmar 40,000 (2010 Geba Literature and Culture Committee)
tco Taungyo Myanmar 40,000 (2000 D. Bradley)
wlv Wichí Lhamtés Vejoz Argentina 25,000 (1991 UBS). Ethnic population: 40,000 (2004 INDEC). 40,000 Wichí Güisnay, Wichí Vejoz and Wichí Nocten (2004 INDEC)
etx Iten Nigeria 40,000 (Blench 2003)
kwg Kaba Démé, Sara Chad 40,000 in Chad (1993 UBS)
akh Angal Heneng Papua New Guinea 40,000 (1994 V. Schlatter)
czt Chin, Zotung Myanmar 40,000 (1990 UBS)
iri Irigwe Nigeria 40,000 (1985 UBS)
yna Aluo China 25,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 40,000 (Bradley 2007)
geh Hutterisch Canada 29,200 in Canada (2007 SIL). Population total all countries: 40,000
hed Herdé Chad 40,000 (1999 SIL)
sif Siamou Burkina Faso 20,000 in Burkina Faso (1999). Population total all countries: 40,000
vkk Kaur Indonesia 40,000 (2000 census)
nhu Noone Cameroon 40,000 (2005 SIL). Based on actual population of the sub-divisions where the Noone people are present as of the 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm)
vap Vaiphei India 40,000 (2001 census)
msv Maslam Cameroon 250 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004)
qub Quechua, Huallaga Huánuco Peru 40,000 (1993 SIL). 26,400 monolinguals
mxf Malgbe Cameroon 6,000 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004
xxk Ke’o Indonesia 40,000 (2001 L. Baird). Ethnic population: 40,000
nbr Numana-Nunku-Gbantu-Numbu Nigeria 40,000 (2008 K. Hannelova et al.)
yre Yaouré Côte d’Ivoire 40,000 (2012 V. Vydrin)
mtd Mualang Indonesia 40,000 (Tjia 2007)
psl Puerto Rican Sign Language Puerto Rico 8,000–40,000 deaf persons (Van Cleve 1986)
bbu Kulung Nigeria 40,000 (2012 M. Rueck, Z. Yoder, and K. Hannelová). Elderly are monolingual
mpi Mpade Cameroon 16,000 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004)
tic Tira Sudan 40,000 (1982 SIL)
ahs Ashe Nigeria 40,000 (2012 J. Barnhoorn), increasing
mql Mbelime Benin 37,600 in Benin (Tchegnon and Guidibi 2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 39,900
tkd Tukudede East Timor 39,500 (2010 census)
asq Austrian Sign Language Austria 8,000 (2014 EUD). 8,000–10,000 Deaf sign language users (2014 EUD), 39,500 deaf (2014 IMB)
bmw Bomwali Congo 33,200 in Congo (2002). Population total all countries: 39,300
rar Rarotongan Cook Islands 13,100 in Cook Islands (2011 census), decreasing. 2,035 Aitutaki, 481 Atiu, 573 Mangaia, 307 Mauke, 189 Mitiaro (2011 census). Speaker numbers rapidly decreasing, especially in the diaspora (Wurm 2007). Population total all countries: 39,090
kwv Kaba Naa, Sara Chad 35,000 in Chad (1993 UBS). 5,560 in Bale village, 4,940 in Koskabo, 4,550 in Kyabé. Population total all countries: 39,000
buc Bushi Mayotte 39,000 (2001)
meu Motu Papua New Guinea 39,000 (2008 A. Taylor)
wgi Wahgi Papua New Guinea 39,000 (1999 SIL)
bbk Babanki Cameroon 39,000 (2011 SIL), increasing
pry Pray 3 Thailand 38,800 (2000)
ndv Ndut Senegal 38,600 (2007)
she Sheko Ethiopia 38,400 (2007 census). 13,600 monolinguals (1994 census). L2 users: 4,920
rml Romani, Baltic Poland 30,000 in Poland. Population total all countries: 38,360
agr Aguaruna Peru 38,300 (2000 SIL), increasing. 0 monolinguals. Almost none
tgj Tagin India 38,200 (2001 census)
lbs Libyan Sign Language Libya 38,000 (2014 IMB)
bnn Bunun China–Taiwan 38,000 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 38,000
lld Ladin Italy 31,000 in Italy (2013). Ethnic population: 38,000
sep Sénoufo, Sìcìté Burkina Faso 35,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Population total all countries: 38,000
sym Samo, Maya Burkina Faso 38,000 (1999)
yit Lalu, Eastern China 38,000 (2002)
ywl Lalu, Western China 38,000 (2002)
lno Lango South Sudan 38,000 (2007 SIL)
chj Chinantec, Ojitlán Mexico 37,900 (2000 INALI). 2,800 monolinguals
prx Purik India 37,700 (2001 census)
bwo Borna Ethiopia 37,500 (2007 census). 140 Gamila. 18,600 monolinguals. 77 Gamila. L2 users: 2,280. 45 Gamila
tcf Me’phaa, Malinaltepec Mexico 37,500 (2000 INALI). 8,000 monolinguals (2011 SIL)
ade Adele Togo 26,400 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Population total all countries: 37,400
nma Naga, Maram India 37,300 (2001)
ddg Fataluku East Timor 37,000 (2010 census)
mqn Moronene Indonesia 37,000 (2000 D. Andersen), increasing. Wita Ea 23,000, Tokotu’a 14,000. Includes about 3,500 living in cities. Second or third generations in cities no longer speak Moronene. 1,850 monolinguals
tuz Turka Burkina Faso 37,000 in Burkina Faso (1998 SIL)
djo Jangkang Indonesia 37,000 (2007 SIL)
ngj Ngie Cameroon 37,000 (2001 SIL), increasing
dao Chin, Daai Myanmar 37,000 (2010)
kyw Kudmali India 37,000 (IMA 1997)
caq Nicobarese, Car India 37,000 (2005)
sbx Seberuang Indonesia 37,000 (2007 SIL)
ott Otomi, Temoaya Mexico 37,000 (1990 census). 850 monolinguals
oyd Oyda Ethiopia 36,900 (2007 census). 6,250 monolinguals. L2 users: 4,040
chf Chontal, Tabasco Mexico 36,500 (2000 INALI). Chontal de Tabasco central: 14,400, Chontal de Tabasco del este: 13,200, Chontal de Tabasco del sureste: 4980, Chontal de Tabasco del norte: 3890
ges Geser-Gorom Indonesia 36,500 (1989 SIL)
krn Sapo Liberia 36,400 (2006)
nka Nkoya Zambia 36,200 (2010 census). 1,190 Mashasha, 35,000 Nkoya (2010 census)
diu Diriku Namibia 10,200 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 36,200
mfc Mba Democratic Republic of the Congo 36,100 (2000)
ntk Ikoma-Nata-Isenye Tanzania 36,000 (2005 SIL). Includes 15,000 Ikoma, 11,500 Nata, 9,500 Isenye
wba Warao Venezuela 28,100 in Venezuela (2007). Ethnic population: 36,000
mvw Machinga Tanzania 36,000 (1987)
sig Paasaal Ghana 36,000 (2003 GILLBT), increasing
bjv Bedjond Chad 36,000 (Caprile and Fedry 1969)
gel ut-Ma’in Nigeria 36,000 (1992 SIL)
wun Bungu Tanzania 36,000 (1987)
sgr Sangisari Iran 36,000 (2006 census)
yso Nisi China 36,000 (2002), decreasing
kdq Koch India 30,000 in India (2007 survey), increasing. Includes only the Koch of Garo Hills, Meghalaya, India. Population total all countries: 36,000. 0 monolinguals
lme Pévé Chad 30,000 in Chad (1999 SIL). Population total all countries: 35,720
ras Tegali Sudan 35,700 (Stevenson 1984)
pho Phunoi Laos 35,600 (1995 census)
bfl Banda-Ndélé Central African Republic 35,500 in Central African Republic (1996)
tvu Tunen Cameroon 35,300
mub Mubi Chad 35,300 (1993 census)
ggg Gurgula Pakistan 35,300 (2000)
slm Sama, Pangutaran Philippines 35,200 (2000)
mhw Mbukushu Namibia 6,100 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 35,100
ala Alago Nigeria 35,100 (2000)
kmy Koma Nigeria 32,000 in Nigeria (1989). Population total all countries: 35,000
qud Quichua, Calderón Highland Ecuador 25,000 (1987 SIL). Ethnic population: 35,000 (2000)
mjq Malaryan India No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 35,000 (2001 census)
hro Haroi Viet Nam 35,000 (1998)
gok Gowli India 35,000 (IMA 1997)
ivv Ivatan Philippines 35,000 (1998 SIL), increasing. 3,450 Itbayatan (1996 census)
xuj Kurumba, Jennu India 35,000 (IMA 1997)
yud Arabic, Judeo-Tripolitanian Israel 30,000 in Israel (1994 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 35,000
thf Thangmi Nepal 23,200 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 24,000. 100 monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Ethnic population: 35,000 (Turin 2007). L2 users: Some occupational castes and other ethnic groups in Thangmi-dominant areas speak Thangmi also
apt Apatani India 28,400 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 35,000
hmp Miao, Northern Mashan China 35,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
pmi Pumi, Northern China 35,000 (1999). 5,000 in Pumi nationality, 30,000 in Tibetan nationality (1994). 10,000 monolinguals
jmd Yamdena Indonesia 25,000 (1991 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 35,000 (1991 SIL)
yas Nugunu Cameroon 35,000 (1987 SIL)
cic Chickasaw United States 600 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 35,000 (1999 Chickasaw Nation)
okv Orokaiva Papua New Guinea 35,000 (2000 census)
yif Ache China 35,000 (2003)
nin Ninzo Nigeria 35,000 (1973 SIL)
aiy Ali Central African Republic 35,000 (1996)
bfm Mmen Cameroon 35,000 (2001 SIL), increasing. 1,000 Fungom (1993 SIL)
jiv Shuar Ecuador 35,000 (2007 CODENPE)
mhu Digaro-Mishmi India 34,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 34,850
kfp Korwa India 34,600 (2001 census). Few monolinguals
btw Butuanon Philippines 34,500 (1990 census)
snj Sango, Riverain Central African Republic 34,500 (1996)
gab Gabri Chad 34,400 (2000)
kwx Khirwar India 34,300
toj Tojolabal Mexico 34,300 (2000 INALI). 7,700 monolinguals
ubu Umbu-Ungu Papua New Guinea 34,200 (2000 census). 14,300 Andelale, 13,500 Kala, and 6,360 No-penge (2000 census)
guh Guahibo Colombia 23,000 in Colombia (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Population total all countries: 34,200. 9,200 monolinguals
njn Naga, Liangmai India 34,200 (2001 census)
agx Aghul Russian Federation 29,300 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 34,200 (2010 census)
ike Inuktitut, Eastern Canadian Canada 34,100 (2011 census)
sby Soli Zambia 34,100 (2010 census)
nzm Naga, Zeme India 34,100 (2001 census)
koq Kota Gabon 25,000 in Gabon (Idiata 2007). Population total all countries: 34,060
djc Daju, Dar Daju Chad 34,000 (1993 census)
ykl Khlula China 21,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 34,000
ral Ralte India 900 (2007). Ethnic population: 34,000
mnf Mundani Cameroon 34,000 (1987 SIL)
csh Chin, Asho Myanmar 30,000 in Myanmar (2011 SIL). Population total all countries: 34,000
yip Pholo China 30,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 34,000
mdx Dizin Ethiopia 33,900 (2007 census), increasing. 17,600 monolinguals. L2 users: 2,050
ktz Ju|’hoan Botswana 5,000 in Botswana (2002). Population total all countries: 33,600
djk Aukan Suriname 15,500 in Suriname. 14,400 Aukan, 33 Aluku, 1,160 Paramaccan (1980 census). Population total all countries: 33,500. 1,550 monolinguals
kle Kulung Nepal 33,200 in Nepal (2011 census)
yel Yela Democratic Republic of the Congo 33,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
njb Naga, Nocte India 33,000 (2001 census). 19,800 monolinguals (2001 census)
ood Tohono O’odham United States 14,000 in United States (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 14,094. 180 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 33,000 (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004). Including 20,000 Papago, 13,000 Pima (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004)
sez Chin, Senthang Myanmar 33,000 (2007 SIL)
otq Otomi, Querétaro Mexico 33,000 (1990 census). 1,900 monolinguals (1990)
mhs Buru Indonesia 33,000 in Indonesia (1989 SIL). 6,620 Wae Sama, 9,600 Masarete, 14,300 Rana, 500 Fogi, and 2,000 in Ambon
sbl Sambal, Botolan Philippines 32,900 (2000 SIL), increasing
snf Noon Senegal 32,900 (2007)
kfh Kurichiya India 29,400 (2004 survey). Ethnic population: 32,800 (2001 census)
mpe Majang Ethiopia 32,800 (2007 census). 10,800 monolinguals. L2 users: 440
kwm Kwambi Namibia 32,700 (2006)
gbq Gbaya-Bozoum Central African Republic 32,500 (1996)
pac Pacoh Viet Nam 16,000 in Viet Nam (2002). Population total all countries: 32,500
kwf Kwara’ae Solomon Islands 32,400 (1999 SIL)
isn Isanzu Tanzania 32,400 (1987)
soa Thai Song Thailand 32,300 (2000)
brb Lave Laos 22,800 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 32,235
ddn Dendi Benin 30,000 in Benin (1995 R. Jones). Population total all countries: 32,050
vid Vidunda Tanzania 32,000 (1987)
oor Oorlams South Africa 32,000 (2006)
knl Keninjal Indonesia 32,000 (2007 SIL)
bct Bendi Democratic Republic of the Congo 32,000 (1991 SIL)
xub Kurumba, Betta India 32,000 (2003 NLCI), increasing
lnu Longuda Nigeria 32,000 (1973 SIL)
qxu Quechua, Arequipa-La Unión Peru 18,600 (2000). 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 32,000. L2 users: Used by some outsiders for communicating with monolinguals
bwc Bwile Zambia 19,600 in Zambia (2010 census). Population total all countries: 32,000
mhd Mbugu Tanzania 7,000 (1997). Ethnic population: 32,000
hwo Hwana Nigeria 32,000 (1992)
ymk Makwe Mozambique 22,000 in Mozambique (2003). Population total all countries: 32,000
lsi Lashi Myanmar 30,000 in Myanmar (2000 D. Bradley). Population total all countries: 31,800
tny Tongwe Tanzania 13,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 31,600 (2000)
nzy Nzakambay Chad 18,500 in Chad (2000). Population total all countries: 31,500
pon Pohnpeian Micronesia 29,000 in Micronesia (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). 24,000 on Pohnpei, 3,430 on outer islands, 280 elsewhere. Population total all countries: 31,350
glw Glavda Nigeria 28,500 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 31,300
bzf Boikin Papua New Guinea 31,300 (2003 SIL). 9,400 monolinguals
tpu Tampuan Cambodia 31,000 in Cambodia (2008 census)
bvm Bamunka Cameroon 31,000 (2008 SIL)
adz Adzera Papua New Guinea 30,000 (2000 census). A few monolinguals, among the youngest and oldest. Ethnic population: 31,000
sbs Kuhane Namibia 26,600 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 30,950
kca Khanty Russian Federation 9,580 (2010 census). Mostly speakers of Northern Khanty, 2,000 speakers of Eastern Khanty and probably no speakers left in Southern Khanty (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 30,900 (2010 census)
grv Grebo, Central Liberia 30,800 (2006)
amu Amuzgo, Guerrero Mexico 30,600 (2000 INALI). 19,900 Amuzgo del Norte speakers, 12,700 Amuzgo del Sur speakers (2000 INALI). 10,000 monolinguals (1990 census). L2 users: Learned by Spanish, Nahuatl, and Mixtecs living among them
qvj Quichua, Loja Highland Ecuador 30,500 (2000)
evn Evenki China 11,000 in China (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 17,130. Ethnic population: 30,500 (2000 census)
kza Karaboro, Western Burkina Faso 30,200 (Vanderaa 1991)
kxx Likuba Congo 30,200 (2000)
caa Ch’orti’ Guatemala 30,000 in Guatemala (2000 J. Lubeck). Population total all countries: 30,010
ifk Ifugao, Tuwali Philippines 30,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Only those below grade-school age are monolingual. L2 users: Occasionally speakers of other languages will use Tuwali, mostly in trading or because of intermarriage
ifu Ifugao, Mayoyao Philippines 30,000 (2007 SIL). L2 users: 0
bqz Bakaka Cameroon 30,000 (1998 SIL)
smr Simeulue Indonesia 30,000
ksx Kedang Indonesia 30,000 (2008 census)
soz Temi Tanzania 30,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 30,000
snq Sangu Gabon 30,000 (Idiata 2007)
mng Mnong, Eastern Viet Nam 30,000 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL)
knb Kalinga, Lubuagan Philippines 30,000 (2008 V. Dumatog), increasing. L2 users: Used by those intermarrying with local speakers and by business people
tar Tarahumara, Central Mexico 30,000 (2000 INALI). 10,000 monolinguals
mnn Mnong, Southern Viet Nam 30,000 (2002)
iko Olulumo-Ikom Nigeria 30,000 (Faraclas 1989). 5,000 Olulumo, 25,000 Ikom
bsr Bassa-Kontagora Nigeria 10 (1987). Ethnic population: 30,000
ssl Sisaala, Western Ghana 30,000 (2003 GILLBT)
mid Mandaic Iraq 5,000 in Iraq (2006). Population total all countries: 5,500. Ethnic population: 30,000
mim Mixtec, Alacatlatzala Mexico 30,000 in Mexico (2011 SIL). 18,000 monolinguals
mkf Miya Nigeria 30,000 (1995 CAPRO)
mju Manna-Dora India Ethnic population: 30,000
mor Moro Sudan 30,000 (1982 SIL)
aso Dano Papua New Guinea 30,000 (1987 SIL)
nag Naga Pidgin India 30,000 (Holm 1989)
eee E China 30,000 (Edmondson 1992)
dde Doondo Congo 30,000 (2007 census)
png Pangu Nigeria 30,000 (2003 SIL)
wbj Alagwa Tanzania 30,000 (Kiessling and Mous 2003)
mcu Mambila, Cameroon Cameroon 30,000 (1993 UBS)
cgk Chocangacakha Bhutan 30,000 (2011 SIL)
cgc Kagayanen Philippines 30,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 30,000 (2007 SIL). L2 users: Government workers or church workers, teachers
bhw Biak Indonesia 30,000 (Wurm 2000). L2 users: A few thousand L2 users
dgh Dghwede Nigeria 30,000 (1980 UBS)
lcf Lubu Indonesia 30,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
blx Ayta, Mag-Indi Philippines 5,000 (1998 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 30,000. All Ayta in Zambales, Pampanga, and Tarlac regions
isd Isnag Philippines 30,000 (1994 SIL)
pel Pekal Indonesia 30,000 (2000 census)
blj Bolongan Indonesia 30,000 (Kawi et al. 2002)
cch Atsam Nigeria 30,000 (Barrett 1982)
lmz Lumbee United States No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 30,000 (1977 SIL)
dhm Dhimba Angola 18,000 in Angola (2011). Population total all countries: 30,000
poi Popoluca, Highland Mexico 30,000 (1992 SIL)
ekp Ekpeye Nigeria 30,000 (1973 SIL)
luv Luwati Oman 30,000 (Salman 2012)
cml Campalagian Indonesia 30,000 (Strømme 1987)
clu Caluyanun Philippines 30,000 (1994 SIL). Very few monolinguals
axk Yaka Central African Republic 15,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 30,000
byc Ubaghara Nigeria 30,000 (1985 UBS). 24,000 Biakpan
ulm Ulumanda’ Indonesia 30,000 (1986 SIL). 18,000 in Polmas and Majene
gad Gaddang Philippines 30,000 (1984 SIL)
qvc Quechua, Cajamarca Peru 30,000 (2000 D. Coombs)
mba Higaonon Philippines 30,000 (1996 NTM)
txm Tomini Indonesia 30,000 (Himmelmann 2001)
jib Jibu Nigeria 30,000 (1997 SIL)
enu Enu China 30,000 (Dai Qingxia and Duan Kuangle 1995)
zkd Kadu Myanmar 30,000 (2007 SIL), decreasing. Over 30 villages in Mawteik dialect (nearly extinct); over 30 villages in Settaw dialect; 5 villages in Mawkhwin dialect. 0 monolinguals
tng Tobanga Chad 30,000 (1999 SIL)
rth Ratahan Indonesia 500 (Himmelmann and Wolff 1999), decreasing. Ethnic population: 30,000 (1989)
tmn Taman Indonesia 30,000 (2007 SIL)
twu Termanu Indonesia 30,000 (2002 UKAW)
bcs Kohumono Nigeria 30,000 (1989)
tul Tula Nigeria 30,000 (1998 U. Kleinewillinghöfer)
bds Burunge Tanzania 13,000 (2002). Ethnic population: 30,000 (Dimmendaal 2007)
apg Ampanang Indonesia 30,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
pbi Parkwa Cameroon 30,000 (1993 SIL)
xkg Kagoro Mali 15,000 (2001 V. Vydrin). Ethnic population: 30,000 (2001 V. Vydrin)
bzk Nicaragua Creole English Nicaragua 30,000 (2001 SIL). 630 Rama Cay Creole speakers (Holm 1989). L2 users: L1 of Creole people and most Garifuna
shj Shatt Sudan 30,000 (2014 T. Stirtz)
bzx Bozo, Kelengaxo Mali 30,000 (2009 SIL)
mta Manobo, Cotabato Philippines 30,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 5,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 30,000
bcz Bainouk-Gunyaamolo Senegal 30,000 (2013)
mtu Mixtec, Tututepec Mexico 1,020 (2000 INALI). Ethnic population: 30,000 (1990 census)
opa Okpamheri Nigeria 30,000 (1973 SIL)
wow Wawonii Indonesia 30,000 (2004 D. Andersen), increasing. 22,500 Wawonii, 7,500 Menui
muy Muyang Cameroon 30,000 (2007 SIL)
blz Balantak Indonesia 30,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. 3,000 monolinguals. L2 users: Speakers of other area languages use Balantak as L2
mrj Mari, Hill Russian Federation 30,000 (2012 T. Salminen)
set Sentani Indonesia 30,000 (1996 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals
trc Triqui, Copala Mexico 25,000 in Mexico (2007 SIL). Population total all countries: 30,000
muo Nyong Cameroon 30,000 in Cameroon (2008 SIL)
bjg Bidyogo Guinea-Bissau 29,900 (2006 World Factbook)
nku Kulango, Bouna Côte d’Ivoire 14,400 in Côte d’Ivoire (1998). Population total all countries: 29,900
mdg Massalat Chad 10 (1991 R. Blench). Ethnic population: 29,800 (1993 census)
hii Hinduri India 29,700 (2001 census)
mmk Mukha-Dora India 29,700 (1991 census)
jad Jahanka Guinea 29,000 in Guinea (1999 G. Gumbs). Population total all countries: 29,500
zar Zapotec, Rincón Mexico 29,200 (2000)
nkf Naga, Inpui India 29,200 (2001 census)
sne Bidayuh, Bau Malaysia 29,200 (2000 census)
btv Bateri Pakistan 28,300 in Pakistan (2000). Population total all countries: 29,100
tdf Talieng Laos 29,100 (2005 census)
nme Naga, Mzieme India 29,000 (1997)
snp Siane Papua New Guinea 29,000 (2000 census)
doz Dorze Ethiopia 20,800 (1994 census). 9,910 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 29,000 (1994 census). L2 users: 3,600
ylm Limi China 29,000 (2002)
ngg Ngbaka Manza Central African Republic 29,000 (1996)
mgy Mbunga Tanzania 29,000 (1987)
piw Pimbwe Tanzania 29,000 (1987)
mcx Mpiemo Central African Republic 24,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 29,000
xed Hdi Cameroon 25,000 in Cameroon (2001 SIL). Population total all countries: 29,000
bmo Bambalang Cameroon 29,000 (2008 SIL)
wlc Comorian, Mwali Comoros 27,200 in Comoros (2000). Population total all countries: 28,700
zab Zapotec, San Juan Guelavía Mexico 28,000 in Mexico (1990 census). Population total all countries: 28,500
hol Holu Angola 23,100 in Angola (2000). Population total all countries: 28,200
hrz Harzani Iran 28,100 (2000)
lbo Laven Laos 28,100 in Laos (Bradley 2007)
ttt Tat, Muslim Azerbaijan 18,000 in Azerbaijan (1989 census). Population total all countries: 28,010. Ethnic population: 22,000 (1990 A. Kibrik)
aug Aguna Benin 14,000 in Benin (2014 SIL). Population total all countries: 28,000
hmy Miao, Southern Guiyang China 28,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
pmj Pumi, Southern China 19,000 (1999). 6,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 28,000 (2000 census)
nko Nkonya Ghana 28,000 (2004 SIL)
lkr Päri South Sudan 28,000 (1987 SIL)
ymc Muji, Southern China 26,000 (Pelkey 2011), increasing. Ethnic population: 28,000
pae Pagibete Democratic Republic of the Congo 28,000 (2000 SIL). 6,000 Momveda, 4,500 Mongbapele
wbi Vwanji Tanzania 28,000 (2003 SIL)
smh Samei China 20,000 (Bradley 2007). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 28,000 (Bradley 2007)
tlb Tobelo Indonesia 27,700 (2000)
mfk Mofu, North Cameroon 27,500 (1982 SIL)
vmp Mazatec, Soyaltepec Mexico 27,500 (2000 INALI). Original Soyaltepec variety may only be 900, mostly monolingual. 1,930 monolinguals
mzw Deg Ghana 26,400 in Ghana (2003). Population total all countries: 27,500
gwn Gwandara Nigeria 27,300 (2000)
bge Bauria India 27,200 (2001 census)
mdu Mboko Congo 27,200 (2000)
kjl Kham, Western Parbate Nepal 24,500 (2003 SIL), increasing. 27,100 all Kham languages in Nepal (2011 census)
kgj Kham, Gamale Nepal 13,100 (2000), increasing. 27,100 all Kham languages in Nepal (2011 census)
kif Kham, Eastern Parbate Nepal 7,500 (2003 SIL), decreasing. 27,100 all Kham languages in Nepal (2011 census). No adult monolinguals
kip Kham, Sheshi Nepal 20,000 (2003), decreasing. 27,100 all Kham languages in Nepal (2011 census)
bav Vengo Cameroon 27,000 (2008 SIL)
agd Agarabi Papua New Guinea 27,000 (2000 census)
gus Guinean Sign Language Guinea 530 (2008 WFD). 528 deaf signers (2008 WFD). 27,000 total deaf in Guinea (2014 IMB)
bkz Bungku Indonesia 27,000 (2000 census), increasing
tid Tidong Indonesia 27,000 in Indonesia (2007 SIL)
akp Siwu Ghana 27,000 (2003)
bdp Bende Tanzania 27,000 (1999)
svk Slovakian Sign Language Slovakia 15,000 (2014 EUD). 27,000 (2014 IMB)
tda Tagdal Niger 26,900 (2000)
crw Chrau Viet Nam 7,000 (1995 census), decreasing. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 26,900 (2009 census)
akf Akpa Nigeria 26,900 (2000)
suq Suri Ethiopia 26,900 (2007 census), increasing. 18,700 monolinguals
gro Groma China 12,800 in China (1993). Population total all countries: 26,800
mkx Manobo, Kinamiging Philippines 26,700 (2000 census)
agq Aghem Cameroon 26,700 (2000), increasing
atd Manobo, Ata Philippines 26,700 (2000 census)
mmc Mazahua, Michoacán Mexico 26,600 (2000 INALI)
kzp Kaidipang Indonesia 26,600 (2000 census). Kaidipang 8,900, Bolaang Itang 17,700
puo Puoc Viet Nam 18,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 26,570
yaj Banda-Yangere Central African Republic 26,500 (1996)
buo Terei Papua New Guinea 26,500 (2003 SIL)
sfb French Belgian Sign Language Belgium 4,000 (2014 EUD). 4,000 sign language users (2014 EUD). 26,500 (2014 IMB)
fse Finnish Sign Language Finland 5,000 (2006 Institute for the Languages of Finland–KOTUS). 5,000 deaf and 10,000 hearing signers (2006 Institute for the Languages of Finland–KOTUS). 5,000 deaf signers (2014 EUD). 26,500 (2014 IMB)
god Godié Côte d’Ivoire 26,400 (1993 SIL)
abx Inabaknon Philippines 26,400 (2010 M. Jacobson). Population increases 300–500 yearly. About 500 leave annually to find opportunities elsewhere. 3,000 monolinguals. Almost all children
bdh Baka South Sudan 25,000 in South Sudan (1993 UBS). Population total all countries: 26,300
mlf Mal Laos 23,200 in Laos (1995 census). Population total all countries: 26,200
fie Fyer Nigeria 26,100 (2000)
eky Kayah, Eastern Myanmar 8,000 in Myanmar (2007). Population total all countries: 26,000
srm Saramaccan Suriname 23,000 in Suriname (1995 SIL). 1,000 Matawari. Population total all countries: 26,000
tvo Tidore Indonesia 26,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). L2 users: 20,000
gnd Zulgo-Gemzek Cameroon 26,000 (2002 SIL)
bag Tuki Cameroon 26,000 (1982 SIL), increasing
ksv Kusu Democratic Republic of the Congo 26,000 (Welmers 1971)
cde Chenchu India 26,000 (2007)
shp Shipibo-Conibo Peru 26,000 (2003 SIL)
lln Lele Chad 26,000 (1991 UBS)
lel Lele Democratic Republic of the Congo 26,000 (Welmers 1971)
cni Asháninka Peru 26,000 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 26,000 (2000 SIL)
ipi Ipili Papua New Guinea 26,000 (2002 SIL), increasing. 13,000 monolinguals
kpb Kurumba, Mullu India 26,000 (2004 survey). 25,000 in Wayanad; 1,000 in Gudalur of Nilgiri
ojg Ojibwa, Eastern Canada 25,900 (1998 census)
kgp Kaingang Brazil 18,000 (1989 SIL). Ethnic population: 25,900
muh Mündü South Sudan 23,000 in South Sudan. Population total all countries: 25,800
har Harari Ethiopia 25,800 (2007 census). 20,000 in Addis Ababa, outside Harar City (Hetzron 1997). 2,350 monolinguals. L2 users: 7,770
jeh Jeh Viet Nam 15,200 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 25,800
mes Masmaje Chad Ethnic population: 25,700 (1993 census)
nkb Naga, Khoibu India 25,600 (2001). Ethnic population: 25,600
brm Barambu Democratic Republic of the Congo 25,600 (1990 census)
frc French, Cajun United States 25,600 (2010 census), decreasing
ksy Kharia Thar India 25,000 (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 25,500 (2007 SIL)
fod Foodo Benin 24,500 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 25,500
myc Mayeka Democratic Republic of the Congo 21,000 (2004). Ethnic population: 25,500 (2000)
asv Asoa Democratic Republic of the Congo 25,500 (2000)
oke Okpe Nigeria 25,400 (2000)
gig Goaria Pakistan 25,400 (2000)
kdm Kagoma Nigeria 25,400 (2000)
tmc Tumak Chad 25,200 (1993 census)
wec Wè Western Côte d’Ivoire 25,200 (1998 SIL). 20,000 Kaoro (1995 SIL)
lmy Lamboya Indonesia 25,000 (Grimes et al. 1997)
pip Pero Nigeria 25,000 (1995 CAPRO)
sch Sakachep India 25,000 (2003)
jum Jumjum Sudan 25,000 in Sudan (1987)
bnu Bentong Indonesia 25,000 (1987 SIL)
zil Zialo Guinea 25,000 (2010 V. Vydrin)
gwa Mbato Côte d’Ivoire 25,000 (1993 SIL)
shv Shehri Oman 25,000 (1993 census)
tct T’en China 20,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 25,000 (2000 D. Bradley)
laa Subanen, Southern Philippines 25,000 (1978 SIL)
kdu Kadaru Sudan 25,000 (2013 T. Alaki and R. Norton)
grh Gbiri-Niragu Nigeria 25,000 (2000), increasing
glo Galambu Nigeria 25,000 (2006)
lda Kla-Dan Côte d’Ivoire 25,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2001 V. Vydrin)
aol Alor Indonesia 25,000 (Grimes et al. 1997)
kcr Katla Sudan 25,000 (2009). Population for Julud
cib Gbe, Ci Benin 25,000 (2002 SIL)
btu Batu Nigeria 25,000
jak Jakun Malaysia Ethnic population: 25,000 (2008 JHEOA)
lbm Lodhi India 25,000 (2007 survey)
afo Eloyi Nigeria 25,000 (2000 SIL)
txe Totoli Indonesia 25,000 (Himmelmann 2001)
esu Yupik, Central United States 10,000 (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 25,000 (Dorais 2010)
bix Bijori India 25,000 (1998 GRN)
gah Alekano Papua New Guinea 25,000 (1999 SIL), increasing
unz Kaili, Unde Indonesia 25,000 (2007 SIL), increasing
kxy Kayong Viet Nam 25,000 (Bradley 2007)
abn Abua Nigeria 25,000 (Faraclas 1989)
fli Fali Nigeria 25,000 (2010 Z. Yoder et al.). 5,500 in the language area; 5,000 outside, many of whom return each summer
cpa Chinantec, Palantla Mexico 25,000 (2007 SIL). 1,500 monolinguals
nkt Nyika, Tanzania Tanzania 25,000 (2007)
hmb Songhay, Humburi Senni Mali 15,000 in Mali (1999 J. Heath). Population total all countries: 25,000
ndk Ndaka Democratic Republic of the Congo 25,000 (1994 SIL)
nte Nathembo Mozambique 25,000 (2006)
ndb Kenswei Nsei Cameroon 25,000 (2008 SIL)
dbq Daba Cameroon 24,000 in Cameroon (2007). Population total all countries: 25,000
kqr Kimaragang Malaysia Ethnic population: 25,000 (2007 SIL)
cfa Dikaka Nigeria 25,000 (1998)
bse Wushi Cameroon 25,000 (2008 SIL)
nqk Ede Nago, Kura Benin 25,000 (2002 SIL)
mhp Malay, Balinese Indonesia 25,000 (2000 census)
tvt Naga, Tutsa India 25,000 (2001). 12,500 monolinguals
nsu Nahuatl, Sierra Negra Mexico 25,000 (2006 SIL). 16,000 monolinguals
pot Potawatomi United States 50 in United States (1995 Potawatomi Language Institute). 50 L1 speakers in the United States and Canada, most in the United States. Ethnic population: 25,000 (1997 L. Buszard-Welcher). L2 users: 250 L2 learners
tea Temiar Malaysia 15,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 24,900 (2008 JHEOA)
mbm Ombamba Congo 15,100 (2000). Population total all countries: 24,800
iya Iyayu Nigeria 24,700 (2000)
dbu Dogon, Bondum Dom Mali 24,700 (1998 J. Durieux)
nfu Mfumte Cameroon 24,700 (1982 SIL)
pny Pinyin Cameroon 24,600 (2001 SIL), increasing
peh Bonan China 6,000. Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 24,500. Includes 16,500 Jishishan and 8000 Tongren
dsl Danish Sign Language Denmark 5,000 in Denmark (2007). 24,500 (2014 IMB)
tii Tiene Democratic Republic of the Congo 24,500 (1977 SIL)
bbw Baba Cameroon 24,500 (2005 SIL)
nnj Nyangatom Ethiopia 24,300 (2007 census). 13,800 monolinguals. L2 users: 120
smd Sama Angola 24,200 (2000)
akw Akwa Congo 24,100 (2000)
sqk Albanian Sign Language Albania 3,000 (Hoyer 2007). 15,000 deaf in Albania, 24,100 worldwide (2014 IMB)
xml Malaysian Sign Language Malaysia 24,000
wbh Wanda Tanzania 24,000 (1987)
bwy Bwamu, Cwi Burkina Faso 24,000 (1999 SIL)
sle Sholaga India 24,000 (2006 IMB)
tor Banda, Togbo-Vara Democratic Republic of the Congo 12,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984 census). Population total all countries: 24,000
moh Mohawk Canada 540 in Canada (2011 census). Population total all countries: 3,540. Ethnic population: 24,000 (1999 SIL). L2 users: Several hundred L2 speakers
nsf Nisu, Northwestern China 24,000 (2004 SIL). 7,000 in Yunlong, 7,000 in Yangbi, 8,000 in Yongping districts (2004)
beb Bebele Cameroon 24,000 (Welmers 1971)
doe Doe Tanzania 24,000 (1987)
qvo Quechua, Napo Lowland Peru 10,000 in Peru (2009). Population total all countries: 24,000
mgz Mbugwe Tanzania 24,000 (1999)
avn Avatime Ghana 24,000 (2003). L2 users: Understood somewhat as L2 by speakers of nearby languages
kep Kaikadi India 23,700 (2001 census)
jun Juang India 23,700 (2001 census). 0 monolinguals
tkr Tsakhur Azerbaijan 13,000 in Azerbaijan (1989 census). Population total all countries: 23,673. Ethnic population: 13,300 (1989 census)
cou Wamey Senegal 18,400 in Senegal (2007), decreasing. Population total all countries: 23,670
nki Naga, Thangal India 23,600 (2001). Ethnic population: 23,600
bff Bofi Central African Republic 23,500 (1996)
sjg Assangori Chad 23,500 (1993 census)
shq Sala Zambia 23,500 (2010 census)
lip Sekpele Ghana 23,400 (2003)
mbc Macushi Brazil 16,500 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Population total all countries: 18,030. Ethnic population: 23,400 (2001 FUNASA)
lra Bakati’, Rara Malaysia 11,300 in Malaysia (2000). Population total all countries: 23,300
anm Anal India 23,200 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 23,250
mfd Mendankwe-Nkwen Cameroon 23,100 (2001 SIL). 10,200 Mendankwe, 12,900 Nkwen
cjv Chuave Papua New Guinea 23,100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
lbf Tinani India 22,600 in India (2001). Population total all countries: 23,050
bcw Bana Cameroon 23,000 (2007 SIL). 14,000 Gamboura and 9,000 Guili
prh Porohanon Philippines 23,000
dbr Dabarre Somalia 23,000 (2006)
bws Bomboma Democratic Republic of the Congo 23,000 (1983 census)
jer Jere Nigeria 23,000 (1972 SIL). 7,000 Boze, 2,350 Gusu, 2,000 Bunu, 3,500 Panawa
ymh Mili China 23,000 (2002)
jii Jiiddu Somalia 23,000 (2006)
ald Alladian Côte d’Ivoire 23,000 (1993 SIL)
llc Lele Guinea 23,000 (1998 B. Willits). 12,000 in Kissidougou Prefecture and 11,000 in Guekedou
xma Mushungulu Somalia 23,000 (2006)
tqo Toaripi Papua New Guinea 23,000 (1977 SIL)
tqq Tunni Somalia 23,000 (2006)
mmy Migaama Chad 20,000 (2000 W. Chesley). 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 23,000 (1991 census)
bld Bolango Indonesia 23,000 (Sneddon and Usup 1986). Atinggola 16,000, Bolango 7,000
bof Bolon Burkina Faso 17,000 in Burkina Faso (1998 SIL). Population total all countries: 22,920
sli Silesian, Lower Poland 12,000 in Poland. Population total all countries: 22,900
kuf Katu, Western Laos 22,800 (2005 census)
ikk Ika Nigeria 22,800 (2000)
wae Walser Switzerland 10,000 in Switzerland (2004). Population total all countries: 22,780. Ethnic population: 21,900 (1980 C. Buchli)
lup Lumbu Gabon 19,700 in Gabon (2000). Population total all countries: 22,720
cim Cimbrian Italy 2,230. 500 in Lusernese Cimbrian in Trentino Alto Oolige 40 km southeast from Trento, plus 1,500 Sette Comuni Cimbrian (40% of Roana (Rowan), 70% of Messaselva di Roana Rotzo) in Veneto around 60 km north of Vicenza (Kloss 1978), and 230 or 65% of Giazza (Ijetzan) Veneto, 43 km northeast of Verona (1992 R. Zamponi). 22,700 were in Sieben Gemeinde and 12,400 in Dreizehn Gemeinde in 1854
tmw Temuan Malaysia Ethnic population: 22,700 (2008 JHEOA)
bsc Oniyan Senegal 13,300 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 22,510
gim Gimi Papua New Guinea 22,500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
kbo Keliko South Sudan 10,000 in South Sudan (1998 SIL). Population total all countries: 22,500
usi Usoi Bangladesh 22,400
ndq Ndombe Angola 22,300 (2000)
aoc Pemon Venezuela 5,000 in Venezuela (2001 V. Becsky). Population total all countries: 6,010. Ethnic population: 22,300
nng Naga, Maring India 22,300 (2001 census)
nkn Nkangala Angola 22,300 (2000)
tsa Tsaangi Congo 13,600 in Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 22,210
yax Yauma Angola 17,100 in Angola (2000). Population total all countries: 22,200
gaj Gadsup Papua New Guinea 22,100 (2000 census)
aoe Angal Enen Papua New Guinea 22,000 (1995 UBS)
inb Inga Colombia 18,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Dispersed in various regions; adopted commerce as a survival strategy (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 22,000
wan Wan Côte d’Ivoire 22,000 (1993 UBS)
mgs Manda Tanzania 22,000 (2002)
dzl Dzalakha Bhutan 22,000 (2011 SIL)
vkl Kulisusu Indonesia 22,000 (Mead 1999), increasing
ptu Bambam Indonesia 22,000 (Strømme 1987)
udu Uduk Sudan 22,000 in Sudan and South Sudan (split between the two not known)
nsl Norwegian Sign Language Norway 2,500 (2014 EUD). 4,000 (Van Cleve 1986). 5,000 (2010 Norwegian Association of the Deaf). 2,500 sign language users (2014 EUD). 22,000 deaf (2014 IMB)
nmg Kwasio Cameroon 9,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 22,000. L2 users: Some speakers of neighboring languages also use Kwasio (2011 SIL)
ngn Ngwo Cameroon 22,000 (2004 SIL)
plj Polci Nigeria 22,000 (1995 CAPRO). 2,000 Zul (1995), 4,000 Buli (1993), 400 Langas (1993), 15,000 Polci, 250 Baram (1993), 800 Dir (1993)
ggw Gogodala Papua New Guinea 22,000 (2004 SIL)
rei Reli India 22,000 (2001 census)
kyv Kayort Nepal 22,000 (2002)
mtl Montol Nigeria 21,900 (1990)
khn Khandesi India 21,900 (2001 census)
soy Miyobe Benin 7,000 in Benin (1991). Population total all countries: 21,900
naj Nalu Guinea 13,000 in Guinea (Johnstone 1993). Population total all countries: 21,830
eve Even Russian Federation 5,660 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 21,800 (2010 census)
byh Bhujel Nepal 21,700 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,200 (Regmi 2007)
kgo Krongo Sudan 21,700 (Stevenson 1984)
mho Mashi Zambia 18,800 in Zambia (2010 census). Population total all countries: 21,630
tnv Tangchangya Bangladesh 21,600 (1991 census)
ukp Ukpe-Bayobiri Nigeria 21,500 (2013 SIL)
ghe Ghale, Southern Nepal 21,500 (2006 SIL)
bmv Bum Cameroon 21,400 (2001 SIL), increasing
blw Balangao Philippines 21,300 (2000), decreasing. 0 monolinguals
kfm Khunsari Iran 21,100 (2000)
atn Ashtiani Iran 21,100 (2000)
ygr Yagaria Papua New Guinea 21,100 (1982 SIL)
bkp Boko Democratic Republic of the Congo 21,000
kuz Kunza Chile No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 21,000 (2002 census)
avi Avikam Côte d’Ivoire 21,000 (1993 SIL)
vut Vute Cameroon 20,000 in Cameroon (1997 L. Lode). 300 in Banyo (1995 B. Connell). Population total all countries: 21,000
gum Guambiano Colombia 21,000 (Civallero 2008), increasing. 2,100 monolinguals
lwa Lwalu Democratic Republic of the Congo 21,000 (Welmers 1971)
cwb Maindo Mozambique 21,000 (2006)
ngs Gvoko Nigeria 20,000 in Nigeria (1990). Population total all countries: 21,000
tvs Taveta Kenya 21,000 (2009 census), increasing
pmb Pambia Democratic Republic of the Congo 21,000 (1982 SIL)
dgd Dagaari Dioula Burkina Faso 21,000 (1999 SIL)
ypb Phowa, Labo China 17,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 21,000
jiu Jinuo, Youle China 10,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: All Jinuo: 20,900 (Bradley 2007)
jiy Jinuo, Buyuan China 1,000 (1994). Most monolingual. Ethnic population: All Jinuo: 20,900 (Bradley 2007)
ign Ignaciano Bolivia 4,500 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 20,800 (Adelaar 2004). Includes Trinitario [trn]
trn Trinitario Bolivia 5,500 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 20,800 (2000 W. Adelaar). 20,800 includes the Ignaciano [ign]
zaz Zari Nigeria No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 20,700 (2000 CAPRO). 20,000 Zakshi (1995 CAPRO), 1,000 Boto (Gunn 1953)
tdh Thulung Nepal 20,700 in Nepal (2011 census). Thulung communities also in Bhojpur and Sankhuwasabha districts, scattered in Udayapur, Morang, Panchthar, and Ilam districts. Migrants may not speak Thulung as L1. A few elderly monolinguals
krr Kru’ng 2 Cambodia 20,700 (2008 census)
dtb Kadazan, Labuk-Kinabatangan Malaysia Ethnic population: 20,600 (2000 SIL). 14,000–16,000 Labuk (1987 SIL); 7,000–8,000 Sungai (1982 SIL)
qur Quechua, Chaupihuaranga Peru 20,500 (1972 census), decreasing. 8,200 monolinguals
boh Boma Democratic Republic of the Congo 20,500 (2000)
ybh Yakkha Nepal 19,600 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 20,410. Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 17,000
nhh Nahari India 20,400 (2000)
srh Sarikoli China 16,000 (2000 G. Erqing). Ethnic population: 20,400 (2000 G. Erqing)
xuo Kuo Chad 12,300 in Chad (2011 SIL). Population total all countries: 20,250
mfx Melo Ethiopia 20,200 (1994 census). 13,700 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 20,200 (1994 census). L2 users: 4,660
nzs New Zealand Sign Language New Zealand 20,200 (2013 census)
apw Apache, Western United States 14,000 (Golla 2007). 6,000 on San Carlos, 7,000 on Fort Apache Reservation (White Mountain Apache Tribe); smaller numbers at Tonto, Camp Verde, and Fort McDowell reservations (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 20,200 (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2007). L2 users: Several dozen L2 speakers, mostly children and a few older whites
goj Gowlan India 20,200 (2000)
zim Mesme Chad 20,100 (1993 census)
xsn Sanga Nigeria 20,100 (2000). 1,600 Bujiyel (1995 CAPRO)
caf Carrier, Southern Canada 500 (1987 SIL). 2,060 identified in 2001. Census does not separate Babine [bcr], Central Carrier [crx], and Southern Carrier. All Athapaskan L1 speakers in Canada 20,100 (1998 census)
dnk Dengka Indonesia 20,000 (2002 UKAW)
pea Indonesian, Peranakan Indonesia 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
jmx Mixtec, Western Juxtlahuaca Mexico 20,000 in Mexico (2005 census). Coicoyan Municipality: 6,150 speakers (2005). San Martin Peras Municipality: 10,000 speakers, plus 2,000 in Santa Cruz Yucucani, 2,000 in San José Yoxocaño. 9,000 monolinguals (2005 census). Coicoyan Municipality: 3,520 monolinguals (2005). San Martin Peras Municipality: 4,820 monolinguals
wlw Walak Indonesia 20,000 (2007 P. Seow)
lrk Loarki Pakistan 20,000 (1998)
dni Dani, Lower Grand Valley Indonesia 20,000 (1996 SIL)
kli Kalumpang Indonesia 20,000 (2012 S. Samboy)
lrt Malay, Larantuka Indonesia 20,000 (2007)
oua Tagargrent Algeria 20,000 (2014)
ots Otomi, Estado de México Mexico 20,000 (2010 SIL). 440 monolinguals
dna Dani, Upper Grand Valley Indonesia 20,000 (1996)
atg Ivbie North-Okpela-Arhe Nigeria 20,000 (1973 SIL)
dun Dusun Deyah Indonesia 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
ojb Ojibwa, Northwestern Canada 20,000 (2000 UBS)
ayz Mai Brat Indonesia 20,000 (1987 SIL)
bsf Bauchi Nigeria 20,000 (Blench 1988)
lae Pattani India 11,000 (1997). Ethnic population: 20,000 (2002). L2 users: 5,000 (1997)
brv Bru, Western Thailand 20,000 in Thailand (1991)
suv Puroik India 20,000 (2011 SIL)
kij Kilivila Papua New Guinea 20,000 (2000 D. Tryon). 12,000 monolinguals
bwp Mandobo Bawah Indonesia 20,000 (2002 SIL)
skh Sikule Indonesia 20,000
skn Subanon, Kolibugan Philippines 20,000 (1998 SIL). L2 users: Non-Kolibugan Subanon spouses
trv Taroko China–Taiwan 20,000 (2008 R. Covell)
kfc Konda-Dora India 20,000 (2007 WFA)
tnw Tonsawang Indonesia 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing
bmg Bamwe Democratic Republic of the Congo 20,000 (1983 census)
bij Vaghat-Ya-Bijim-Legeri Nigeria 20,000 (2003)
bjm Bajelani Iraq 20,000 (1976 S. Sara)
biz Baloi Democratic Republic of the Congo 20,000 (2002)
bms Kanuri, Bilma Niger 20,000 (2003)
bmt Biao Mon China 20,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
szn Sula Indonesia 20,000 (1983 SIL)
tbo Tawala Papua New Guinea 20,000 (2000 census)
tmm Tai Thanh Viet Nam 20,000 (2002)
siz Siwi Egypt 20,000 in Egypt (2013)
sho Shanga Nigeria 6,000 (2012 R. Jones). Ethnic population: 20,000 (2010 R. Jones). There is ethnic Shanga population speaking Hausa [hau] in Shanga, Dugu Tsofo, and some other villages in Kebbi State between Kaoje and Yauri, Niger river, both sides
awc Cicipu Nigeria 20,000 (1995 CAPRO)
llg Lole Indonesia 20,000 (2002 UKAW). Ethnic population: 20,000
quw Quichua, Tena Lowland Ecuador 20,000 (1999 SIL)
csq Croatia Sign Language Croatia 12,000 (2010 Croatian Association of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing). 12,000 signers out of 20,000 deaf (2010 Croatian Association of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing). 13,000 (2014 Union of Deaf of Zagreb). 17,500 (2014 IMB)
quf Quechua, Lambayeque Peru 20,000 (1998 SIL)
kjz Bumthangkha Bhutan 20,000 (2011 SIL)
umm Umon Nigeria 20,000 (1995)
lmd Lumun Sudan 15,000 (2014 SIL). Home area population 9,500 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 20,000 (2014 SIL)
kka Kakanda Nigeria 20,000 (1989 R. Blench)
txq Tii Indonesia 20,000 (2002 UKAW)
twy Tawoyan Indonesia 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
kcq Kamo Nigeria 20,000 (1995 CAPRO)
sdf Sarli Iraq Fewer than 20,000
sdm Semandang Indonesia 20,000 (2004 M. Connor)
tss Taiwan Sign Language China–Taiwan 20,000 (2004), decreasing
cdy Chadong China 20,000 (Li Jinfang 2006)
cho Choctaw United States 10,400 (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 20,000 (Golla 2007). In Oklahoma
bac Badui Indonesia 20,000 (2000 census). 12,000 in Kenekes village area
kje Kisar Indonesia 20,000 (1995 SIL)
kjd Kiwai, Southern Papua New Guinea 9,700 (Wurm 1975). 3,800 in Coast, 1,000 in Daru, 4,500 in Island Kiwai, 400 in Doumori. Several sources estimate current population now in excess of 20,000 (2011 SIL)
ppk Uma Indonesia 20,000 (1990 M. Martens), increasing. 15,000 in the region, 5,000 outside (1990 SIL), 500 in Benggaulu
dos Dogosé Burkina Faso 20,000 (1991 O. Balagassina)
kna Dera Nigeria 20,000 (1973 SIL)
kod Kodi Indonesia 20,000
mky Makian, East Indonesia 20,000. 18,000 or more in East Makian, 2,000 or more in Kayoa (1983 SIL)
kug Kupa Nigeria 20,000 (1998 R. Blench)
ndz Ndogo South Sudan 20,000 (2011 SIL). Few monolinguals
jek Jeri Kuo Côte d’Ivoire 1,500 (1990 R. Kastenholz). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1990 R. Kastenholz)
eso Estonian Sign Language Estonia 1,500 (Paales 2011). 4,500 users out of 1,600 deaf and 20,000 hearing impaired. 2,000 persons need regular help from interpreters (1998 U. Sutrop). 1,500 signers (2014 Estonian Deaf Association). 6,300 (2014 IMB)
mnz Moni Indonesia 20,000 (1991 SIL)
yay Agwagwune Nigeria 20,000 (1973 SIL)
ags Esimbi Cameroon 20,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL), increasing
fal Fali, South Cameroon 20,000 (1982 SIL)
xvi Kamviri Afghanistan 18,000 in Afghanistan (2011), increasing. Population total all countries: 20,000. 3,600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 18,000
hch Huichol Mexico 17,800 (2000 INALI). Ethnic population: 20,000
hks Hong Kong Sign Language China–Hong Kong 20,000 (2007)
moa Mwan Côte d’Ivoire 20,000 (2012 V. Vydrin)
mct Mengisa Cameroon 20,000 (1979 SIL), decreasing
hla Halia Papua New Guinea 20,000 (1994 SIL), increasing
nhx Nahuatl, Isthmus-Mecayapan Mexico 20,000 (1994 SIL)
kqp Kimré Chad 20,000 (2007 A. Oumounabidji)
mfg Mogofin Guinea 20,000 (2012 V. Vydrin)
mma Mama Nigeria 20,000 (1973 SIL)
acz Acheron Sudan 20,000 (2006 R. Norton). 9,830 speakers in home area (2006 R. Norton)
ers Ersu China 20,000 (Shearer and Sun Hong Kai 2002), decreasing. Eastern Ersu (Ersu) 13,000, Central Ersu (Duoxu) 10 or less, Western Ersu (Lizu) 4,000
zos Zoque, Francisco León Mexico 20,000 (1990 census)
nat Cahungwarya Nigeria 20,000 (2003 SIL)
yiu Awu China 20,000 (2002)
mio Mixtec, Pinotepa Nacional Mexico 20,000 (1990 census). 2,200 monolinguals
xmg Mengaka Cameroon 20,000 (1993 SIL)
enn Engenni Nigeria 20,000 (1980 UBS)
efe Efe Democratic Republic of the Congo 20,000 (1991 SIL)
mcr Menya Papua New Guinea 20,000 (1998 SIL)
mir Mixe, Isthmus Mexico 20,000 (1990 SIL)
klr Khaling Nepal 14,500 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 20,000
nas Naasioi Papua New Guinea 20,000 (2007 SIL)
wsk Waskia Papua New Guinea 20,000 (2007 SIL)
kst Winyé Burkina Faso 20,000 (1999 SIL). Most are monolingual
zyp Chin, Zyphe Myanmar 17,000 in Myanmar (1994). Population total all countries: 20,000
gis Giziga, North Cameroon 20,000 (1982 SIL)
gic Gail South Africa No known L1 speakers. L2 users: 20,000
lbn Lamet Laos 19,800 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 19,932
evh Uvbie Nigeria 19,800 (2000)
une Uneme Nigeria 19,800 (2000)
dhi Dhimal Nepal 19,300 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 19,750. Ethnic population: 19,500. L2 users: 410 in Nepal (1991 census)
guu Yanomamö Venezuela 15,700 in Venezuela (2000). Population total all countries: 19,700
dox Bussa Ethiopia 19,700 (2007 census). 10,500 Mashola. 4,960 monolinguals. L2 users: 920
jic Tol Honduras 350 (1997). Ethnic population: 19,600 (1990 Educación Comunitaria para la Salud-Honduras). 19,000 in Yoro Department
cnb Chin, Chinbon Myanmar 19,600 (1983 census)
lbk Bontok, Central Philippines 19,600 (2007 census)
ndd Nde-Nsele-Nta Nigeria 19,500 (1987). 12,000 Nde, 3,000 Nsele, 4,500 Nta
tsp Toussian, Northern Burkina Faso 19,500 (1995 SIL). 1,000 in Wenteene dialect, 18,500 in the other dialects
gub Guajajára Brazil 13,100 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 19,500 (2006 FUNASA)
zaw Zapotec, Mitla Mexico 19,500 (1983 SIL). 4,500 in Matatlán (1983 SIL). 190 monolinguals
wib Toussian, Southern Burkina Faso 19,500 in Burkina Faso (1995 SIL)
khz Keapara Papua New Guinea 19,400 (2000 D. Tryon)
cje Chru Viet Nam 19,300 in Viet Nam (2009 census)
mzl Mixe, Mazatlán Mexico 19,200 (2000)
yrl Nhengatu Brazil 10,300 in Brazil (2005 FOIRN). Population total all countries: 19,060. L2 users: Mostly a creole spoken by several ethnic groups as L2 in Upper Rio Negro region
bhv Bahau Indonesia 19,000 (2007 SIL)
oso Ososo Nigeria 19,000 (2000)
lig Ligbi Ghana 15,000 in Ghana (2003 GILLBT). Population total all countries: 19,000
dup Duano Indonesia 15,000 in Indonesia (2006 SIL). Population total all countries: 15,600. Ethnic population: Total ethnic population all countries: 19,000 (2006 E. Seidlitz)
hur Halkomelem Canada 260 in Canada (FPCC 2014). 990 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Population total all countries: 285. Ethnic population: 19,000 (FPCC 2014)
azo Awing Cameroon 19,000 (2001 SIL)
biu Biete India 19,000 (IMA 1997)
tsk Tseku China 12,600 (2000). Population total all countries: 19,000
dmb Dogon, Mombo Mali 19,000 (1998 SIL)
moi Mboi Nigeria 19,000 (1992)
mek Mekeo Papua New Guinea 19,000 (2003 SIL)
kev Kanikkaran India 19,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 19,000
ndy Lutos Central African Republic 17,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 18,980
pau Palauan Palau 14,800 in Palau (2000). Population total all countries: 18,950
maa Mazatec, San Jerónimo Tecóatl Mexico 18,900 (2000 INALI). 4,000 in state of Puebla. 3,780 monolinguals
nge Ngemba Cameroon 18,800 (2002 SIL)
tlu Tulehu Indonesia 18,800 (1987 SIL)
bda Bayot Senegal 16,100 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 18,790
hra Hrangkhol India 18,700 (2000), decreasing
mks Mixtec, Silacayoapan Mexico 18,700 in Mexico (2000). 1,500 monolinguals (1990 census)
nhm Nahuatl, Morelos Mexico 18,700 (2000 census). 300 monolinguals
mjo Malankuravan India 18,600 (2001 census). 260 in Kerala, 18,300 in Tamil Nadu
age Angal Papua New Guinea 18,600 (2000)
xom Komo Sudan 10,000 in Sudan (1979 W. James). Population total all countries: 18,530
kie Kibet Chad 18,500 (Bender 1983)
zay Zaysete Ethiopia 18,500 (2007 census). 10,200 Zayse, 7,600 Zergulla. Speakers are shifting from Zergulla to Zayse (Dimmendaal 2007). 3,000 monolinguals
ntr Delo Ghana 10,900 in Ghana (2003), increasing. Population total all countries: 18,400
wmh Waima’a East Timor 18,400 (2012 census)
wum Wumbvu Gabon 18,300 in Gabon (2000)
rav Sampang Nepal 18,300 (2011 census), decreasing. Phali dialect spoken by a few elderly speakers. 0 monolinguals
hrk Haruku Indonesia 18,200 (1989 SIL)
mxj Miju-Mishmi India 18,000 in India (2006 Arunachal Tourism). Population total all countries: 18,200
mfh Matal Cameroon 18,000 (1982 SIL)
agu Awakateko Guatemala 18,000 (1998 SIL)
kzr Karang Cameroon 17,000 in Cameroon (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Population total all countries: 18,000. Very few monolinguals
tsb Tsamai Ethiopia 18,000 (2007 census). 5,300 monolinguals. L2 users: 1,200
mpx Misima-Panaeati Papua New Guinea 18,000 (2002 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals
kcf Ukaan Nigeria 18,000 (1973 SIL)
snc Sinaugoro Papua New Guinea 18,000 (2000 census)
mtn Matagalpa Nicaragua No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 18,000 (1981 MARC)
lex Luang Indonesia 18,000 (1995 SIL). 200 monolinguals
kgk Kaiwá Brazil 18,000 (2003 ISA)
szb Ngalum Indonesia 10,000 in Indonesia (1987 SIL). Population total all countries: 18,000
kiz Kisi Tanzania 10,200 (2001). Ethnic population: 18,000
bdi Burun Sudan 18,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
sab Buglere Panama 18,000 (2012 SIL)
odu Odual Nigeria 18,000 (1989)
ren Rengao Viet Nam 18,000 (Bradley 2007)
lut Lushootseed United States 10 (Watanabe and Sasama 2007), decreasing. Population evenly divided between the northern and southern dialects. Ethnic population: 18,000 (Golla 2007). L2 users: Several L2 speakers, some quite fluent
vaf Vafsi Iran 18,000 (2003)
dow Doyayo Cameroon 18,000 (1985 Église Évangélique Lutherienne du Cameroun)
jwi Jwira-Pepesa Ghana 18,000 (2003 GILLBT)
itt Itneg, Maeng Philippines 18,000 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 18,000
rnw Rungwa Tanzania 18,000 (1987)
kvf Kabalai Chad 17,900 (1993 census)
alu ’Are’are Solomon Islands 17,900 (1999 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals
krp Korop Nigeria 10,200 in Nigeria (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Population total all countries: 17,640
kgn Karingani Iran 17,600 (2000)
hal Halang Viet Nam 13,500 in Viet Nam (2000). Population total all countries: 17,500
gbg Gbanziri Central African Republic 14,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 17,500
maj Mazatec, Jalapa de Díaz Mexico 17,500 (2000 INALI). 4,030 monolinguals
hji Haji Indonesia 17,500 (2000 census). Very few monolinguals
vsi Moldova Sign Language Moldova 17,500 total signing deaf in Moldova in all sign languages (2014 IMB)
pbg Paraujano Venezuela 20 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 17,400 (Crevels 2007)
jrt Jorto Nigeria 17,300 (2000)
pcw Pyapun Nigeria 17,300 (2000)
ysy Sanie China 8,000 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 17,200 (Bradley 2007)
alp Alune Indonesia 17,200 (2000)
bwe Karen, Bwe Myanmar 17,200 (1997 F. Bennett), decreasing. 0 monolinguals
nhi Nahuatl, Zacatlán-Ahuacatlán-Tepetzintla Mexico 17,100 (2007 SIL)
msw Mansoanka Guinea-Bissau 15,500 in Guinea-Bissau (2006). Population total all countries: 17,100
tlt Teluti Indonesia 17,000 (1989 SIL)
szg Sengele Democratic Republic of the Congo 17,000 (2002)
yzk Zokhuo China 13,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 17,000
bwg Barwe Mozambique 17,000 in Mozambique (2006)
ghk Karen, Geko Myanmar 17,000 (Manson 2010)
sos Seeku Burkina Faso 17,000. 5,000 in the northern dialect (4 villages), 12,000 in the southern (7 villages)
dkx Mazagway Cameroon 17,000 (1997)
nhb Beng Côte d’Ivoire 17,000 (1993 SIL)
mxu Mada Cameroon 17,000 (1982 SIL)
tbm Tagbu Democratic Republic of the Congo 17,000 (2002)
huh Huilliche Chile 2,000 (1982 SIL). Ethnic population: 17,000. On the outer Island of Cholé
bfj Bafanji Cameroon 17,000 (2008 SIL)
for Fore Papua New Guinea 17,000 (1991 SIL)
pgg Pangwali India 17,000 (1997)
llu Lau Solomon Islands 16,900 (1999 SIL)
mlk Kiwilwana Kenya 16,800 (2009 census), increasing
kvi Kwang Chad 16,800 (1993 census). 10,000 or more Kwang, 2,000 Mobou, 250 Aloa
muv Muthuvan India 16,800 (2006 IMB)
sie Simaa Zambia 16,700 (2010 census). 1,980 Imilangu, 9,300 Koma, 2,870 Mwenyi, 2,530 Simaa
npo Naga, Pochuri India 16,700 (2001 census)
ull Ullatan India No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 16,700 (2001 census)
kvl Kayaw Myanmar 16,600 (1983 census)
ttg Tutong Brunei 16,600 (2006 SIL)
ayg Ginyanga Togo 16,500 (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Ethnic population: 12,500
kcu Kami Tanzania 16,400 (2000), decreasing
gnh Lere Nigeria Ethnic population: 16,300 (2000). Possibly few speakers left
alf Alege Nigeria 16,300 (2013 SIL)
ape Bukiyip Papua New Guinea 16,200 (2003 SIL)
tpm Tampulma Ghana 16,000 (2003)
fll Fali, North Cameroon 16,000 (1982 SIL)
fuu Furu Democratic Republic of the Congo 12,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984 census). Population total all countries: 16,000
htu Hitu Indonesia 16,000 (1987 SIL)
abz Abui Indonesia 16,000
bga Gwamhi-Wuri Nigeria 16,000 (2000)
akg Anakalangu Indonesia 16,000
ldp Tso Nigeria 16,000 (1992 CAPRO)
vmc Mixtec, Juxtlahuaca Mexico 16,000 (1990 census). 5,500 monolinguals
yog Yogad Philippines 16,000 (1990 census)
ter Terêna Brazil 15,800 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 16,000 (2001)
nuu Ngbundu Democratic Republic of the Congo 16,000 (1984 census)
rug Roviana Solomon Islands 9,870 (1999 SIL). L2 users: 16,000 (1987 UBS)
ctp Chatino, Western Highland Mexico 16,000 (2000 INALI). 6,000 monolinguals (1990 census)
bvi Belanda Viri South Sudan 16,000 (Welmers 1971)
ghl Ghulfan Sudan 16,000 (Stevenson 1984), decreasing. 0 monolinguals
ncx Nahuatl, Central Puebla Mexico 16,000 (1998 SIL). 1,430 monolinguals
llx Lauan Fiji 16,000 (Geraghty and Pawley 1981)
had Hatam Indonesia 16,000 (1993 TEAM)
krs Gbaya South Sudan 16,000 in South Sudan (2013 SIL). L2 users: 4,000 in South Sudan
yec Yeniche Germany 16,000 in Germany (2006)
zsl Zambian Sign Language Zambia 14,400 (2008 WFD). 14,400 deaf signers out of 16,000 total deaf (2008 World Federation of the Deaf)
nlc Nalca Indonesia 16,000 (2013 R. Doriot)
naf Nabak Papua New Guinea 16,000 (1994 SIL)
ybl Yukuben Nigeria 15,000 in Nigeria (1992). Population total all countries: 15,950
bgr Chin, Bawm India 4,440 in India (2004). Population total all countries: 15,940
ckt Chukchi Russian Federation 5,100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 15,900 (2010 census)
nhd Guaraní, Ava Paraguay 2,060 in Paraguay (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Population total all countries: 15,900. Ethnic population: 6,920 (Crevels 2007)
bsy Bisaya, Sabah Malaysia Ethnic population: 15,800 (2000)
tto Ta’oih, Lower Laos 15,800 (2000)
poq Popoluca, Texistepec Mexico 100 (Adelaar 2007). Ethnic population: 15,800 (1990 census)
ksz Kodaku India 15,700 (1991 census)
shb Ninam Brazil 800 in Brazil (2010 C. Luz). About evenly divided between northern and southern dialects. 15,700 for all Yanomam groups in Brazil (2006 FUNASA). Population total all countries: 900. Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,200 ( C. Luz)
dbg Dogon, Dogul Dom Mali 15,700 (1998 J. Durieux)
kul Kulere Nigeria 15,600 (1990)
pmt Tuamotuan French Polynesia 4,000 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 15,600. In Tuamotu islands; many also on Tahiti
kzt Dusun, Tambunan Malaysia Ethnic population: 15,600 (2000)
dhv Drehu New Caledonia 13,000 (2009), increasing. 60% live in greater Nouméa. Population figure adapted from 2009 census figure of 15,586 includes many second language speakers
hoo Holoholo Democratic Republic of the Congo 15,500 (2002)
ril Riang Myanmar 12,500 in Myanmar (2008). Population total all countries: 15,500
gsl Gusilay Senegal 15,400 (2006)
kia Kim Chad 15,400 (1993 census)
kyc Kyaka Papua New Guinea 15,400 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
isu Isu Cameroon 15,400 (1993 SIL), increasing
mxd Modang Indonesia 15,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
wiu Wiru Papua New Guinea 15,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
tlp Totonac, Filomena Mata-Coahuitlán Mexico 15,100 (2000)
kyn Binukidnon, Northern Philippines 15,100 (2000)
phg Phuong Viet Nam 15,100 (2000)
gun Guaraní, Mbyá Brazil 6,000 in Brazil (2008 CTI). Population total all countries: 15,050. Most children, women and elders are monolingual (Crevels 2007)
ain Ainu Japan 10 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 15,000
ymx Muji, Northern China 9,000 (Pelkey 2011). Ethnic population: 15,000
bhy Bhele Democratic Republic of the Congo 15,000 (1989)
ylo Naluo China 15,000 (Bradley 2007). Mostly in Yunnan, with about 2,000 in Pingjiang and Futian townships of Panzhihua (Bradley 2007)
yli Yali, Angguruk Indonesia 15,000 (1991 J. Wilson)
agn Agutaynen Philippines 15,000 (2007 SIL)
zac Zapotec, Ocotlán Mexico 15,000 (1993 SIL)
krd Kairui-Midiki East Timor 15,000 (2010 census)
kpf Komba Papua New Guinea 15,000 (2000 SIL)
kmh Kalam Papua New Guinea 15,000 (1991 SIL)
uta Otank Nigeria 15,000 (2006 SIL)
amw Western Neo-Aramaic Syria 15,000 (1996). 8,000 in Maaloula
krx Karon Senegal 9,000 in Senegal (2007), increasing. Population total all countries: 15,000. A few hundred elderly monolinguals
kyb Kalinga, Butbut Philippines 15,000 (2008), increasing. 1,000 monolinguals
bdb Basap Indonesia 15,000 (2007 SIL)
kmq Kwama Ethiopia 15,000 (1982 SIL)
xkz Kurtokha Bhutan 15,000 (2011 SIL)
seg Segeju Tanzania 7,000, decreasing. Ethnic population: 15,000
nyp Nyang’i Uganda 20 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 15,000 (2002 census)
lss Lasi Pakistan 15,000 (1998)
mdk Mangbutu Democratic Republic of the Congo 15,000 (1991 SIL). 1,200 Andinai
nfd Ahwai Nigeria 15,000 (2006 M. Rueck, K. Hannelová, and Z. Yoder)
mvm Muya China 10,000 (Bradley 2007), decreasing. 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 15,000 (Bradley 2007)
clj Chin, Laitu Myanmar 15,000 (2007 SIL)
rro Waima Papua New Guinea 15,000 (2000 census)
lhm Lhomi Nepal 810 in Nepal (2011 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 3,130. Ethnic population: 15,000
nxa Nauete East Timor 15,000 (2010 census)
nsv Nisu, Southwestern China 15,000 (2007), decreasing
bte Gamo-Ningi Nigeria No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 15,000 (Crozier 1992)
gdb Gadaba, Pottangi Ollar India 15,000 (2002 M. Kurian). 4,000–7,000 in Koraput District, Pottangi block (1995)
mqb Mbuko Cameroon 15,000 (2008 SIL), increasing
lfa Lefa Cameroon 15,000 (2010 SIL)
snl Sangil Philippines 15,000 (1996 SIL)
clt Chin, Lautu Myanmar 15,000 (2005 SIL)
cnw Chin, Ngawn Myanmar 15,000 (1984)
mwq Chin, Müün Myanmar 15,000 (2011)
prf Paranan Philippines 15,000 (2009 J. Lobel)
pfe Peere Cameroon 15,000 in Cameroon (1993)
loa Loloda Indonesia 15,000 (1991 SIL). 2,000 Bakun
nco Sibe Papua New Guinea 6,000 (2011 SIL), increasing. 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 15,000. L2 users: Outsiders who intermarry with Sibe speakers
gey Enya Democratic Republic of the Congo 15,000 (2000)
kak Kallahan, Kayapa Philippines 15,000 (1991 UBS), increasing
pys Paraguayan Sign Language Paraguay 15,000 (2009 L. Parks), increasing
gpa Gupa-Abawa Nigeria 15,000 (1989). 10,000 or more Gupa, 5,000 Abawa
cod Cocama-Cocamilla Peru 250 in Peru (Crevels 2007). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 15,000 (Crevels 2007)
gou Gavar Cameroon 15,000 (2010 SIL)
quv Sakapulteko Guatemala 15,000 (2006 M. Schwartz)
mwl Mirandese Portugal 15,000 (2000). 10,000 use it regularly, 5,000 when they return to the area. 2,000 Sendinese in Sendim Vila
mbb Manobo, Western Bukidnon Philippines 15,000 (2008 SIL). Ethnic population: 15,000
stg Trieng Viet Nam 15,000 (2002)
grd Guruntum-Mbaaru Nigeria 15,000 (1993)
bla Blackfoot Canada 3,250 in Canada (2011 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 3,350. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 15,000
lul Olu’bo South Sudan 15,000 (1985 SIL)
enw Enwan Nigeria 15,000 (1998 B. Connell)
ila Ile Ape Indonesia 15,000 (2008 census)
tby Tabaru Indonesia 15,000 (1991 SIL)
etb Etebi Nigeria 15,000 (1989)
heg Helong Indonesia 14,000 (Grimes et al. 1997). Ethnic population: 15,000
bnm Batanga Equatorial Guinea 9,000 in Equatorial Guinea (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001), decreasing. Population total all countries: 15,000. Very few monolinguals
nlx Nahali India 15,000 (2003)
brl Birwa Botswana 15,000 in Botswana (2004 R. Cook)
bqx Baangi Nigeria 15,000 (1996)
hle Hlersu China 15,000 (2007), decreasing
sva Svan Georgia 15,000 (2000 A. Kibrik). Ethnic population: 15,000 (2000 A. Kibrik)
dry Darai Nepal 11,700 (2011 census), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 14,900
syk Sukur Nigeria 14,800 (1992)
zpf Zapotec, San Pedro Quiatoni Mexico 14,800 (2000)
mej Meyah Indonesia 14,800 (2000)
skb Saek Laos 3,730 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 14,730
kmm Kom India 14,700 (2001 census)
mbi Manobo, Ilianen Philippines 14,600 (2000). Few monolinguals
pid Piaroa Venezuela 14,500 in Venezuela (2001 census). 2,200 urban; 12,300 rural. Population total all countries: 14,580. Ethnic population: 14,500
gnb Gangte India 14,500 (2001 census)
lls Lithuanian Sign Language Lithuania 8,000 (2014 EUD). 14,500 (2014 IMB)
ldm Landoma Guinea 14,400 (Vanderaa 1991)
plw Palawano, Brooke’s Point Philippines 14,400 (2000)
pug Phuie Burkina Faso 14,300 (2000)
arh Arhuaco Colombia 8,000 (2009 P. Frank). 7,200 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 14,300
qxl Quichua, Salasaca Highland Ecuador 14,300 (2000). 3,580 monolinguals. Children 0–5 and older adults
duu Drung China 14,000 in China (2000 census). 8,500 in Nu River dialect, 5,500 in Dulong River dialect. Total population all countries: 14,000. Population total all countries: 14,225. 13,300 monolinguals. L2 users: Other speakers living among them use Drung as L2
mop Maya, Mopán Belize 9,200 in Belize (2006). Population total all countries: 14,200
mic Micmac Canada 8,040 in Canada (2011 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 8,270. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 14,200 (1998 SIL). 1,500 are in mainland Nova Scotia, 4,000 on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, 800 on Prince Edward Island and Lennox Island, 4,550 on the east coast of New Brunswick, 3,150 on the Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec, 200 in Newfoundland
ehu Ehueun Nigeria 14,200 (2000)
dya Dyan Burkina Faso 14,100 (Vanderaa 1991)
gek Ywom Nigeria 14,100 (2000)
uku Ukue Nigeria 14,100 (2000)
swp Suau Papua New Guinea 6,800 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 680 monolinguals. L2 users: 14,000
mzq Mori Atas Indonesia 14,000 (1988 D. Mead)
env Enwan Nigeria 14,000 (2006)
kfd Koraga, Korra India 14,000 (2007 census)
bqh Baima China 10,000 (Bradley 2007). Older adults and a few middle aged are monolingual. Ethnic population: 14,000 (Bradley 2007)
mcs Mambai Cameroon 12,000 in Cameroon (2011 E. Anonby). Population total all countries: 14,000
srg Sulod Philippines 14,000 (1980 SIL)
naw Nawuri Ghana 14,000 (2003 GILLBT), increasing
bid Bidiyo Chad 14,000 (Jungraithmayr 1981)
xmz Mori Bawah Indonesia 14,000 (1988 D. Mead)
kks Giiwo Nigeria 14,000 (1998 SIL)
iyo Mesaka Cameroon 14,000 (1982 SIL)
csv Chin, Sumtu Myanmar 14,000 (2007 SIL)
riu Riung Indonesia 14,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
hme Miao, Eastern Huishui China 14,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
uhn Damal Indonesia 14,000 (Wurm 2000)
cpy Ashéninka, South Ucayali Peru 13,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 14,000 (2002 SIL)
fuy Fuyug Papua New Guinea 14,000 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 14,000
hmw Miao, Western Mashan China 14,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
bgj Bangolan Cameroon 14,000 (2008 census)
cwa Kabwa Tanzania 14,000 (2011 SIL)
cbw Kinabalian Philippines 14,000 (2009 J. Lobel)
cag Nivaclé Paraguay 13,700 in Paraguay (2007 R. Perik). Population total all countries: 13,920
lgr Lengo Solomon Islands 13,800 (1999 SIL). 13,600 Lengo and 160 Ghaimuta
kjm Kháng Viet Nam 13,800 (2009 census)
bnp Bola Papua New Guinea 13,700 (2000 census). 2,250 Harua
ong Olo Papua New Guinea 13,700 (2003 SIL)
too Totonac, Xicotepec de Juárez Mexico 3,000 (2000 SIL). 500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 13,700
pwm Molbog Philippines 6,680 in Philippines (1990 census). Population total all countries: 13,680. Ethnic population: 13,400. L2 users: Immigrants to Balabac Island
gal Galolen East Timor 13,000 in East Timor (2010 census). Population total all countries: 13,680
uha Uhami Nigeria 13,600 (2000)
yta Talu China 13,600 (2007), decreasing
bkw Bekwel Congo 9,600 in Congo (2003). Population total all countries: 13,600
agh Ngelima Democratic Republic of the Congo 13,600 (2000)
sbz Sara Kaba Central African Republic 13,600 (1996)
ghs Guhu-Samane Papua New Guinea 13,000 (2000 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 13,500
gbh Gbe, Defi Benin 13,500 (2002 SIL)
kxk Zayein Myanmar 9,300 (1983 census). Population including Lahta [kvt] and Zayein: 13,500 (Manson 2010)
unm Unami United States No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. 2000 census lists 310 who use it at home. Ethnic population: 13,500 (1997 J. Rementer). L2 users: A few L2 users with varying fluency
esi Inupiatun, North Alaskan United States All Inupiatun: 3,000 (includes [esk]) (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 6,420 (2000 census). May include Northwest Alaska Inupiatun [esk]. All Inupiatun: 13,500 (includes [esk]) (Golla 2007)
wme Wambule Nepal 13,500 (2011 census). A few elderly monolinguals
idt Idaté East Timor 13,500 (2010 census)
vag Vagla Ghana 13,500 (2003 GILLBT), increasing
dnn Dzùùngoo Burkina Faso 13,400 (1998 P. Solomiac). 4,020 monolinguals
apj Apache, Jicarilla United States 300 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 3,100 (Golla 2007). All Apache varieties: 13,270 (2000 census)
kcm Gula Central African Republic 13,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 13,200
ncr Ncane Cameroon 13,200 (2008 Misaje Council)
kwd Kwaio Solomon Islands 13,200 (1999 SIL)
hhr Kerak Senegal 13,200 (2006)
stu Samtao Myanmar 9,550 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 13,180
nne Ngandyera Angola 13,100 (2000)
kzg Kikai Japan Ethnic population: 13,100 (2000). Those under 20 are mainly monolingual in Japanese (1989 T. Fukuda)
ikv Iku-Gora-Ankwa Nigeria 13,000 (2006)
mvv Tagal Murut Malaysia Population total all countries: 2,000. Ethnic population: 13,000 (2000 SIL)
ymg Yamongeri Democratic Republic of the Congo 13,000 (2002)
neq Mixe, North Central Mexico 13,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 13,000 (2002 SIL)
nak Nakanai Papua New Guinea 13,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
hnn Hanunoo Philippines 13,000 (2000)
ksc Kalinga, Southern Philippines 13,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. 7,540 monolinguals. L2 users: Used by those intermarrying with local speakers and by outsiders living in the area
ypa Phala China 12,000 (Pelkey 2011). Ethnic population: 13,000
hba Hamba Democratic Republic of the Congo 13,000 (2002)
mcb Machiguenga Peru 5,910 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 13,000 (Crevels 2007)
yah Yazgulyam Tajikistan 9,000 (2010). Ethnic population: 13,000
yul Yulu Central African Republic 4,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 13,000
ypg Phola China 13,000 (Pelkey 2011). Ethnic population: 13,000
kwi Awa-Cuaiquer Colombia 12,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008), decreasing. Population total all countries: 13,000. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 13,000 (Crevels 2007)
soo Songo Democratic Republic of the Congo 13,000 (2002)
oro Orokolo Papua New Guinea 13,000 (1977 SIL)
sld Sissala Burkina Faso 13,000 (1991 SIL)
jku Labir Nigeria 500 (2008 E. Hannelova et al.), decreasing. Ethnic population: 13,000
deh Dehwari Pakistan 13,000 (1998)
tag Tagoi Sudan 13,000 (1982 SIL)
ldg Lenyima Nigeria 13,000 (2006)
fom Foma Democratic Republic of the Congo 13,000 (2002)
dok Dondo Indonesia 13,000 (Himmelmann 2001)
cra Chara Ethiopia 13,000 (2007 census). 5,560 monolinguals. L2 users: 670
kht Khamti Myanmar 8,000 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 13,000
kkq Kaiku Democratic Republic of the Congo 13,000 (2002)
teq Temein Sudan 13,000 (2006). 6,000 in home area villages; 7,000 in other towns in Sudan
ths Thakali Nepal 5,240 (2011 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 13,000 (2001 census). L2 users: 1,060 (1991 census)
doo Dongo Democratic Republic of the Congo 12,900 (2000)
ngt Ngeq Laos 12,900 (2005 census). 9,030 monolinguals
nou Ewage-Notu Papua New Guinea 12,900 (1988 SIL)
cjs Shor Russian Federation 2,840 (2010 census). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,900 (2010 census)
blh Kuwaa Liberia 12,800 (Vanderaa 1991)
sqs Sri Lankan Sign Language Sri Lanka 12,800 deaf persons (Van Cleve 1986)
nra Ngom Gabon 8,240 in Gabon (2000). Population total all countries: 12,770
pbp Badyara Guinea 6,300 in Guinea (1998 NTM). Population total all countries: 12,730
won Wongo Democratic Republic of the Congo 12,700 (2000)
kmk Kalinga, Limos Philippines 12,700 (2007 census), increasing. L2 users: Used by those intermarrying with local speakers and by outsiders living in the area
nuf Nusu China 12,000 in China (Bradley 2007). 2,000 Northern Nusu; 4,000 Southern; 6,000 Central. Population total all countries: 12,670. 1,000 monolinguals
moj Monzombo Congo 6,000 in Congo (Johnstone 1993). Population total all countries: 12,600
mjr Malavedan India Ethnic population: 12,600 (2001 census). Total population unknown. 6,190 in Kerala, 6,410 in Tamil Nadu (2001 census)
mlu To’abaita Solomon Islands 12,600 (1999 SIL)
ssn Waata Kenya 12,600 (2009 census), increasing
lih Lihir Papua New Guinea 12,600 (2000 census), increasing
yno Yong Thailand 12,600 (2000)
pcj Parenga India Ethnic population: 12,600 (2001 census). In Odisha
alo Larike-Wakasihu Indonesia 12,600 (1987 SIL)
ddo Dido Russian Federation 11,700 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,500 (2010 census)
buk Bugawac Papua New Guinea 12,000 (2011 W. Eckermann). 4,800 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,500
tlr Talise Solomon Islands 12,500 (1999 SIL). 5,940 in Talise, 2,090 in Moli, 4,490 in Koo
abm Abanyom Nigeria 12,500 (1986)
kmj Kumarbhag Paharia India 12,500 (Bhaskararao 2006)
wap Wapishana Guyana 6,000 in Guyana (2000 J. Forte). Population total all countries: 12,500. Ethnic population: 6,900 (Crevels 2007)
sxs Sasaru Nigeria 12,500 (2000)
aeu Akeu China 10,000 in China (2004 E. Johnson). Population total all countries: 12,400
lky Lokoya South Sudan 12,400. 0 monolinguals
tvl Tuvaluan Tuvalu 10,000 in Tuvalu (2015 S. Ager). Population total all countries: 12,380
kyg Keyagana Papua New Guinea 12,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
mns Mansi Russian Federation 940 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,300 (2010 census)
xtn Mixtec, Northern Tlaxiaco Mexico 12,300 (2000 INALI). 1,600 monolinguals
amo Amo Nigeria 12,300 (2000)
sys Sinyar Chad 12,300 (2000)
yaq Yaqui Mexico 11,800 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Population total all countries: 12,230
bzd Bribri Costa Rica 11,000 (2002). Ethnic population: 12,200 (2000)
kzs Dusun, Sugut Malaysia Ethnic population: 12,200 (2000)
gri Ghari Solomon Islands 12,100 (1999 SIL). 7,110 Ghari, 950 Gae, 3,020 Ndi, 490 Nginia, 550 Tandai-Nggaria
moc Mocoví Argentina 3,000 (2011 E. Zugasti). A few elderly monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,100 (2004 INDEC)
knz Kalamsé Burkina Faso 9,570 in Burkina Faso (1985 census). Population total all countries: 12,070
lcm Tungag Papua New Guinea 12,000 (1990 SIL)
qum Sipakapense Guatemala 8,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 12,000 (2000 E. Kindberg)
tdj Tajio Indonesia 12,000 (Himmelmann 2001)
ybk Bokha China 10,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 12,000
noz Nayi Ethiopia 7,190 (2007 census). 1,140 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,000 (Dimmendaal 2007). L2 users: 1,880
zsr Zapotec, Southern Rincon Mexico 12,000 (1990 census)
lmi Lombi Democratic Republic of the Congo 12,000 (1993 SIL)
lbc Lakkia China 9,000 (Bradley 2007). 4,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,000 (Bradley 2007)
nii Nii Papua New Guinea 12,000 (1991 SIL)
nhr Naro Botswana 8,000 in Botswana (2014 H. Visser). Population total all countries: 12,000. L2 users: Speakers of other Khoisan languages in Ghanzi District
zpc Zapotec, Choapan Mexico 12,000 (2007 SIL)
yin Yinchia Myanmar 12,000 (2008), decreasing
mnx Manikion Indonesia 12,000 (1987 SIL)
tiq Tiéfo Burkina Faso 1,000 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 12,000 (1995 SIL)
vaa Vaagri Booli India 9,300 (2007). Ethnic population: 12,000 (2007)
plv Palawano, Southwest Philippines 12,000 (2005 W. Davis)
moz Mukulu Chad 12,000 (1990 SIL)
vmz Mazatec, Mazatlán Mexico 12,000 (2000 INALI). 1,440 monolinguals
mqs Makian, West Indonesia 12,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). 7,000 on Makian Island, 5,000 on Kayoa Islands
syi Seki Gabon 1,000 in Gabon (Idiata 2007). Population total all countries: 12,000
otx Otomi, Texcatepec Mexico 12,000 (1990 census). 3,000 monolinguals. 25% of monolinguals are 5 to 9 years old
zau Zangskari India 12,000 (2000)
szw Sawai Indonesia 12,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals
ogu Ogbronuagum Nigeria 12,000 (2000 E. Kari). Ethnic population: 12,000 (2000 E. Kari)
rgu Rikou Indonesia 12,000 (2011)
yai Yagnobi Tajikistan 12,000 (2004 SIL)
mbz Mixtec, Amoltepec Mexico 5,630 (2000 INALI). 500 monolinguals (2005 census). Ethnic population: 12,000
gha Ghadamès Libya 10,000 in Libya (2006). Population total all countries: 12,000
cjo Ashéninka Pajonal Peru 12,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 12,000 (2002 SIL)
bqt Bamukumbit Cameroon 12,000 (2008 SIL)
cek Chin, Eastern Khumi Myanmar 12,000 (2009 SIL)
gix Gilima Democratic Republic of the Congo 12,000 (1984 census)
gox Gobu Democratic Republic of the Congo 12,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984 census)
gld Nanai Russian Federation 1,350 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 1,390. Ethnic population: 12,000 (2010 census)
bbt Mburku Nigeria 12,000 (2000)
epi Epie Nigeria 12,000 (1973 SIL)
doa Dom Papua New Guinea 12,000 (1994 NTM)
cua Cua Viet Nam 12,000 (Bradley 2007)
biw Kol Cameroon 12,000 (2007 B. Henson). 1,000 in Bikeng
bfc Bai, Panyi China 12,000 (2005)
cpu Ashéninka, Pichis Peru 12,000 (2001 SIL)
dus Dumi Nepal 7,640 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,000
bec Iceve-Maci Cameroon 7,000 in Cameroon (1990). Population total all countries: 12,000
cbt Chayahuita Peru 7,870 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 12,000 (Crevels 2007)
atq Aralle-Tabulahan Indonesia 12,000 (1984 SIL)
ibm Agoi Nigeria 12,000 (Faraclas 1989)
jow Jowulu Mali 10,000 in Mali (2002 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 11,000. Ethnic population: 12,000
icr Islander Creole English Colombia 12,000 (1981 SIL)
abb Bankon Cameroon 12,000 (2001 SIL)
ity Itneg, Moyadan Philippines 12,000 (2003 SIL)
cae Laalaa Senegal 12,000 (2007)
kdp Nikyob-Nindem Nigeria 12,000 (2008)
lcl Lisela Indonesia 11,900 (1989 SIL)
chp Dene Canada 11,900 (2011 census)
nlg Gela Solomon Islands 11,900 (1999 SIL)
kpc Curripaco Colombia 7,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 11,880. Ethnic population: 7,060 (Crevels 2007)
cte Chinantec, Tepinapa Mexico 11,800 (2000 INALI). 1,500 monolinguals
ani Andi Russian Federation 5,800 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 11,800 (2010 census)
jle Ngile Sudan 11,700 (Stevenson 1984). Including Dagik [dec] speakers
dec Dagik Sudan 11,700 including Ngile [jle] speakers (Stevenson 1984)
bhj Bahing Nepal 11,700 (2011 census)
wca Yanomámi Brazil 6,000 (Moore 2006). 11,700 for all Yanomam groups in Brazil (2000 ISA). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 9,000 (1994 SIL)
rmf Romani, Kalo Finnish Finland 10,000 in Finland (2001 census). Population total all countries: 11,650
nmj Ngombe Central African Republic 11,600 (2010 census)
wbk Waigali Afghanistan 11,500 (2011), increasing. 2,300 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 11,500
tnl Lenakel Vanuatu 11,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
rwo Rawa Papua New Guinea 11,500 (1998 SIL), increasing. 7,000 Rawa and 4,500 Karo
apb Sa’a Solomon Islands 11,500 (1999 SIL). 7,300 Sa’a, 3,300 Ulawa, and 920 Uki Ni Masi
sjw Shawnee United States 200 (2002 B. Pearson), decreasing. Ethnic population: 11,500 (Golla 2007). 2,000 members of the Absentee Shawnee Tribe around Shawnee town (more than 100 speakers); 1,500 members of Eastern Shawnee Tribe in Ottawa County (a few elderly speakers). 8,000 members of the Loyal Shawnee in Cherokee region of Oklahoma around Whiteoak (fewer than 12 speakers) (Golla 2007)
miy Mixtec, Ayutla Mexico 11,500 (2000 INALI). 3,000 monolinguals
kpk Kpan Nigeria 11,400 (2000)
bov Tuwuli Ghana 11,400 (2003 GILLBT)
akd Ukpet-Ehom Nigeria 11,400 (2000)
byp Bumaji Nigeria 11,400 (2000)
kcc Lubila Nigeria 11,400 (2000)
cfg Como Karim Nigeria 11,400 (2000)
dbi Doka Nigeria 11,400 (2000)
dbp Duwai Nigeria 11,400 (2000)
snw Selee Ghana 11,300 (2003 GILLBT)
bqj Bandial Senegal 11,200 in Senegal (2006), increasing
inj Inga, Jungle Colombia 11,200 (2007 OCIP)
kee Keres, Eastern United States 6,680 (Golla 2007). Includes 500 Zia speakers, 390 Santa Ana, 2,340 San Felipe, 2,850 Santo Domingo, 600 Cochiti (Golla 2007). 2000 census lists 11,200 as Keres. Ethnic population: 8,100 (Golla 2007). Includes 1,200 Cochiti, 2,600 San Felipe, 650 Santa Ana, 2,850 Santo Domingo, 800 Zia
bne Bintauna Indonesia 11,200 (2000 census)
kml Kalinga, Tanudan Philippines 11,200 (1998 SIL), increasing. 1,120 monolinguals. L2 users: Used by those intermarrying with local speakers and by outsiders living in the area
kjq Keres, Western United States 3,990 (Ichihashi-Nakayama, Yumitani, and Yamamoto 2007). Includes 1,930 Acoma, 2,060 Laguna (Ichihashi-Nakayama, Yumitani, and Yamamoto 2007); 2000 census lists 11,200 as Keres. Ethnic population: 10,700 (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2007). Includes 3,860 Acoma, 6,870 Laguna
car Carib Venezuela 4,450 in Venezuela (2001 census). Population total all countries: 7,358. Ethnic population: 11,200 (Crevels 2007)
oyb Oy Laos 11,200 (Bradley 2007). 8,960 monolinguals
anv Denya Cameroon 11,200 (1982 SIL), increasing
bve Malay, Berau Indonesia 11,200 (2007 SIL)
uba Ubang Nigeria 11,100 (2013 SIL)
auy Awiyaana Papua New Guinea 11,100 (2000)
ppl Pipil El Salvador 20 (1987). Ethnic population: 11,100 (2005 census)
clk Idu-Mishmi India 11,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 11,080. 2,200 monolinguals
osa Osage United States 10 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 11,000 (Golla 2007). L2 users: Many semi-speakers and L2 speakers (Golla 2007)
tim Timbe Papua New Guinea 11,000 (1991 SIL). 660 monolinguals. Women and older men
phh Phula Viet Nam 5,000 in Viet Nam (Pelkey 2008). Population total all countries: 10,000. Ethnic population: 11,000 (2009 census)
huv Huave, San Mateo del Mar Mexico 11,000 (2005 census). 1,550 monolinguals
bmu Somba-Siawari Papua New Guinea 9,000 (2000 census). 5,500 Somba, 4,500 Siawari. 1,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 11,000
aoj Mufian Papua New Guinea 11,000 (1998 SIL). 6,000 Filifita (1999 SIL)
kuh Kushi Nigeria 11,000 (1995 CAPRO)
grr Taznatit Algeria 11,000 in Algeria (2014 L. Souag)
zmw Mbo Democratic Republic of the Congo 11,000 (1994 SIL)
vem Vemgo-Mabas Nigeria 10,000 in Nigeria (1993). Population total all countries: 11,000
mfj Mefele Cameroon 11,000 (2002 SIL)
vif Vili Congo 7,310 in Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 11,000
mbw Maring Papua New Guinea 11,000 (1998 SIL)
bbe Bangba Democratic Republic of the Congo 11,000 (1993 SIL)
moe Montagnais Canada 11,000 (2011 census)
beu Blagar Indonesia 11,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
hna Mina Cameroon 11,000 (2000)
bzz Evant Nigeria 10,000 in Nigeria (1996 SIL). Population total all countries: 11,000
xem Kembayan Indonesia 11,000 (2007 SIL)
duc Duna Papua New Guinea 11,000 (1991 SIL)
lbt Lachi Viet Nam 5,000 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007). 3,990 women, in 1,450 households (Liang Min 1990), including Black Lachi 2,500 in 550 households, Long-Haired Lachi 4,500 in 900 households. 10,800 for all La Chi in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 5,200. Ethnic population: 7,860 (Bradley 2007)
noa Woun Meu Colombia 4,000 in Colombia (Aikhenvald 2007). Population total all countries: 10,800. Ethnic population: 7,970 (Crevels 2007)
bbq Bamali Cameroon 10,800 (2008 SIL)
mrn Cheke Holo Solomon Islands 10,800 (1999 SIL), increasing. 1,500 monolinguals
tch Turks and Caicos Creole English Turks and Caicos Islands 10,700 (1995), decreasing
cnl Chinantec, Lalana Mexico 10,700 (2000 INALI). 2,500 monolinguals
dim Dime Ethiopia 10,700 (2007 census), decreasing. L2 users: 530
fap Palor Senegal 10,700 (2007), decreasing
teh Tehuelche Argentina No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in the 1960s or 1970s (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 10,600 (2004 INDEC)
stp Tepehuan, Southeastern Mexico 10,600 (2005 census)
ptn Patani Indonesia 10,600 (2000)
xty Mixtec, Yoloxóchitl Mexico 10,600 (2000 INALI)
fax Fala Spain 10,500 (1994 T. Erickson). 5,500 in the language area; 5,000 outside, many of whom return each summer
nlk Yali, Ninia Indonesia 10,500 (1999 J. Wilson)
khj Kuturmi Nigeria 10,500 (2000)
udl Wuzlam Cameroon 10,500 (1982 SIL), increasing. Very few monolinguals
bzh Buang, Mapos Papua New Guinea 10,500 (2000). 3,150 monolinguals
dru Rukai China–Taiwan 10,500 (CIP-EY 2002). Some monolingual older adults. Ethnic population: 10,500
ojs Ojibwa, Severn Canada 10,500 (2001 census)
wls Wallisian Wallis and Futuna 9,620 in Wallis and Futuna (2000). Population total all countries: 10,400
kni Kanufi Nigeria 10,400 (2000)
zor Zoque, Rayón Mexico 2,100 (1990 census). 20 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 10,400 (1990 census)
acd Gikyode Ghana 10,400 (2003), increasing
btf Birgit Chad 10,400 (2000)
huy Hulaulá Israel 10,000 in Israel (1999 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 10,350
oog Ong Laos 10,300 (2000)
rai Ramoaaina Papua New Guinea 10,300 (2000 census), increasing
bjw Bakwé Côte d’Ivoire 10,300 (1993 SIL)
glu Gula Chad 10,300 (2000)
smt Simte India 10,200 (2001 census)
scp Helambu Sherpa Nepal 10,200 (2011 census). Very few monolinguals
spr Saparua Indonesia 10,200 (1989 SIL). 4,520 in Iha
hik Seit-Kaitetu Indonesia 10,200 (1987 SIL)
fwe Fwe Namibia 10,200 in Namibia (2006)
ndw Ndobo Democratic Republic of the Congo 10,200 (2000)
kyf Kouya Côte d’Ivoire 10,100 (1993 SIL)
ncb Nicobarese, Central India 10,100 (2001 census). 5,310 on Katchal, 3,410 on Kamorta, 930 on Nancowry, 430 on Trinket
myu Mundurukú Brazil 7,500 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 10,100 (2002 FUNASA)
cna Changthang India 10,100 (2000)
bot Bongo South Sudan 10,100 (2000)
amk Ambai Indonesia 10,100 (2000)
pez Penan, Eastern Malaysia 10,000 in Malaysia (2011 SIL). Population total all countries: 10,055
wkb Kumbaran India 10,000 (2004 NLCI)
wnk Wanukaka Indonesia 10,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
wdd Wandji Gabon 10,000 (Idiata 2007)
vin Vinza Tanzania 10,000 (1987)
vgr Vaghri Pakistan 10,000 (1998)
ghr Ghera Pakistan 10,000 (1998)
kyt Kayagar Indonesia 10,000 (1993 WT), decreasing
aot Atong India 4,600 in India. Population total all countries: 10,000
xao Khao Viet Nam 10,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
hca Andaman Creole Hindi India 10,000 (Singh 1994)
ano Andoque Colombia 370 (2007 B. Pencue), decreasing. 10,000 in 1908 (Landaburu 1979). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 520 (Crevels 2007)
xta Mixtec, Alcozauca Mexico 10,000 (1994 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals
mom Mangue Nicaragua No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 10,000 (1981 MARC)
mps Dadibi Papua New Guinea 10,000 (1988 SIL). 1,000 monolinguals
mvd Mamboru Indonesia 10,000 (2007)
kqz Korana South Africa No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 10,000 (1972 D. Barrett, M. Hronek, G. Mambo et al.)
ncd Nachering Nepal 10,000 (2011 census), decreasing
gho Ghomara Morocco 10,000 (2008 J. Hannouche)
ayi Leyigha Nigeria 10,000 (1989)
uda Uda Nigeria 10,000 (1988)
nkv Nyika Malawi 5,000 in Malawi (2007). Population total all countries: 10,000
sgi Suga Cameroon 10,000 (1985)
baw Bambili-Bambui Cameroon 10,000 (Dieu and Renaud 1983), increasing
nns Ningye Nigeria 10,000 (2008 K. Hannelova et al.)
nnn Ngete Chad 10,000 (1991 UBS)
nml Ndemli Cameroon 10,000 (Ngoran 1999)
ulb Ulukwumi Nigeria 10,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992)
kjy Erave Papua New Guinea 10,000 (2000 census)
neh Nyenkha Bhutan 10,000 (2006 Royal Government of Bhutan)
ndx Nduga Indonesia 10,000 (1985 M. Owen)
utr Etulo Nigeria 10,000 (1988 R. Shain)
ngw Ngwaba Nigeria 10,000 (1993 CAPRO)
usk Usaghade Cameroon 10,000 in Cameroon (1990 B. Connell)
njd Ndonde Hamba Tanzania 10,000 (2002 PBT)
nit Kolami, Southeastern India 10,000 (1989 F. Blair). 1,500 speakers of Naiki (Van Driem 2007)
hma Miao, Southern Mashan China 10,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995)
mkg Mak China 5,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley)
zpo Zapotec, Amatlán Mexico 10,000 (2000 SIL). 2,000 monolinguals
job Joba Democratic Republic of the Congo 10,000 (1989 SIL)
loo Lombo Democratic Republic of the Congo 10,000 (Welmers 1971)
aax Mandobo Atas Indonesia 10,000 (2002 SIL)
lur Laura Indonesia 10,000 (Grimes et al. 1997)
iyx Yaka Congo 10,000 (1988)
mbd Manobo, Dibabawon Philippines 10,000 (1978 SIL)
jaq Yaqay Indonesia 10,000 (1987 SIL)
lmk Lamkang India 10,000 (1999 census)
kbx Ap Ma Papua New Guinea 10,000 (2010 PBT)
kpw Kobon Papua New Guinea 10,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 4,000 monolinguals
lev Pantar, Western Indonesia 10,000. Ethnic population: 10,000
kps Tehit Indonesia 10,000 (2000 R. Hesse). 500 monolinguals
kci Kamantan Nigeria 10,000 (Barrett 1982)
ztx Zapotec, Zaachila Mexico 550 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 10,000 (1990 census)
lje Rampi Indonesia 10,000 (2006). 2,300 in South Sulawesi, 5,700 in Central Sulawesi
liz Libinza Democratic Republic of the Congo 10,000 (1986 SIL)
zoc Zoque, Copainalá Mexico 10,000 (1990 census)
ldj Lemoro Nigeria 10,000 (1998 CAPRO)
ygw Yagwoia Papua New Guinea 10,000 (2005 R. Westerveld). 1,500 Iwalaqamalje, 1,500 Gwase, 7,000 Hiqwaye, Hiqwase, Yeqwangilje
ibn Ibino Nigeria 10,000 (Faraclas 1989)
ymz Muzi China 10,000 (2008)
ibe Akpes Nigeria 10,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992)
ame Yanesha’ Peru 9,830 (2000). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 W. Adelaar)
nnz Nda’nda’ Cameroon 10,000 (1990 SIL)
mip Mixtec, Apasco-Apoala Mexico 10,000 (1990 SIL). 1,000 monolinguals (1990)
mih Mixtec, Chayuco Mexico 10,000 (1990 SIL). 950 monolinguals
ypn Phowa, Ani China 10,000 (Pelkey 2011). Ethnic population: 10,000
ikx Ik Uganda 7,500 (2011 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 10,000
iry Iraya Philippines 10,000 (1991 OMF)
mcq Ese Papua New Guinea 10,000 (2000 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals
mcm Malaccan Creole Portuguese Malaysia 2,150 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 10,000 (Bradley 2007). L2 users: Also spoken as L2 by some Chinese shopkeepers in Hilir
ino Inoke-Yate Papua New Guinea 10,000 (1993 SIL)
yva Yawa Indonesia 10,000 (2011 SIL)
mew Maaka Nigeria 10,000 (1993)
meq Merey Cameroon 10,000 (1982 SIL)
ldl Kaan Nigeria 10,000 (1992)
txa Tombonuo Malaysia Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 SIL). 3,000 Lingkabau
csy Chin, Siyin Myanmar 10,000 (1991 UBS)
tbw Tagbanwa Philippines 10,000 (2002 SIL). 500 monolinguals
kth Karanga Chad 10,000 (1999 SIL). 4,700 Karanga and 1,420 Bakha
kvy Yintale Myanmar 1,000 (2000 D. Bradley), decreasing. Wa Awng village is main village, with 100 households. Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley)
qvz Quichua, Northern Pastaza Ecuador 8,000 in Ecuador (2007), decreasing. Population total all countries: 10,000. 300 monolinguals
raa Dungmali Nepal 6,260 (2011 census), decreasing. 150 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 10,000
qxt Quechua, Santa Ana de Tusi Pasco Peru 10,000 (1993 SIL)
qxa Quechua, Chiquián Ancash Peru 10,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 4,000 monolinguals
bma Lame Nigeria 10,000 (1995 CAPRO)
tex Tennet South Sudan 10,000 (2009 SIL)
kwj Kwanga Papua New Guinea 10,000 (2001 SIL)
plo Popoluca, Oluta Mexico 120 (Adelaar 2007). Ethnic population: 10,000 (1990 census)
deq Dendi Central African Republic 10,000 (1996)
deg Degema Nigeria 10,000 (1999 SIL)
thc Tai Hang Tong Viet Nam 10,000 (2002)
dbj Ida’an Malaysia 10,000 (2013 SIL). Population includes 1,500 Begak
bbn Uneapa Papua New Guinea 10,000 (1998 SIL)
tbk Tagbanwa, Calamian Philippines 10,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 10,000
tal Tal Nigeria 10,000 (1973 SIL)
bvy Baybayanon Philippines 10,000 (2009 J. Lobel)
kvb Kubu Indonesia 10,000 (1989)
bvw Boga Nigeria 10,000 (Blench and Zeitlyn 1990)
sdb Shabak Iraq 10,000 (Blau 1989)
slf Swiss-Italian Sign Language Switzerland 300 (Boyes Braem 2010). 10,000 deaf signers in all of Switzerland (2014 EUD)
sgg Swiss-German Sign Language Switzerland 5,500 in Switzerland (Boyes Braem 2010). 10,000 deaf signers in all of Switzerland (2014 EUD)
byi Buyu Democratic Republic of the Congo 10,000 (2002)
spt Spiti Bhoti India 10,000 (2000)
sqo Sorkhei Iran 10,000 (2006 census)
rop Kriol Australia 4,200 (2006 census). L2 users: 10,000 (1991 SIL)
bpx Bareli, Palya India 10,000 (2000 V. Varkey)
tac Tarahumara, Western Mexico 10,000 (2000 INALI)
ckq Kajakse Chad 10,000 (Bender 1983)
ssr Swiss-French Sign Language Switzerland 1,700 (Boyes Braem 2010). 10,000 deaf signers in all of Switzerland (2014 EUD)
ryn Amami-Oshima, Northern Japan 10,000 (2004)
ssq So’a Indonesia 10,000 (1994)
ple Palu’e Indonesia 10,000 (Grimes et al. 1997)
bkk Brokskat India 10,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001)
ons Ono Papua New Guinea 10,000 (2011 SIL), increasing. Population increase due to Bakesu Revival Church activity. L2 users: 1,000 (Voegelin 1977). Spoken by 1,000 Nomu [noh] and Sialum [slw] (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
oks Oko-Eni-Osayen Nigeria 10,000 (Williamson 1989). 4,000 in Ogori, 3,000 in Magongo, 3,000 in Eni
bep Behoa Indonesia 10,000 (2007 SIL), increasing
ksq Kwaami Nigeria 10,000 (1990)
kxf Manumanaw Myanmar 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley)
otn Otomi, Tenango Mexico 10,000 (1990 census). 2,200 monolinguals (1990)
knp Kwanja Cameroon 10,000 (2011 LBT)
ksn Kasiguranin Philippines 10,000 (1975 SIL)
ogg Ogbogolo Nigeria 10,000 (1995)
nun Anong Myanmar 400 in Myanmar (2000 D. Bradley), decreasing. Population total all countries: 450. Ethnic population: 10,000 (Bradley 2007)
emb Embaloh Indonesia 10,000 (1991 NTM)
ttb Gaa Nigeria 10,000 (1997 R. Boyd)
nyr Nyiha, Malawi Malawi 10,000 (2007)
tsl Ts’ün-Lao Viet Nam 10,000 (1993 D. Van)
ofu Efutop Nigeria 10,000 (1973 SIL)
bcv Shoo-Minda-Nye Nigeria 10,000 (1973 SIL)
otr Otoro Sudan 10,000 (2001)
tli Tlingit United States 500 in United States (Golla 2007), decreasing. Population total all countries: 502. Ethnic population: 10,000 (1995 M. Krauss)
kwu Kwakum Cameroon 10,000 (2002 SIL)
phl Palula Pakistan 10,000 (Liljegren 2008). Population of Ashret and Biori Valleys is almost completely monolingual (Liljegren 2008). L2 users: Used and understood by many other-tongue speakers in Badrugal and Kalkatak
bis Bislama Vanuatu 10,000 in Vanuatu (2011), increasing. Ethnic population: 95% Melanesian. L2 users: Widely used by European and Asian expat residents, NGO’s and development agencies
dms Dampelas Indonesia 2,000 (Wurm 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 10,000 (Wurm 2007)
dgz Daga Papua New Guinea 9,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 4,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 10,000
bhs Buwal Cameroon 10,000 (2004 SIL), increasing
dgu Degaru India 10,000 (2000)
xte Ketengban Indonesia 9,970 (2000)
kxb Krobu Côte d’Ivoire 9,920 (1993 SIL)
kog Kogi Colombia 9,910 (2004 DNP). Nearly all monolingual
twm Monpa, Tawang India 8,600 in India. Population total all countries: 9,900
lsl Latvian Sign Language Latvia 2,000 (2014 EUD). 9,900 (2014 IMB)
bqg Bago-Kusuntu Togo 9,900 (Gblem-Poidi 2012)
shs Shuswap Canada 200 (FPCC 2014), increasing. 1,190 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 9,860 (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0 (Golla 2007)
gyr Guarayu Bolivia 5,930 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 9,860 (2006 PIB)
dma Duma Gabon 9,840 (2000)
chx Chantyal Nepal 4,280 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 9,820 (2001 census)
zmx Bomitaba Congo 9,600 in Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 9,820
yan Mayangna Nicaragua 8,000 in Nicaragua (Adelaar 2007). Population total all countries: 8,700. Ethnic population: 9,760 (2005 census)
mxt Mixtec, Jamiltepec Mexico 9,760 (2000 INALI). 1,300 monolinguals
buh Bunu, Younuo China 9,720 (McConnell 1995)
rbk Bontok, Northern Philippines 9,700 (2007 census)
zun Zuni United States 9,650 (2000 SIL), increasing. 2000 census lists 7,010 who use the language in the home. Few, if any, monolinguals (2000). Ethnic population: 9,650
xav Xavánte Brazil 9,600 (Moore 2006). 7,000 monolinguals
tja Tajuasohn Liberia 9,600 (Vanderaa 1991)
lbg Laopang Laos 9,550 (2000)
kvt Lahta Myanmar 9,550 (2000)
pcf Paliyan India 9,520 (2001 census)
gwt Gawar-Bati Afghanistan 8,000 in Afghanistan. Population total all countries: 9,500
mkk Byep Cameroon 9,500 (1988 SIL)
bna Bonerate Indonesia 9,500 (1987 SIL)
ztu Zapotec, Güilá Mexico 9,500 (1990 census). 2,300 monolinguals
llp Efate, North Vanuatu 9,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
jac Jakalteko Guatemala 9,000 in Guatemala (1990 SIL). Population total all countries: 9,500
cbi Chachi Ecuador 9,500 (2004)
crn Cora, El Nayar Mexico 9,480 in Mexico (2000 INALI)
nye Nyengo Angola 9,380 (2000)
crx Carrier Canada 680 (FPCC 2014). 1,380 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 9,350 (FPCC 2014)
aws Awyu, South Indonesia 9,340 (2002 SIL)
hub Huambisa Peru 9,330 (2000)
cjp Cabécar Costa Rica 8,840 (2000). 7,070 monolinguals. The only language in Costa Rica with monolingual speakers, mostly women (Adelaar 2007). Ethnic population: 9,310 (2000)
ybi Yamphu Nepal 9,210 (2011 census), decreasing
ney Neyo Côte d’Ivoire 9,200 (1993 SIL)
nui Kombe Equatorial Guinea 9,200 (2011 SIL). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 9,200
nsh Ngoshie Cameroon 9,200 (2001 SIL)
mix Mixtec, Mixtepec Mexico 9,170 in Mexico (2000 INALI). 2,500–3,000 located in Tlaxiaco (district head). 2,600 monolinguals (1990 census)
mav Sateré-Mawé Brazil 9,160 (2008 FUNASA)
koe Kacipo-Balesi South Sudan 5,000 in South Sudan (2010 SIL). Population total all countries: 9,120. Almost all monolingual
woo Manombai Indonesia 9,110 (2011 SIL)
lsd Lishana Deni Israel 7,500 (1999 H. Mutzafi). Ethnic population: 9,060
kos Kosraean Micronesia 8,000 in Micronesia (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 9,060
gea Geruma Nigeria 9,030 (2000)
sox Swo Cameroon 9,000 (1992 SIL)
gdi Gundi Central African Republic 9,000 (1988 census)
tsv Tsogo Gabon 9,000 (Idiata 2007)
iti Itneg, Inlaod Philippines 9,000 (2003 SIL)
zhb Zhaba China 7,800 (Genxia Wengmu and Hu Shujin 2008), decreasing. Many young monolingual speakers in Zhaba and Zhamai districts. Ethnic population: 9,000 (Gong 2007)
asc Asmat, Casuarina Coast Indonesia 9,000 (1991 SIL). 5,200 in Matia and 3,400 in Sapan
gmx Magoma Tanzania 9,000 (2003 SIL)
dir Dirim Nigeria 9,000 (1992)
wll Wali Sudan 9,000 (2007 SIL). Many monolinguals
whk Kenyah, Wahau Indonesia 8,000 in Indonesia (2007 A. Soriente), decreasing. Population total all countries: 9,000. 0 monolinguals
dgs Dogoso Burkina Faso 9,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL)
upv Uripiv-Wala-Rano-Atchin Vanuatu 9,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). 1,380 Atchin, 3,450 Uripiv-Wala-Rano
rtm Rotuman Fiji 9,000 (1991 UBS). 2,500 on Rotuma, 300 overseas (1990 J. Vamarasi)
bfw Bondo India 9,000 (2002 SIL). 5,570 Upper Bondo and 3,500 Lower Bondo. Few Lower Bondo are monolingual
ahi Aizi, Tiagbamrin Côte d’Ivoire 9,000 (1999 SIL)
snb Sebuyau Malaysia 9,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
aaa Ghotuo Nigeria 9,000 (1994)
pnc Pannei Indonesia 9,000 (1983)
khf Khuen Laos 8,000 in Laos (1995 L. Chazee). Population total all countries: 9,000
yut Yopno Papua New Guinea 9,000 (2010 SIL), increasing. 6,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 9,000
zkn Kanan Myanmar 9,000 (2007 SIL). 0 monolinguals
nqq Naga, Kyan-Karyaw Myanmar 9,000 (2012 SIL)
nhy Nahuatl, Northern Oaxaca Mexico 9,000 (1990 census). 1,400 monolinguals
cya Chatino, Nopala Mexico 8,940 (2000 INALI). 2,300 monolinguals
ded Dedua Papua New Guinea 6,500 (2000 census), increasing. No monolinguals above age 20. Ethnic population: 8,910
sha Shall-Zwall Nigeria 8,900 (2004)
bkj Pande Central African Republic 8,870 (2010 census)
bab Bainouk-Gunyuño Guinea-Bissau 8,860 (2006 World Factbook)
tgb Tobilung Malaysia Ethnic population: 8,850 (2007 A. Ripau)
dot Dass Nigeria 8,830. 1,130 Lukshi, 4,700 Durr-Baraza, 700 Wandi and Zumbul, 2,300 Dot (1971 census)
wiv Vitu Papua New Guinea 8,800 (1991 SIL)
bvc Baelelea Solomon Islands 8,800 (1999 SIL)
hkk Hunjara-Kaina Ke Papua New Guinea 8,770 (2000 census)
bmj Bote Nepal 8,770 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Ethnic population: 7,970
asl Asilulu Indonesia 8,760 (1987 SIL). L2 users: Spoken as L2 in northwest Ambon, north and west Seram, Manipa, Boano, and Kelang islands
blb Bilua Solomon Islands 8,740 (1999 SIL). L2 users: Used as L2
nen Nengone New Caledonia 8,720 (2009 census), increasing. 53% live in greater Nouméa
okx Okpe Nigeria 8,700 (2004)
nnd Ambae, West Vanuatu 8,700 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
tla Tepehuan, Southwestern Mexico 8,700 (2005 census)
cux Cuicatec, Tepeuxila Mexico 8,680 (2000 INALI). 850 monolinguals
aon Arapesh, Bumbita Papua New Guinea 4,340 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 8,680
bhx Bhalay India 8,670 (1981 census)
knw Kung-Ekoka Namibia 1,760 in Namibia (2000). Population total all countries: 8,660
dez Dengese Democratic Republic of the Congo 8,600 (2000)
mzi Mazatec, Ixcatlán Mexico 8,590 (2000 INALI). 1,980 monolinguals
uji Tanjijili Nigeria 8,540 (2000)
mgu Mailu Papua New Guinea 8,500 (2000 census)
mlw Moloko Cameroon 8,500 (1992 SIL)
com Comanche United States 100 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,500 (Golla 2007)
lcp Lawa, Western Thailand 8,000 (Nahhas 2007). Ethnic population: 8,500. L2 users: Some who marry into the community learn to speak it
mlr Vame Cameroon 8,500 (1992 SIL). Few monolinguals
mlz Malaynon Philippines 8,500 (1973 SIL)
cro Crow United States 3,000 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,500 (Golla 2007)
pyu Puyuma China–Taiwan 8,490 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 8,490
czn Chatino, Zenzontepec Mexico 8,490 (2000 INALI). 2,000 monolinguals
trj Toram Chad 8,460 (2000)
pog Potiguára Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 8,450 (2002)
ian Iatmul Papua New Guinea 8,440 (2003 SIL)
pls Popoloca, San Marcos Tlacoyalco Mexico 8,440 (2000 INALI)
stn Owa Solomon Islands 8,410 (1999 SIL)
kcv Kete Democratic Republic of the Congo 8,400 (2002)
kcw Kabwari Democratic Republic of the Congo 8,400 (2002)
bwl Bwela Democratic Republic of the Congo 8,400 (2002)
nlo Ngul Democratic Republic of the Congo 8,400 (2002)
ppp Pelende Democratic Republic of the Congo 8,400 (2002)
oml Ombo Democratic Republic of the Congo 8,400 (2002)
zmf Mfinu Democratic Republic of the Congo 8,400 (2002)
nyg Nyindu Democratic Republic of the Congo 8,400 (2002)
lie Likila Democratic Republic of the Congo 8,400 (2002)
nfl Äiwoo Solomon Islands 8,400 (1999 SIL), increasing
bwt Bafaw-Balong Cameroon 8,400 (1982 SIL)
zms Mbesa Democratic Republic of the Congo 8,400 (2002)
mee Mengen Papua New Guinea 8,400 (1982 SIL)
buy Bullom So Sierra Leone 8,350 in Sierra Leone (2006)
nbs Namibian Sign Language Namibia 8,310 (2008 WFD)
mib Mixtec, Atatláhuca Mexico 8,300 (1995 census). 440 monolinguals
eja Jola-Felupe Guinea-Bissau 6,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2012 SIL). Population total all countries: 8,230
aog Angoram Papua New Guinea 8,220 (2003 SIL)
nnu Dwang Ghana 8,200 (2003 GILLBT). 1,600 Bekye, 3,300 Kenyen, 3,300 Wiase
cqu Quechua, Chilean Chile 8,200 (2006)
orh Oroqen China 1,200 (Li Fengxiang and Whaley 2009). 30% of ethnic group (Salminen 2007). Only 12 fluent speakers in 1990, all over 65 yrs (Li Fengxiang and Whaley 2009). 800 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 8,200 (2000 census)
kup Kunimaipa Papua New Guinea 8,200 (2000 census)
sgb Ayta, Mag-antsi Philippines 8,200 (1992 SIL)
wnc Wantoat Papua New Guinea 8,200 (McElhanon 1978). 390 Bam (McElhanon 1978) and 490 Yagawak (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
lha Laha Viet Nam 5,690 (1999 census). Ethnic population: 8,180 (2009 census)
dee Dewoin Liberia 8,100 (Vanderaa 1991)
lor Téén Côte d’Ivoire 6,100 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Population total all countries: 8,100
pcn Piti Nigeria 8,100 (2013 SIL)
pxm Mixe, Quetzaltepec Mexico 8,090 (2000 INALI)
mvo Marovo Solomon Islands 8,090 (1999 SIL)
pta Pai Tavytera Paraguay 600 (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,030 (Crevels 2007)
loi Loma Côte d’Ivoire 8,010 (2000)
yak Yakama United States 25 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,000 (1977 SIL)
twq Tasawaq Niger 8,000 (1998 SIL)
mhb Mahongwe Gabon 8,000 (Idiata 2007)
txt Citak Indonesia 8,000 (1985 M. Stringer)
mxq Mixe, Juquila Mexico 8,000 (2002 SIL)
lmj Lembata, West Indonesia 8,000 (2008 census)
rnl Ranglong India 8,000 (2003 BI)
kqm Khisa Côte d’Ivoire 5,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 8,000
inl Indonesian Sign Language Indonesia 8,000 (2000)
pqa Pa’a Nigeria 8,000 (1995 CAPRO)
mmu Mmaala Cameroon 8,000 (2014 G. Boyd)
lwl Lawa, Eastern Thailand 7,000 (Nahhas 2007). Ethnic population: 8,000. L2 users: Some who marry into the community learn to speak it
vig Viemo Burkina Faso 8,000 (1995 SIL)
weh Weh Cameroon 8,000 (1993 SIL), increasing
gau Gadaba, Mudhili India 8,000 (2000 IICCC)
slu Selaru Indonesia 8,000 (2001 SIL)
bxb Belanda Bor South Sudan 8,000 (1983)
opm Oksapmin Papua New Guinea 8,000 (1991 SIL)
bwn Bunu, Wunai China 5,800 (Shearer and Sun Hong Kai 2002), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,000 (Bradley 2007)
aut Austral French Polynesia 3,000 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 8,000. L2 users: 2,000
awi Aekyom Papua New Guinea 8,000 (1987 UBS)
ify Kallahan, Keley-i Philippines 8,000 (2000 SIL). Only children under 5 are monolingual
dre Dolpo Nepal 1,670 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 8,000 (2010 K. Kopp)
kkx Kohin Indonesia 8,000 (2003)
gbz Dari, Zoroastrian Iran 8,000 (1999)
ojc Ojibwa, Central Canada 8,000 (2007 SIL)
avt Au Papua New Guinea 8,000 (2000 census). 1,600 monolinguals
gbj Gadaba, Bodo India 8,000 (2000 IICCC)
gaf Gende Papua New Guinea 8,000 (1987 SIL)
prn Prasuni Afghanistan 8,000 (2011), increasing. 1,600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 8,000
nbv Ngamambo Cameroon 8,000 (2002 SIL)
sak Sake Gabon 8,000 (Idiata 2007)
kcp Kanga Sudan 8,000 (1989)
bku Buhid Philippines 8,000 (1991 OMF)
gmm Gbaya-Mbodomo Cameroon 8,000 (1992)
pex Petats Papua New Guinea 2,000 (1975 SIL). L2 users: 8,000 (Voegelin 1977)
kgf Kube Papua New Guinea 7,500 (2000 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 8,000
zpe Zapotec, Petapa Mexico 8,000 (1990 census). 220 monolinguals
ypm Phuma China 8,000 (Pelkey 2011), increasing. Ethnic population: 8,000
fer Feroge South Sudan 8,000 (1982)
ypz Phuza China 6,000 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,000
chq Chinantec, Quiotepec Mexico 8,000 (1998). 1,750 monolinguals
lkh Lakha Bhutan 8,000 (Van Driem 1993)
ldo Loo Nigeria 8,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992)
kkf Monpa, Kalaktang India 8,000 (2005)
kmu Kanite Papua New Guinea 8,000 (1991 SIL)
plr Sénoufo, Palaka Côte d’Ivoire 8,000 (1995 SIL)
mtj Moskona Indonesia 8,000 (1996 SIL)
msy Aruamu Papua New Guinea 8,000 (1990 UBS)
ndl Ndolo Democratic Republic of the Congo 8,000 (1983 census)
kpq Korupun-Sela Indonesia 8,000 (1996 E. Young)
kti Muyu, North Indonesia 8,000 (2002 SIL)
kgq Kamoro Indonesia 8,000 (1987 SIL)
kpy Koryak Russian Federation 1,670 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,950 (2010 census)
mva Manam Papua New Guinea 7,950 (2003 SIL)
akv Akhvakh Russian Federation 210 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,930 (2010 census)
txn Tarangan, West Indonesia 7,910 (2011 SIL), increasing. 0 monolinguals. L2 users: Used as L2 on Aru Islands, especially to the south
dkr Kuijau Malaysia Ethnic population: 7,910 (2000)
xsy Saisiyat China–Taiwan 4,750 (CIP-EY 2002). Tungho: more active use. Taai: a few speakers; nearly assimilated into Atayal [tay]. Ethnic population: 7,900
yae Pumé Venezuela 7,900 (2001 census). 590 urban, 7,310 rural
njy Njyem Cameroon 4,400 in Cameroon (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the subdivision where the Njyem people are present, as of the official 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). Population total all countries: 7,900. 3,750 monolinguals
dlg Dolgan Russian Federation 1,050 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,890 (2010 census)
sbj Surbakhal Chad 7,890 (2000)
cpb Ashéninka, Ucayali-Yurúa Peru 7,000 in Peru (2001 SIL). Population total all countries: 7,870
mjv Mannan India 7,850 (2001 census). 7,760 in Kerala, 82 in Tamil Nadu
mjc Mixtec, San Juan Colorado Mexico 7,820 (2000 INALI). 1,890 monolinguals
app Apma Vanuatu 7,800 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
huu Huitoto, Murui Peru 1,000 in Peru (1995 SIL), decreasing. 1,130 Huitoto in Peru (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 7,800. Very few monolinguals
pnq Pana Burkina Faso 5,000 in Burkina Faso (1998). Population total all countries: 7,800
niu Niue Niue 2,030 in Niue (1998). Population total all countries: 7,767
ymr Malasar India 7,760 (2001 census)
bub Bua Chad 7,710 (1993 census)
alj Alangan Philippines 7,690 (2000)
nuk Nuu-chah-nulth Canada 130 (FPCC 2014). 200 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 7,680 (FPCC 2014)
dro Melanau, Daro-Matu Malaysia 7,600 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 4,800 Matu, 2,800 Daro
ahl Igo Togo 7,600 (Gblem-Poidi 2012). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,000
bob Aweer Kenya 7,600 (2009 census), increasing. 1,600 monolinguals
asj Sari Cameroon 7,600 (2008 SIL)
git Gitxsan Canada 350 (FPCC 2014). 490 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 7,600 (FPCC 2014). L2 users: No fluent L2 speakers but many are familiar with the writing system and a few have achieved considerable literacy
mtw Binukidnon, Southern Philippines 7,570 (2000)
nik Nicobarese, Southern India 7,500 (2001 census). 350 on Little Nicobar Island, 7,570 total on Great Nicobar, about 400 of these are Shompen
mqk Manobo, Rajah Kabunsuwan Philippines 7,560 (2000)
lgq Logba Ghana 7,500 (2003)
faz Fars, Northwestern Iran 7,500 (2006)
tpl Me’phaa, Tlacoapa Mexico 7,500 (2005 INALI)
tnp Whitesands Vanuatu 7,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
spl Selepet Papua New Guinea 7,000 (1988 SIL). Ethnic population: 7,500
rnp Rongpo India 7,500 (2001 D. Bradley)
weo Wemale Indonesia 6,000 (2000 census). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,500
lti Leti Indonesia 7,500 (1995 SIL)
bbp Banda, West Central Central African Republic 4,500 in Central African Republic (1996). 1,000 Wojo. Population total all countries: 7,500
saj Sahu Indonesia 7,500 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). 3,500 in Tala’i, 4,000 in Pa’disua
awu Awyu, Central Indonesia 7,500 (2002 Sohn Myo-sook)
jls Jamaican Sign Language Jamaica 7,500 (2011 E. Parks)
cuc Chinantec, Usila Mexico 7,410 (2000 INALI). 2,200 monolinguals
sor Somrai Chad 7,410 (1993 census)
kvv Kola Indonesia 7,400 (2011 SIL)
muz Mursi Ethiopia 7,390 (2007 census). 3,160 monolinguals. L2 users: 34
yap Yapese Micronesia 6,590 in Micronesia (1987 census). Population total all countries: 7,390
brd Baram Nepal 160 (2011 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 7,380 (2001 census)
gaq Gata’ India 3,060 (1991 census). Ethnic population: 7,370 (2001 census). In Odisha
hop Hopi United States 6,780 (2010 census), decreasing. 40 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,350 (Golla 2007)
xtm Mixtec, Magdalena Peñasco Mexico 7,350 (2005 census). 1,170 monolinguals (2000 census)
meh Mixtec, Southwestern Tlaxiaco Mexico 7,340 (2000 census). 1,000 monolinguals
nbb Ndoe Nigeria 7,340 (2000)
crj Cree, Southern East Canada 7,310 (1997 MSSS)
kwk Kwakiutl Canada 170 in Canada (FPCC 2014). 500 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Population total all countries: 255. Ethnic population: 7,310 (FPCC 2014)
kvu Yinbaw Myanmar 7,300 (1983)
csj Chin, Songlai Myanmar 7,300 (2012 SIL)
tbr Tumtum Sudan 7,300. 6,000 in Karondi, 1,300 in Tumtum
mqc Mangole Indonesia 7,280 (2000)
aau Abau Papua New Guinea 7,270 (2000 census), increasing. 0 monolinguals
pri Paicî New Caledonia 7,250 (2009 census), increasing
enl Enlhet Paraguay 7,220 (2002 census)
efa Efai Nigeria 6,320 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 7,210
arv Arbore Ethiopia 7,210 (2007 census). 3,900 monolinguals (1994 census). L2 users: 3,110
wos Hanga Hundi Papua New Guinea 7,200 (2000 census)
tmp Tai Mène Laos 7,200 (1995 census)
dwa Diri Nigeria 7,200 (2000)
bnj Tawbuid, Eastern Philippines 7,190 (2000)
sde Surubu Nigeria 7,170 (2000)
asf Australian Sign Language Australia 7,150 (2006 census)
kxj Kulfa Chad 7,110 (1993 census). 4,000 Koulfa, 2,200 Kouroumi, 910 Bara (1993 census)
txu Kayapó Brazil 7,100 (Moore 2006). 19 communities in regular contact with outsiders; also 3–4 isolated Kayapó groups of 30–100 people (Crevels 2007). 3,950 monolinguals
baa Babatana Solomon Islands 7,070 (1999 SIL). L2 users: Some L2 users
siy Sivandi Iran 7,030 (2000)
nyq Nayini Iran 7,030 (2000)
ntz Natanzi Iran 7,030 (2000)
gzi Gazi Iran 7,030 (2000)
soj Soi Iran 7,030 (2000)
bsg Bashkardi Iran 7,030 (2000)
tnb Tunebo, Western Colombia 700 (1998). Ethnic population: All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007)
tbn Tunebo, Barro Negro Colombia 300 (1981 SIL). Ethnic population: All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007)
tnd Tunebo, Angosturas Colombia 50. Ethnic population: All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007)
tuf Tunebo, Central Colombia 2,500 in Colombia (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007)
cds Chadian Sign Language Chad 2,800 (2008 WFD). 2,800 deaf signers out of 7,000 total deaf (2008 WFD)
aab Alumu-Tesu Nigeria 7,000 (Blench, Spriggs, and Connell 1999)
acu Achuar-Shiwiar Peru 3,000 in Peru. Population total all countries: 7,000. Majority are monolingual
omw Tairora, South Papua New Guinea 7,000 (2003 SIL)
ugy Uruguayan Sign Language Uruguay 7,000 (Belloso 2009)
quk Quechua, Chachapoyas Peru 7,000 (2003 SIL). 100 monolinguals (2003). Ethnic population: 7,000
kko Karko Sudan 7,000 (2004 A. Farah)
lzn Naga, Leinong Myanmar 7,000 (2008 SIL)
cns Asmat, Central Indonesia 7,000 (Roesler 1972). Most are monolingual
mlh Mape Papua New Guinea 1,700 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 7,000
muk Mugom Nepal 6,500 in Nepal (2006 SIL). Population total all countries: 7,000. 1,630 monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Ethnic population: 6,500
kxi Keningau Murut Malaysia 1,000 to 1,200 Dusun Murut (1985 SIL). Ethnic population: 7,000 (2000)
asr Asuri India 7,000 (Van Driem 2007)
uvl Lote Papua New Guinea 5,500 (2004 SIL). 700 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,000
cdf Chiru India 7,000 (2000 A. Khorong)
zpm Zapotec, Mixtepec Mexico 7,000 (1991 SIL)
nkq Nkami Ghana 7,000 (2009 SIL)
shh Shoshoni United States 1,000 (Golla 2007). Also 1,000 speakers who are not fluent (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 7,000 (1977 SIL)
gqi Guiqiong China 6,000 (2000 Sun Hong Kai). 1,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,000 (2000 D. Bradley). About 1,000 ethnic Guiqiong reportedly understand Guiqiong, but do not speak it
ybe Yugur, West China 4,600 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 7,000 (Bradley 2007)
mrz Marind Indonesia 7,000 (1987 SIL)
bhg Binandere Papua New Guinea 7,000 (2007 SIL)
byj Bina Nigeria 7,000 (2000)
bpz Bilba Indonesia 7,000 (2002 UKAW). Ethnic population: 7,000
tih Timugon Murut Malaysia Ethnic population: 7,000 (2000 SIL). 1,200–1,700 in Beaufort Murut (1982 SIL)
kwb Kwa Nigeria 7,000 (1992)
gnw Guaraní, Western Bolivian Bolivia 7,000 (2002 J. Russell)
gfk Patpatar Papua New Guinea 7,000 (1998 SIL)
juh Hõne Nigeria 7,000 (Storch 1999). Ethnic population: Much more than 7,000 (Storch 1999)
ndu Dugun Cameroon 7,000 (1997 L. Lode)
qvy Queyu China 7,000 (1995)
lmf Lembata, South Indonesia 7,000 (2008 census)
qvl Quechua, Cajatambo North Lima Peru 7,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 2,800 monolinguals
wha Manusela Indonesia 7,000 (1989 SIL)
nhp Nahuatl, Isthmus-Pajapan Mexico 7,000 (1990 census). 500 monolinguals
ymi Moji China 2,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 7,000
ttd Tauade Papua New Guinea 7,000 (2000 census)
mou Mogum Chad 7,000 (1997 SIL)
pbf Popoloca, Coyotepec Mexico 500 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 7,000
akc Mpur Indonesia 7,000 (1993 R. Doriot)
row Dela-Oenale Indonesia 7,000 (2002 UKAW)
iar Purari Papua New Guinea 7,000 (2011 SIL)
sfe Subanen, Eastern Philippines 7,000 (2011 SIL)
nhq Nahuatl, Huaxcaleca Mexico 7,000 (1990 census). 55 monolinguals
apu Apurinã Brazil 2,780 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 6,990 (2010 FUNASA)
lgl Wala Solomon Islands 6,980 (1999 SIL)
gdd Gedaged Papua New Guinea 6,950 (2003 SIL)
nca Iyo Papua New Guinea 6,900 (2003 SIL)
iwo Morop Indonesia 6,900 (2011 J. Elliot)
tsi Tsimshian Canada 110 in Canada (FPCC 2014). 1 speaker of Southern Tsimshian; the rest speak Coast Tsimshian (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 180. Ethnic population: 6,880 (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 50 in Canada (2000)
mef Megam Bangladesh 6,870 (2000)
twb Tawbuid, Western Philippines 6,810 (2000)
hag Hanga Ghana 6,800 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. 4,100 in the traditional area, 2,700 elsewhere
bhz Bada Indonesia 6,800 (Martens 1989), increasing
hto Huitoto, Minica Colombia 6,800 (2002 A. Bríñez)
kap Bezhta Russian Federation 6,100 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 6,800
fla Kalispel-Pend d’Oreille United States 64 (2005 T. Pete), decreasing. 58 in Salish and Pend d’Oreille; 4 in Kalispel (2000 census). Ethnic population: 6,800 (1997)
xuu Khwe Namibia 2,900 in Namibia (2010 LBT). Population total all countries: 6,790
bhu Bhunjia India 6,790 (2000 USCWM)
nes Kinnauri, Bhoti India 6,790 (2000 USCWM)
kvc Kove Papua New Guinea 6,750 (1994 SIL)
aia Arosi Solomon Islands 6,750 (1999 SIL)
far Fataleka Solomon Islands 6,700 (1999 SIL)
nof Nomane Papua New Guinea 6,700 (2000 census). 3,140 Kewo-Meba, 2,290 Meine, 1,250 Siarha, and 20 Gomla (all men 35 and older)
vau Vanuma Democratic Republic of the Congo 6,700 (1993 SIL)
pum Puma Nepal 6,690 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: Adults use L2 as much as L1 (Toba, Toba, and Rai 2005)
lil Lillooet Canada 140 (FPCC 2014). 690 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 6,670 (FPCC 2014)
ruy Mala Nigeria 6,630 (2000)
mqa Maba Indonesia 6,620 (2000)
siw Siwai Papua New Guinea 6,600. 600 in Baitsi
ych Chesu China 3,300 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 6,600 (Bradley 2007)
tuo Tucano Brazil 4,600 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Population total all countries: 6,600
thu Thuri South Sudan 6,600 (Tucker and Bryan 1956)
byr Yipma Papua New Guinea 6,600 (1990 census)
pow Popoloca, San Felipe Otlaltepec Mexico 3,000 (2000 SIL). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,590
udi Udi Azerbaijan 3,800 in Azerbaijan (2009 census). Population total all countries: 6,590
aib Ainu China 6,570 (2000)
mcw Mawa Chad 6,560 (2000)
hio Tsoa Botswana 3,000 in Botswana (2006). Population total all countries: 6,540
mzp Movima Bolivia 1,450 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 6,530 (Adelaar 2004)
mch Maquiritari Venezuela 5,520 in Venezuela (2001 census). Population total all countries: 5,950. Ethnic population: 6,520
ahp Aizi, Aproumu Côte d’Ivoire 6,500 (1999 SIL)
ndm Ndam Chad 6,500 (1990 census)
bwd Bwaidoka Papua New Guinea 6,500 (2000 SIL). 3,250 monolinguals
zpl Zapotec, Lachixío Mexico 6,500 (1990 census). 3,250 monolinguals
jmn Naga, Makuri Myanmar 2,500 in Myanmar (2004). Population total all countries: 6,500
qws Quechua, Sihuas Ancash Peru 6,500 (2002 SIL), decreasing. 3,000 monolinguals
sjl Miji India 6,500 (2001)
not Nomatsiguenga Peru 6,500 (2003 SIL). 5,500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: Ethnic population about the same as the L1 population (Crevels 2007)
zao Zapotec, Ozolotepec Mexico 6,500 (1990 census). People in San Marcial, San Gregorio, San Esteban, and Santo Domingo are monolingual
lml Hano Vanuatu 6,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
sll Salt-Yui Papua New Guinea 6,500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
lcq Luhu Indonesia 6,500 (Collins 1983)
psa Awyu, Asue Indonesia 6,500 (2002 SIL)
qux Quechua, Yauyos Peru 6,500 (2003 SIL)
nsn Nehan Papua New Guinea 6,500 (2003 SIL), increasing
url Urali India No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 6,440 (2001 census)
nyb Nyangbo Ghana 6,400 (2003)
ekm Elip Cameroon 6,400 (1982 SIL)
pio Piapoco Colombia 4,930 in Colombia (2007 Moyano). Population total all countries: 6,380. Ethnic population: 4,930 (2007)
vmj Mixtec, Ixtayutla Mexico 6,380 (2000 INALI). 3,800 monolinguals (2005 census)
xoo Xukurú Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 6,360 (1999)
byx Qaqet Papua New Guinea 6,350 (1988 SIL)
kaf Katso China 4,000 (Bradley 1997), decreasing. Most young people are semi-speakers, speaking Chinese instead (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 6,340 (Bradley 2007)
kjo Kinnauri, Pahari India 6,330 (1998 survey)
bcf Bamu Papua New Guinea 6,310 (2000 census). 960 Gama
kkn Kon Keu China 6,300 (2000)
cso Chinantec, Sochiapam Mexico 3,590 (2000 INALI). 730 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 6,300
hrc Niwer Mil Papua New Guinea 6,300 (2000 census)
kqb Kovai Papua New Guinea 6,000 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 6,300
nux Mehek Papua New Guinea 6,300 (1994 SIL)
prb Lua’ Thailand 6,280 (2000)
urt Urat Papua New Guinea 6,280 (2003 SIL), decreasing. 2,480 in Wasep Ngau, 2,060 in Wusyep Yihre, 1,210 in Wasep Yam, and 550 in Wusyep Tep
sza Semelai Malaysia 4,100 (Kruspe 2009). Ethnic population: 6,270 (2008 JHEOA)
cub Cubeo Colombia 6,100 in Colombia (Civallero 2008), increasing. Population total all countries: 6,260. 610 monolinguals
see Seneca United States 100 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 900 (2000 census). 6,240 (1997 W. Chafe). L2 users: Several L2 speakers (2000)
ute Ute-Southern Paiute United States 920 (Golla 2007). 3 Chemehuevi on Chemehuevi Reservation, 10 on Colorado River Reservation (Hinton 1994). 20 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 6,230 (Golla 2007). Ute: 4,800; Southern Paiute: 1,430 (Golla 2007). L2 users: Few if any L2 speakers
krv Kavet Cambodia 6,220 (2008 census)
nac Narak Papua New Guinea 6,220 (2000 census). 4,350 monolinguals
cwt Kuwaataay Senegal 6,210 (2006)
nnm Namia Papua New Guinea 6,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 300 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,200
ntp Tepehuan, Northern Mexico 6,200 (2005 census)
ziz Zizilivakan Nigeria 6,000 in Nigeria (2010 Z. Yoder et al.). Population total all countries: 6,200
mie Mixtec, Ocotepec Mexico 6,170 (2000 INALI). 600 monolinguals
ebk Bontok, Eastern Philippines 6,170 (2007 census)
ydg Yidgha Pakistan 6,150 (2000)
nxr Ninggerum Papua New Guinea 5,150 in Papua New Guinea (2000 census). Population total all countries: 6,150. 2,060 monolinguals
thp Thompson Canada 130 (FPCC 2014). 340 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 6,140 (FPCC 2014)
nar Iguta Nigeria 6,120 (1990)
tre Tarangan, East Indonesia 6,110 (2011 SIL). Population counted in the 12 villages only
npy Napu Indonesia 6,100 (2000 R. Hanna), increasing
kec Keiga Sudan 6,070 (Stevenson 1984)
oru Ormuri Pakistan 6,000 in Pakistan (2004 R. Burki). Population total all countries: 6,050
tcs Torres Strait Creole Australia 6,040 (2006 census)
scb Chut Viet Nam 1,050 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007). 450 May, 95 Ruc, 500 Sach (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 1,250. Ethnic population: 6,020 (2009 census)
yup Yukpa Colombia 3,000 in Colombia (2009 W. Largo). Population total all countries: 6,020. 600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,530 (Arango Ochoa 1998)
phm Phimbi Mozambique 6,000
gji Geji Nigeria 6,000 (1995 CAPRO)
gct German, Colonia Tovar Venezuela 1,500 (2009 H. Collin). Ethnic population: 6,000
kzx Kamarian Indonesia No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Under 10 in 1987; now probably extinct (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1987 SIL)
nau Nauruan Nauru 6,000 (Bender and Rehg 1991), decreasing. L2 users: 1,000
kjt Karen, Phrae Pwo Thailand 6,000 (Dawkins and Phillips 2009)
xkr Xakriabá Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 6,000 (Crevels 2007)
yad Yagua Peru 5,690 in Peru (2000). 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,000
zpd Zapotec, Southeastern Ixtlán Mexico 6,000 (1992 SIL)
cli Chakali Ghana 6,000 (2003 GILLBT)
bsj Bangwinji Nigeria 6,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992)
lem Nomaande Cameroon 6,000 (1982 SIL), increasing
gse Ghanaian Sign Language Ghana 6,000 (2008 WFD). Over 6000 deaf signers (2008 WFD)
pao Paiute, Northern United States 700 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Plus 400 semispeakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1999 SIL)
xmd Mbudum Cameroon 6,000 (2001 SIL)
put Putoh Indonesia 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
zuh Tokano Papua New Guinea 6,000 (1982 SIL)
kgc Kasseng Laos 1,200 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 6,000 (2000)
mrq Marquesan, North French Polynesia 5,390 in French Polynesia (2007 census). Population total all countries: 6,000. Ethnic population: 5,400
dln Darlong India 6,000 (1998 T. Darlong)
mjh Mwera Tanzania 6,000 (2004)
tgc Tigak Papua New Guinea 6,000 (1991 SIL)
erk Efate, South Vanuatu 6,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Population includes Eton [etn]
tdr Todrah Viet Nam 6,000 (Bradley 2007)
myw Muyuw Papua New Guinea 6,000 (1998). 1,000–1,200 Iwa. 3,000 monolinguals
ael Ambele Cameroon 2,600 (1987 census). Ethnic population: 6,000 (2001 SIL)
mjs Miship Nigeria 6,000 (1976 SIL)
kdf Mamusi Papua New Guinea 6,000 (1985 SIL)
tdu Dusun, Tempasuk Malaysia Ethnic population: 6,000 (Wurm 1981)
adq Adangbe Ghana 200 in Ghana (2006). Population total all countries: 4,200. Ethnic population: 6,000 (Gblem-Poidi 2012)
rjg Rajong Indonesia 6,000 (2010)
yuy Yugur, East China 4,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 6,000 (2000 D. Bradley)
abh Arabic, Tajiki Spoken Tajikistan 1,000 in Tajikistan. Population total all countries: 6,000
acy Arabic, Cypriot Spoken Cyprus 1,300 (1995). Ethnic population: 6,000. 140 Maronites in Kormatiki, 80 to 100 in Limassol, the rest in the Maronite community in Nicosia
tkz Takua Viet Nam 6,000 (Bradley 2007)
pma Paama Vanuatu 6,000 (1996 SIL)
tjo Tamazight, Temacine Algeria 6,000 (1995)
yon Yongkom Papua New Guinea 6,000 (1999 SIL)
dzn Dzando Democratic Republic of the Congo 6,000 (1983 census)
kio Kiowa United States 400 (Golla 2007). 1,100 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 6,000 (Golla 2007)
mig Mixtec, San Miguel el Grande Mexico 6,000 (2005 census). 330 monolinguals
yoy Yoy Thailand 5,000 in Thailand (Diller 1990). Population total all countries: 6,000
llo Khlor Laos 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
shg Shua Botswana 6,000 (2004 R. Cook). 100 Danisi (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
mdv Mixtec, Santa Lucía Monteverde Mexico 5,430 (2000 INALI). 480 monolinguals. Mostly in Agua del Toro and Ocotlán. Ethnic population: 6,000 (1995 census)
jid Bu Nigeria 6,000 (1999 R. Blench). 4,000 Bu and 2,000 Ninkada
kll Kalagan, Kagan Philippines 6,000 (1981 SIL)
dbb Deno Nigeria 6,000 (1995 CAPRO)
bxp Bebil Cameroon 6,000 (1991 SIL)
woi Kamang Indonesia 6,000 (2011 A. Schapper and M. Manimau)
qxc Quechua, Chincha Peru 6,000 (2000 SIL)
sjb Sajau Basap Indonesia 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
wrp Waropen Indonesia 6,000 (1987 SIL)
bxw Bankagooma Mali 6,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 6,000
tbg Tairora, North Papua New Guinea 6,000 (2003 SIL)
viv Iduna Papua New Guinea 6,000 (1984 SIL)
soc So Democratic Republic of the Congo 6,000 (Welmers 1971)
smj Saami, Lule Sweden 1,500 in Sweden (Krauss 1992). 1,000–2,000 speakers in Norway and Sweden (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 2,000. Ethnic population: 6,000
awo Awak Nigeria 6,000 (1995 CAPRO)
kuk Kepo’ Indonesia 6,000 (2010)
rao Rao Papua New Guinea 6,000 (1992 UBS)
vgt Flemish Sign Language Belgium 5,000 (2014 EUD). 6,000 (2005 M. Vermeerbergen). 5,000 sign language users (2014 EUD)
lwt Lewotobi Indonesia 6,000
lyg Lyngngam India 5,000 in India (Singh 1994). Population total all countries: 6,000
gdg Ga’dang Philippines 6,000 (2002 SIL). Very few monolinguals
mwt Moken Myanmar 4,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 6,000
skq Sininkere Burkina Faso 6,000 (1999 SIL)
moo Monom Viet Nam 6,000 (Bradley 2007)
pnp Pancana Indonesia 6,000 (2005 D. Andersen)
xka Kalkoti Pakistan 6,000 (2006)
gna Kaansa Burkina Faso 6,000 (1990 S. Showalter)
oub Glio-Oubi Liberia 3,500 in Liberia (1991). Population total all countries: 6,000
kiw Kiwai, Northeast Papua New Guinea 6,000 (2011 W. Foley)
mxh Mvuba Democratic Republic of the Congo 5,100 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 5,970
xeu Keoru-Ahia Papua New Guinea 5,970 (2000 census). Keoru: 5070, Ahia: 710, Pairi: 190
arp Arapaho United States 1,000 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 5,940 (Golla 2007)
vep Veps Russian Federation 1,640 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 5,940 (2010 census)
mrl Mortlockese Micronesia 5,900 in Micronesia (1989 census). 1,690 Upper Mortlock, 1,760 Mid Mortlock, 2,460 Lower Mortlock, about 1,000 elsewhere. Population total all countries: 5,940
atj Atikamekw Canada 5,920 (2011 census)
crv Chaura India 5,910 (2001 census)
kty Kango Democratic Republic of the Congo 5,900 (2002)
bvd Baeggu Solomon Islands 5,900 (1999 SIL)
brr Birao Solomon Islands 5,900 (1999 SIL)
paz Pankararú Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 5,880
mjp Malapandaram India 5,850 (2001 census)
enx Enxet Paraguay 5,840 (2002 census)
cas Tsimané Bolivia 5,320 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 5,840 (2006 PIB)
fkk Kirya-Konzel Nigeria 5,800 (2011 SIL)
tku Totonac, Upper Necaxa Mexico 3,400 (2000 INEGI). 680 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,800
ane Xârâcùù New Caledonia 5,730 (2009 census)
tiu Adasen Philippines 4,000 ( NTM). Ethnic population: 5,720
sim Mende Papua New Guinea 5,700 (2003 SIL)
amv Ambelau Indonesia 5,700 (1989 SIL). Ethnic population: 5,700
ids Idesa Nigeria 5,690 (2000)
pbl Mak Nigeria 5,690 (2000)
kvo Dobel Indonesia 5,680 (2011 SIL), increasing. L2 users: Chinese merchants and other outsiders who live in Dobel villages and residents of Lorang use it as L2
pmq Pame, Northern Mexico 5,620 (2000)
fab Fa d’Ambu Equatorial Guinea 5,000 in Equatorial Guinea (2010 SIL). Population total all countries: 5,600. 0 monolinguals. L2 users: Few
mtg Una Indonesia 5,600 (2006 SIL), increasing
ggb Gbii Liberia 5,600 (Vanderaa 1991)
aph Athpariya Nepal 5,530 (2011 census), decreasing
nda Ndasa Congo 4,530 in Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 5,530
klk Kono Nigeria 5,520 (2000)
inn Isinai Philippines 5,520 (1990 census)
myl Moma Indonesia 5,500 (Barr, Barr, and Salombe 1979)
txx Tatana Malaysia Ethnic population: 5,500 (1982 SIL)
plz Paluan Malaysia 5,500 (2000 SIL). 3,000 Paluan, 1,000 to 2,000 Pandewan
bzo Bozaba Democratic Republic of the Congo 5,500 (1983 census)
ihp Iha Indonesia 5,500 (1987 SIL)
zas Zapotec, Santo Domingo Albarradas Mexico 5,500 (1980 census)
prq Ashéninka Perené Peru 5,500 (2001 SIL)
mil Mixtec, Peñoles Mexico 5,500 in Mexico (2000 INALI). 1,000 monolinguals
bsw Baiso Ethiopia 5,480 (2007 census)
mto Mixe, Totontepec Mexico 5,470 (2000 INALI). 870 monolinguals
era Eravallan India 5,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 5,440 (2001 census). 3,890 in Kerala and 1,560 in Tamil Nadu
mxa Mixtec, Northwest Oaxaca Mexico 5,430 (2000 INALI). 1,000 monolinguals
dov Dombe Zimbabwe 5,430 (2006)
ncg Nisga’a Canada 860 (FPCC 2014). 1,380 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 5,430 (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 1,500
tcu Tarahumara, Southeastern Mexico 5,410 (2000 INALI)
vae Vale Central African Republic 5,400 (1996)
tlf Telefol Papua New Guinea 5,400 (1994 SIL)
bng Benga Equatorial Guinea 3,900 in Equatorial Guinea (2011 S. Smith), decreasing. 400 on Corisco Island. Population total all countries: 5,400. 0 monolinguals
mlo Mlomp Senegal 5,400 (2006)
pui Puinave Colombia 2,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 2,880. Ethnic population: 5,380 (Crevels 2007)
aji Ajië New Caledonia 5,360 (2009 census), increasing
otz Otomi, Ixtenco Mexico 460 (2000 INALI). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,360 (1990 census)
ake Akawaio Guyana 4,500 in Guyana (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 5,350. Ethnic population: 5,000 (Crevels 2007)
ikp Ikpeshi Nigeria 5,320 (2000)
crl Cree, Northern East Canada 5,310 (1997 MSSS)
aey Amele Papua New Guinea 5,300 (1987 SIL)
myg Manta Cameroon 5,300 (2001 SIL)
jkp Karen, Paku Myanmar 5,300 (1983 census)
mnj Munji Afghanistan 5,300 (2008 D. Beyer and S. Beck). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,300
dil Dilling Sudan 5,300 (Stevenson 1984), decreasing. 0 monolinguals
rie Rien Laos 5,280 (2000)
mwx Mediak Tanzania 5,270 (2000)
mmg Ambrym, North Vanuatu 5,250 (2001 SIL)
aqd Dogon, Ampari Mali 5,200 (1998 SIL)
mea Menka Cameroon 5,200 (2000 SIL)
mgl Maleu-Kilenge Papua New Guinea 5,200 (1983 census). 1,560 Kilenge
oka Okanagan Canada 190 in Canada (FPCC 2014), increasing. Except for 12 fluent speakers on Westbank Reserve, the other reserves each have at least 50 speakers of varying fluency, Vernon Reserve perhaps 100 (Golla 2007). 170 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Population total all countries: 590. Ethnic population: 5,180 (FPCC 2014). L2 users: Up to 2,000 L2 speakers in Canada and the United States (Golla 2007)
agw Kahua Solomon Islands 5,170 (1999 SIL)
nie Niellim Chad 5,160 (1993 census). 1,000 in Sarh City; 400 in Niou dialect
vrs Varisi Solomon Islands 5,160 (1999 SIL)
mmn Mamanwa Philippines 5,150 (1990 census)
bwi Baniwa Brazil Population total all countries: 610. Ethnic population: 5,150 (Crevels 2007)
lbq Wampar Papua New Guinea 5,150 (1990)
nhk Nahuatl, Isthmus-Cosoleacaque Mexico 5,140 (1990 census). 10 monolinguals
laf Lafofa Sudan 5,140 (Stevenson 1984)
nal Nalik Papua New Guinea 5,140 (1990 census)
frs Saxon, East Frisian Low Germany 2,000 (2003). Population total all countries: 5,120
xwg Kwegu Ethiopia 5,110 (2007 census). L2 users: 51
swq Sharwa Cameroon 5,100 (2000 SIL)
tkn Toku-No-Shima Japan 5,100 (2004)
nue Ngundu Democratic Republic of the Congo 5,100 (2000)
ruz Ruma Nigeria 5,090 (2000)
mxb Mixtec, Tezoatlán Mexico 5,080 (2005 census). 670 monolinguals
xsu Sanumá Venezuela 4,610 in Venezuela (2000). 500 Yanoma. Population total all countries: 5,070
tna Tacana Bolivia 1,820 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 5,060 (Adelaar 2004)
btl Bhatola India 5,050 (2000)
bvq Birri Central African Republic 200 (1996). Ethnic population: 5,000. No longer spoken in Sudan (1993)
mzs Macanese China–Macao 50 in China–Macao (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 5,000 (Bradley 2007)
kls Kalasha Pakistan 5,000 (Heegård Petersen 2006). 3,200 in Northern Kalasha area; unknown and decreasing number in Southern Kalasha area
sgt Brokpake Bhutan 5,000 (2006 census)
gwg Moo Nigeria 5,000 (1998)
cji Chamalal Russian Federation 500 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1990 A. Kibrik)
ddd Dongotono South Sudan 5,000 (2013 SIL)
ruq Romanian, Megleno Greece 3,000 in Greece (2002). Population total all countries: 5,000
bsi Bassossi Cameroon 5,000 (2004 SIL)
kzi Kelabit Malaysia 4,000 in Malaysia (2011 SIL). Population total all countries: 4,640. Ethnic population: 5,000
sgx Sierra Leone Sign Language Sierra Leone 200 (2008 WFD). Reportedly 200 deaf signers out of 3,000–5,000 total deaf (2008 WFD)
sut Subtiaba Nicaragua No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 5,000 (1981 MARC)
sok Sokoro Chad 5,000 (1994 SIL)
ckx Caka Cameroon 5,000 (Dieu and Renaud 1983)
hao Hakö Papua New Guinea 5,000 (1982 SIL), increasing
swu Suwawa Indonesia 5,000 (2012 Y. Kitada)
cky Cakfem-Mushere Nigeria 5,000 (1990 SIL)
cuv Cuvok Cameroon 5,000 (Dieu and Renaud 1983), increasing
poe Popoloca, San Juan Atzingo Mexico 5,000 (1991 SIL). 500 monolinguals. Most women over 60 functionally monolingual
skx Seko Padang Indonesia 5,000 (1985 SIL). 2,300 in the Seko area
bvj Baan Nigeria 5,000 (1990)
mot Barí Colombia 3,500 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 5,000
kmi Kami Nigeria 5,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992)
sqa Shama-Sambuga Nigeria 5,000 (1995 S. and S. Dettweiler)
gyg Gbayi Central African Republic 5,000 (1996)
myf Bambassi Ethiopia 5,000 (1982 SIL)
piy Piya-Kwonci Nigeria 5,000 (1992)
dae Duupa Cameroon 5,000 (1991 UBS)
doh Dong Nigeria 5,000 (1998 R. Blench)
wad Wandamen Indonesia 5,000 (1993 R. Doriot)
wav Waka Nigeria 5,000 (1992)
gaw Nobonob Papua New Guinea 5,000 (2005 census), increasing
vum Vumbu Gabon 5,000 (Idiata 2007)
crm Cree, Moose Canada 3,000 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1982 SIL)
dtr Lotud Malaysia Ethnic population: 5,000 (1985 SIL)
lwm Laomian China 4,000 (Bradley 2007), decreasing. Less than 1,000 Laopin (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 5,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population does not include Laopin
kow Kugama Nigeria 5,000 (1995)
duw Dusun Witu Indonesia 5,000 (2003)
wrd Warduji Afghanistan 5,000 (1994)
jmr Kamara Ghana 3,000 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Ethnic population: 5,000 (2003 GILLBT)
mxp Mixe, Tlahuitoltepec Mexico 5,000 (1991 SIL)
wom Wom Nigeria 5,000 (Blench 1989)
wod Wolani Indonesia 5,000 (1992 UBS)
jje Jejueo South Korea 5,000 in Korea, South (2014 W. O’Grady)
weu Chin, Rawngtu Myanmar 5,000 (2008)
mli Malimpung Indonesia 5,000 (1986 SIL)
urk Urak Lawoi’ Thailand 5,000 (2012 S. Pattemore)
orr Oruma Nigeria 5,000 (1995)
isr Israeli Sign Language Israel L2 users: 5,000 (Van Cleve 1986). Including some hearing persons
nfa Dhao Indonesia 5,000 (1997 A. Ranoh)
raz Rahambuu Indonesia 5,000 (Mead 1999)
dnu Danau Myanmar 1,000 (Robinne 2000). Ethnic population: 5,000 (Robinne 2000)
reb Rembong Indonesia 5,000 (2010 C. Grimes)
dmx Dema Mozambique 5,000 (2000 J. and M. Bister). Population displaced during Cabora Bassa Dam construction
itm Itu Mbon Uzo Nigeria 5,000 (1988)
ngd Ngando Central African Republic 5,000 (1996)
omb Ambae, East Vanuatu 5,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
kry Kryts Azerbaijan 5,000 (Salminen 2007)
lan Laru Nigeria 5,000 (1995 R. Jones)
mbv Mbulungish Guinea 5,000 (1998 B. Willits)
lak Laka Nigeria 5,000 (1995)
baf Nubaca Cameroon 4,500 (2007 SIL). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000
itw Ito Nigeria 5,000 (1988)
jnd Jandavra Pakistan 5,000 (1998)
wul Silimo Indonesia 5,000 (1987 SIL). 2,500 monolinguals
abp Ayta, Abellen Philippines 3,000 (2008 SIL), decreasing. 45 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000
kgw Karon Dori Indonesia 5,000 (1987 SIL)
leu Kara Papua New Guinea 5,000 (1998 SIL)
kdx Kam Nigeria 5,000 (1993)
acp Acipa, Eastern Nigeria 5,000 (1993)
lgn Opuuo Ethiopia 5,000 in Ethiopia (2014). Most are monolingual
adb Adabe East Timor 5,000 (2010 census)
zna Zan Gula Chad 5,000 (2003 SIL)
nkz Nkari Nigeria 5,000 (1998 B. Connell)
nll Nihali India 2,000 (Parkin 1991). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1987)
zts Zapotec, Tilquiapan Mexico 5,000 (2007 SIL). 900 monolinguals
zty Zapotec, Yatee Mexico 5,000 (2004 SIL). 3,000 for Yatee and 2,000 for Lachirioag
nli Grangali Afghanistan 5,000 (1994)
nmy Namuyi China 5,000 (Bradley 2007). 200 monolinguals. Mainly older adults. Ethnic population: 5,000 (Bradley 2007)
zpa Zapotec, Lachiguiri Mexico 5,000 (1977 SIL)
ldk Leelau Nigeria 5,000 (Adelberger 1995)
eze Uzekwe Nigeria 5,000 (1973 SIL)
zad Zapotec, Cajonos Mexico 5,000 in Mexico (1993 SIL). Many monolinguals
xug Kunigami Japan 5,000 (2004)
lmx Laimbue Cameroon 5,000 (1994 SIL)
eki Eki Nigeria 5,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992)
aoa Angolar São Tomé e Príncipe 5,000 (1998 SIL)
ebg Ebughu Nigeria 5,000 (1988)
xhv Khua Viet Nam 3,000 in Viet Nam (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Population total all countries: 5,000
lop Lopa Nigeria 5,000 (1996 R. Blench)
yac Yali, Pass Valley Indonesia 5,000 (1988 SIL)
alq Algonquin Canada 1,760 (2011 census), decreasing. 180 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000 (1987 SIL). L2 users: Also used by a small number of people from related languages who have intermarried, and some priests, will speak Algonquin
ctt Chetti, Wayanad India 5,000 (2004)
csm Miwok, Central Sierra United States 12 (1994 L. Hinton). Eastern Central Sierra: 6, Western Central Sierra: 6. 50 Sierra Miwok (from 2000 census) may include Northern Sierra [nsq] and Southern Sierra [skd]. Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Includes all Miwok
emi Mussau-Emira Papua New Guinea 5,000 (2003 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000 SIL). Includes 3,500 in the traditional area
ykt Kathu China 5,000 (2007), decreasing
ygs Yolngu Sign Language Australia 5,000 (2012 D. Adone)
ykn Kua-nsi China 5,000 (2009 SIL)
tra Tirahi Afghanistan 100. Ethnic population: 5,000
aum Asu Nigeria 5,000 (1998 R. Blench)
tio Teop Papua New Guinea 5,000 (1991 SIL). L2 users: Some who intermarry with Teop
ide Idere Nigeria 5,000 (1988)
nea Ngad’a, Eastern Indonesia 5,000 (1994)
dme Dugwor Cameroon 5,000 (2001 SIL)
tnn Tanna, North Vanuatu 5,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
mvh Mulgi Chad 5,000 (2011 SIL)
bgo Baga Koga Guinea Ethnic population: 5,000
ibr Ibuoro Nigeria 5,000 (1988)
tmv Tembo Democratic Republic of the Congo 5,000 (1986 SIL)
idc Ajiya Nigeria 5,000 (Blench 2011)
tms Tima Sudan Ethnic population: 5,000 (Dimmendaal 2007)
iki Iko Nigeria 5,000 (1988)
pbc Patamona Guyana 4,700 in Guyana (Forte 1990). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000 J. Forte)
ctn Chhintang Nepal 3,710 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000
hut Humla Nepal 5,000 (2014 SIL). 36% of the Limi dialect are monolingual. Ethnic population: 5,000 (2014 SIL)
tpg Kula Indonesia 5,000 (Grimes et al. 1997)
kyo Klon Indonesia 5,000 (2008 L. Baird)
blg Balau Malaysia 5,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
ilv Ilue Nigeria 5,000 (1988)
pdo Padoe Indonesia 5,000 (1991 P. Vuorinen)
tdl Sur Nigeria 5,000 (1998 R. Blench)
dhs Dhaiso Tanzania 5,000 (1999)
gdu Gudu Nigeria 5,000 (1993)
mvu Marfa Chad 5,000 (1999 SIL)
huq Tsat China 4,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000 D. Bradley)
dmg Kinabatangan, Upper Malaysia Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000 SIL)
dml Dameli Pakistan 5,000 (Cacopardo and Cacopardo 2001), increasing
bka Kyak Nigeria 5,000 (Adelberger 1995)
teu Soo Uganda 50 (2012 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 5,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007)
tgr Tareng Laos 5,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
bxa Tairaha Solomon Islands 4,980 (1999 SIL)
kqv Okolod Indonesia 3,390 in Indonesia (2000). Population total all countries: 4,970
idb Indo-Portuguese India 4,940 in India (Cardoso 2006). Population total all countries: 4,970. Relatively few monolinguals, even in Korlai (Cardoso 2006)
ttc Tektiteko Guatemala 4,900 in Guatemala (2002). Population total all countries: 4,970
tlq Tai Loi Myanmar 4,460 in Myanmar (2008). Population total all countries: 4,960
bgm Baga Mboteni Guinea Ethnic population: 4,900
zca Zapotec, Coatecas Altas Mexico 4,880 (2005 census). 100 monolinguals
zwa Zay Ethiopia 4,880 (1994 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,880
jul Jirel Nepal 4,830 (2011 census), decreasing
ije Biseni Nigeria 4,800 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
thi Tai Long Laos 4,800 (2004)
kah Kara Central African Republic 4,800 (1996)
sau Saleman Indonesia 4,800 (1989 SIL)
kpt Karata Russian Federation 260 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 4,790 (2010 census)
ttz Tsum Nepal 4,790 (2000)
sso Sissano Papua New Guinea 300 (Wurm 2000). In 1990, 4,780 speakers were reported and language use was vigorous. The 1998 tsunami almost completely annihilated the population. Number of surviving speakers unlikely to exceed a few hundred (Wurm 2007)
poo Pomo, Central United States 2 (1997 M. Mithun). Several speakers in the Hopland area and at Manchester and Point Areana on the coast (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 4,770 (1997 M. Mithun)
mdf Moksha Russian Federation 2,030 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 4,770 (2010 census)
pps Popoloca, San Luís Temalacayuca Mexico 4,730 (1994 SIL)
zpg Zapotec, Guevea de Humboldt Mexico 4,720 (2000 INEGI)
smn Saami, Inari Finland 300 (2001 census). 4,700 all Saami in Finland (1995). Ethnic population: 700 (1995 M. Krauss)
msj Ma Democratic Republic of the Congo 4,700 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
kqh Kisankasa Tanzania 4,670 (1987)
pth Pataxó Hã-Ha-Hãe Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 4,660 (1998). 2,790 Pataxó and 1,870 Pataxó Hã Hã Hãe (Crevels 2007)
ztt Zapotec, Tejalapan Mexico 120 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 4,660
raf Mewahang, Western Nepal 4,650 all Mewahang (2011 census). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,000
niv Gilyak Russian Federation 200 (2010 census). A few hundred active users (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 4,650 (2010 census)
emg Mewahang, Eastern Nepal 4,650 all Mewahang (2011 census). Almost no monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,000
mxn Moi Indonesia 4,600 (1993 R. Doriot)
lma Limba, East Guinea 4,000 in Guinea (Johnstone 1993). 2,000 speakers of the Ke subdialect of Northern Limba (1991 J. Kaiser). Population total all countries: 4,600
and Ansus Indonesia 4,600 (1987 SIL)
hdn Haida, Northern Canada 2 in Canada (FPCC 2014). 7 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Population total all countries: 17. Ethnic population: 4,550 (FPCC 2014)
zia Zia Papua New Guinea 4,500 (2000 SIL). 3,000 Zia (1991 SIL), 940 Mawae dialect. Ethnic population: 4,550
nkx Nkoroo Nigeria 4,550 (1989 UBS)
jeg Jeng Laos 4,540 (Bradley 2007)
tlv Taliabu Indonesia 4,520 (2000). 500–1,500 in Mangei
kym Kpatili Central African Republic 4,500 (1996)
nwi Tanna, Southwest Vanuatu 4,500 (2011 SIL), increasing
uar Tairuma Papua New Guinea 4,500 (2004 SIL), increasing
mna Mbula Papua New Guinea 4,500 (2007 SIL), increasing. 450 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,500
ums Pendau Indonesia 4,500 (Quick 2007)
zoh Zoque, Chimalapa Mexico 4,500 (1990 census). 15 monolinguals
wbf Wara Burkina Faso 4,500 (Johnstone 1993)
bdo Morom Chad 4,500 (2002 SIL)
tew Tewa United States 1,500 (Golla 2007), decreasing. 1,200 speakers in New Mexico, 300 in Arizona (Golla 2007). 18 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 4,500 (Golla 2007)
nss Nali Papua New Guinea 1,800 (1982 SIL). 200 Okro (2000 D. Tryon). Ethnic population: 4,500. In Okro
fai Faiwol Papua New Guinea 4,500 (1987 SIL)
dza Tunzuii Nigeria 2,500 (Blench 2003). Ethnic population: 4,500
duq Dusun Malang Indonesia 4,500 (2003). 2,000 Bayan
kvg Kuni-Boazi Papua New Guinea 4,500 (2007 SIL), increasing. L2 users: Few use Kuni-Boazi as L2 (2007 SIL)
npg Naga, Ponyo-Gongwang Myanmar 4,500 (2008 SIL)
bty Bobot Indonesia 4,500 (1989 SIL)
tix Tiwa, Southern United States 1,600 (Golla 2007), decreasing. 1,500 Isleta, 100 Sandia speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 4,500 (Golla 2007). Including 4,000 Isleta and 500 Sandia (Golla 2007)
vbb Babar, Southeast Indonesia 4,460 (2007 SIL)
trg Lishán Didán Israel 4,230 in Israel (2001). Population total all countries: 4,450
baj Barakai Indonesia 4,450 (2011 SIL)
ghh Ghale, Northern Nepal 4,440 (2006 SIL). 400 monolinguals
amn Amanab Papua New Guinea 4,420 (2003 SIL)
irr Ir Laos 4,420 (2000)
hbn Heiban Sudan 4,410 (Stevenson 1984)
lbi La’bi Cameroon No known L1 speakers (Samarin 1971). L2 users: 4,400 (2006)
nbq Nggem Indonesia 4,400 (2005)
tcd Tafi Ghana 4,400 (2003)
mnv Rennell-Bellona Solomon Islands 4,390 (1999 SIL)
clc Chilcotin Canada 860 (FPCC 2014). 760 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,350 (FPCC 2014)
bqr Burusu Indonesia 4,350 (2007 SIL)
sks Maia Papua New Guinea 4,350 (2000 census). 3,720 in main dialect, 630 in southern dialect
pbs Pame, Central Mexico 4,350 (1990 census). There are monolingual Pame speaking children in about 30 villages
hld Halang Doan Viet Nam 2,000 in Viet Nam (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Population total all countries: 4,350
roo Rotokas Papua New Guinea 4,320 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
ayo Ayoreo Paraguay 2,600 in Paraguay (2009 Universidad Nacional de Asunción), increasing. Population total all countries: 4,300. 1,500 monolinguals
nsg Ngasa Tanzania 200 (1983), decreasing. Probably extinct (2012 SIL). Ethnic population: 4,290 (2000)
ntu Natügu Solomon Islands 4,280 (2007 census), increasing
gyi Gyele Cameroon 4,250 in Cameroon (2012 SIL). Population total all countries: 4,279
pbh E’ñapa Woromaipu Venezuela 3,540 (2001 census). 2,480 monolinguals. Nearly all women monolingual; men fairly bilingual in Spanish [spa]. Ethnic population: 4,270 (2001 census)
glr Glaro-Twabo Liberia 4,270 in Liberia (2000)
wmo Wom Papua New Guinea 4,260 (2003 SIL)
bwz Bwisi Congo 3,020 in Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 4,250
tde Dogon, Tiranige Diga Mali 4,200 (1998 SIL)
rka Kraol Cambodia 4,200 (2008 census). 4,200 monolinguals
mxy Mixtec, Southeastern Nochixtlán Mexico 4,200 (2000 INALI). 180 monolinguals
mwz Moingi Democratic Republic of the Congo 4,200 (2002)
ado Abu Papua New Guinea 4,200 (2000 census). 820 Sabu, 3,380 Abu
beo Beami Papua New Guinea 4,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
ztl Zapotec, Lapaguía-Guivini Mexico 4,200 (1983 SIL)
smx Samba Democratic Republic of the Congo 4,200 (2002)
nbd Ngbinda Democratic Republic of the Congo 4,200 (2002)
ato Atong Cameroon 4,200 (2000 SIL)
lid Nyindrou Papua New Guinea 4,200 (1998 SIL). Few monolinguals
bkt Boloki Democratic Republic of the Congo 4,200
bny Bintulu Malaysia 4,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
bxf Minigir Papua New Guinea 4,180 (2012 SIL)
wer Weri Papua New Guinea 4,160 (McElhanon 1978)
kys Kayan, Baram Malaysia 4,150 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
tdy Tadyawan Philippines 4,150 (2000)
mln Malango Solomon Islands 4,140 (1999 SIL)
jih sTodsde China 4,100 (2004)
zpz Zapotec, Texmelucan Mexico 4,100 (1992 SIL)
smu Somray Cambodia 4,100 (2005 J. Ironside)
bva Barein Chad 4,100 (1993 census)
ciy Chaima Venezuela 63 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 4,090
iai Iaai New Caledonia 4,080 (2009 census). 57% live in greater Nouméa
squ Squamish Canada 7 (FPCC 2014). 34 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 4,080 (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0 (2000)
noq Ngongo Democratic Republic of the Congo 4,080 (2000)
trs Triqui, Chicahuaxtla Mexico 4,060 (Adelaar 2007)
bgt Bughotu Solomon Islands 4,050 (1999 SIL)
mha Manda India 4,040 (2000)
kbh Camsá Colombia 4,000 (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 4,020 (Crevels 2007)
mox Molima Papua New Guinea 4,010 (2000 census), increasing
rji Raji Nepal 3,760 (2011 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,000
cpc Ajyíninka Apurucayali Peru 4,000 (2000 SIL)
coa Malay, Cocos Islands Malaysia Population total all countries: 1,000. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2000 SIL)
ror Rongga Indonesia 4,000 (2005 W. Arka)
pwa Pawaia Papua New Guinea 4,000 (1991 SIL)
qwa Quechua, Corongo Ancash Peru 4,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 1,700 monolinguals (2000 SIL)
bei Bakati’ Indonesia 4,000 (1986 UBS)
wah Watubela Indonesia 4,000 (1990 SIL)
lvu Levuka Indonesia 4,000 (2008 census)
lwe Lewo Eleng Indonesia 4,000 (2008 census)
wam Wampanoag United States No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2006)
jkm Karen, Mobwa Myanmar 4,000 (2010 SIL). Also live mixed with Bwe Karen [bwe] and Paku Karen [jkp] in some villages
wtw Wotu Indonesia 500 (2009 Masruddin and Wahibah), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2009)
wrs Waris Papua New Guinea 2,500 in Papua New Guinea, increasing. Population total all countries: 4,000
kol Kol Papua New Guinea 4,000 (1991 SIL)
jas Javanese, New Caledonian New Caledonia Ethnic population: 4,000
twe Teiwa Indonesia 4,000 (Klamer and Klamer 2010)
tvw Sedoa Indonesia 900 (2009 S. Shore). 900 in Sedoa village; 3,000 ethnic Sedoa also live outside the area, but most do not speak Sedoa. Ethnic population: 4,000
bbr Girawa Papua New Guinea 4,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
mci Mesem Papua New Guinea 4,000 (1997 census)
tyn Kombai Indonesia 4,000 (1991 SIL)
umn Naga, Makyan Myanmar 4,000 (2008 SIL)
drd Darmiya India 1,750 (2006 C. Willis). Ethnic population: 4,000
gam Kandawo Papua New Guinea 4,000 (2003 SIL)
xhe Khetrani Pakistan 4,000
kef Kpessi Togo 4,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 4,000
zaa Zapotec, Sierra de Juárez Mexico 4,000 (1990 census). 150 monolinguals
yur Yurok United States 12 (Golla 2007). A few dozen semispeakers and passive speakers, middle-aged or older (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 4,000 (Golla 2007). L2 users: Several have acquired L2 fluency
zpj Zapotec, Quiavicuzas Mexico 4,000 (1990 census). 180 monolinguals
fak Fang Cameroon 4,000 (Good 2011)
kpx Koiali, Mountain Papua New Guinea 4,000 (2000 census). 2,000 monolinguals
ztq Zapotec, Quioquitani-Quierí Mexico 4,000 (1991 SIL)
aft Afitti Sudan 4,000 (de Voogt 2009)
nrm Narom Malaysia Ethnic population: 4,000. Population includes about 1,000 Bakong, 1,000 Dali’, and 1,000 Miri’ (2012 SIL)
lmr Lamalera Indonesia 4,000 (2008 census)
anl Chin, Anu-Hkongso Myanmar 4,000 (2008), decreasing. 0 monolinguals
jub Wannu Nigeria 4,000
lmq Lamatuka Indonesia 4,000 (2008 census)
alk Alak Laos 4,000 (Bradley 2007)
ypp Phupa China 3,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,000
ntx Naga, Tangkhul Myanmar 4,000 (2004 SIL)
bbs Bakpinka Nigeria 4,000 (2006)
irh Irarutu Indonesia 4,000 (1987 SIL)
bui Bongili Congo 4,000
buw Bubi Gabon 4,000 (Idiata 2007)
bvx Dibole Congo 4,000 (Leitch 2004). 800 monolinguals (Leitch 2004). Ethnic population: 4,000
sre Bakati’, Sara Indonesia 4,000 (2004 M. Connor)
bsp Baga Sitemu Guinea 4,000
plg Pilagá Argentina 4,000 (2004 FEL). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2004)
bqm Wumboko Cameroon 4,000 (2000)
slz Ma’ya Indonesia 4,000 (Remijsen 2001)
sls Singapore Sign Language Singapore 3,000 (2007 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2007 SIL)
pss Kaulong Papua New Guinea 4,000 (2000 D. Tryon)
saf Safaliba Ghana 4,000 (2003), increasing
chy Cheyenne United States 2,100 (Golla 2007). Spoken by 1,700 in Montana, 400 in Oklahoma (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 4,000 (Golla 2007). In Montana
sdu Sarudu Indonesia 4,000 (Grimes and Grimes 1987)
bys Burak Nigeria 4,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992)
sku Sakao Vanuatu 4,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
das Daho-Doo Côte d’Ivoire 4,000 (1996 SIL)
kts Muyu, South Indonesia 4,000 (2002 SIL)
tbf Mandara Papua New Guinea 4,000 (2000 census)
pai Pe Nigeria 4,000 (Blench 2003)
paq Parya Tajikistan 3,000 in Tajikistan (2008). Population total all countries: 4,000
bfu Gahri India 4,000 (1997)
tpp Tepehua, Pisaflores Mexico 4,000 (1990 census)
trl Traveller Scottish United Kingdom 4,000 in United Kingdom
bce Bamenyam Cameroon 4,000 (1994 SIL)
bdd Bunama Papua New Guinea 4,000 (1993 SIL)
mgj Abureni Nigeria 4,000 (2006)
geg Gengle Nigeria 4,000
mkm Moklen Thailand 1,500 (1984 D. Hogan). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2000 D. Bradley)
pib Yine Peru 4,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 4,000
mla Malo Vanuatu 4,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001), increasing
tdo Teme Nigeria 4,000 (1995)
bmd Baga Manduri Guinea 4,000 (2011 NTM)
kta Katua Viet Nam 4,000 (Bradley 2007)
pca Popoloca, Santa Inés Ahuatempan Mexico 4,000 (2000 SIL). Few monolinguals
ckh Chak Myanmar 1,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 4,000. Ethnic population: 1,600 (Bradley 2007)
szc Semaq Beri Malaysia 2,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 3,970 (2008 JHEOA)
nev Nyaheun Laos 3,960 (Bradley 2007)
bbz Arabic, Babalia Creole Chad 3,940 (1993 census)
tdv Toro Nigeria 3,930 (2000)
tpz Tinputz Papua New Guinea 3,900 (1991 SIL)
sel Selkup Russian Federation 1,020 (2010 census). Central Selkup: 200 speakers, Northern Selkup: 1,000 to 1,500 speakers, Southern Selkup: less than 100 speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 3,900 (2010 census)
hue Huave, San Francisco del Mar Mexico 620 (2000 census). 1 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,900 (1990 census)
nvo Nyokon Cameroon 3,900 (Guthrie and Tucker 1956)
cul Kulina Brazil 3,500 in Brazil (2006 ISA). Population total all countries: 3,900
klz Kabola Indonesia 3,900 (1995 N. Johnston)
lhh Laha Indonesia 3,890 (1987 SIL)
cok Cora, Santa Teresa Mexico 3,880 (2000 INALI)
awy Awyu, Edera Indonesia 3,870 (2002 SIL)
yuf Havasupai-Walapai-Yavapai United States 1,600 (Golla 2007). 500 Havasupai, 1,000 Walapai, 100–150 Yavapai (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 3,860 (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2007). Including 570 Havasupai, 1,870 Walapai, 1,420 Yavapai (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004)
ttv Titan Papua New Guinea 3,850 (1992 SIL)
kuw Kpagua Central African Republic 3,830 (2000)
dmc Gavak Papua New Guinea 3,820 (2003 SIL)
bkg Buraka Central African Republic 2,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 3,800
sir Siri Nigeria 3,800 (2006)
abd Manide Philippines 3,800 (Lobel 2010)
kma Konni Ghana 3,800 (2003 GILLBT), increasing
xtb Mixtec, Chazumba Mexico 3,790 (2000 INALI). 30 monolinguals
jah Jah Hut Malaysia Ethnic population: 3,760 (2008 JHEOA)
mlp Bargam Papua New Guinea 3,750 (2003 SIL)
yle Yele Papua New Guinea 3,750 (1998 Rossel Health Centres). 400 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,750 (1998)
tnm Tabla Indonesia 3,750 (1990 UBS)
nmk Namakura Vanuatu 3,750 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
sja Epena Colombia 3,500 in Colombia (2004 IMB), increasing. Population total all countries: 3,750
uri Urim Papua New Guinea 3,740 (2003 SIL). 40 monolinguals
lbr Lohorung Nepal 3,720 (2011 census)
vmy Mazatec, Ayautla Mexico 3,700 (2005 census). 2,800 monolinguals
tvk Ambrym, Southeast Vanuatu 3,700 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
mqh Mixtec, Tlazoyaltepec Mexico 3,700 (2000 INALI). 1,000 monolinguals
xod Kokoda Indonesia 3,700 (1991 SIL)
gip Gimi Papua New Guinea 3,700 (1982 SIL)
sue Suena Papua New Guinea 3,600 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,700
yat Yambeta Cameroon 3,700 (1982 SIL)
mwg Aiklep Papua New Guinea 3,700 (1991 SIL)
zng Mang Viet Nam 2,660 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 3,165. Ethnic population: 3,700 (2009 census)
nmo Naga, Moyon India 3,700 (2001). Ethnic population: 3,700
kvw Wersing Indonesia 3,700 (Grimes et al. 1997)
aqt Angaité Paraguay 3,690 (2002 census)
bpq Malay, Banda Indonesia 3,690 (2000)
mhe Mah Meri Malaysia 2,990 (2003 COAC). Ethnic population: 3,680 (2008 JHEOA)
lmg Lamogai Papua New Guinea 3,650 (Johnston 1980)
bay Batuley Indonesia 3,640 (2011 SIL)
kpr Korafe-Yegha Papua New Guinea 3,630 (2003 SIL). A very few old women are monolingual
loh Narim South Sudan 3,620 (Fukui 1984)
kpj Karajá Brazil 2,670 (Moore 2006). Karajá 1,860, Javaé 800, Xambioá 10 (D. Moore). Ethnic population: 3,610 (Crevels 2007). Karajá 2,500, Javaé 920, Xambioá 190 (Crevels 2007)
wya Wyandot United States No known L1 speakers in United States. Last speaker died about 1960 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 3,600 (Golla 2007)
xsl Slavey, South Canada 530 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 3,600 (1995 M. Krauss)
nct Naga, Chothe India 3,600 (2001). Ethnic population: 3,600
but Bungain Papua New Guinea 3,600 (2003 SIL)
fud Futuna, East Wallis and Futuna 3,600 in Wallis and Futuna (2011 SIL)
tif Tifal Papua New Guinea 3,600 (2003 SIL)
okd Okodia Nigeria 3,600 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
kzw Karirí-Xocó Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 3,570 (Crevels 2007)
bzv Naami Cameroon 3,550 (2008 SIL)
dva Duau Papua New Guinea 3,550 (1991 SIL). 710 monolinguals
ttk Totoro Colombia No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 3,550 (Crevels 2007)
dmo Kemedzung Cameroon 3,540 (2008 Misaje council)
tkl Tokelauan Tokelau 1,410 in Tokelau (1987). Population total all countries: 3,540
sui Suki Papua New Guinea 3,510 (2003 SIL)
zmn Mbangwe Gabon 2,000 in Gabon (Idiata 2007). Population total all countries: 3,510
tnk Kwamera Vanuatu 3,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
syy Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language Israel 140 (Sandler et al. 2005). L2 users: Also used by many of the 3,500 hearing people in the village; Members of the community generally recognize ABSL as L2 of the village
pku Paku Indonesia 3,500 (2003), decreasing. Few monolinguals
tuc Mutu Papua New Guinea 3,500 (2007 SIL), increasing. Only older adults are monolingual. Ethnic population: 3,500
trm Tregami Afghanistan 3,500 (2011), increasing. 700 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,500
pln Palenquero Colombia 500 (Holm 1989). Ethnic population: 3,500
bph Botlikh Russian Federation 210 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 3,500 (2010 census)
aub Alugu China 3,500 (Pelkey 2011), increasing. Ethnic population: 3,500
gdr Wipi Papua New Guinea 3,500 (1999 J. Shim)
tcg Tamagario Indonesia 3,500 (1987 SIL)
khx Kanu Democratic Republic of the Congo 3,500 (Welmers 1971)
bvt Bati Indonesia 3,500 (Loski and Loski 1989)
dad Marik Papua New Guinea 3,500 (1998 SIL)
ems Yupik, Pacific Gulf United States 200 (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 3,500 (Dorais 2010)
khe Korowai Indonesia 3,500 (2007 P. de Vries). 3,000 monolinguals
nir Nimboran Indonesia 2,000 (1987 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,500 (1987 SIL)
shw Shwai Sudan 3,500 (1989)
kyx Rapoisi Papua New Guinea 3,500 (1998 SIL)
kgx Kamaru Indonesia 3,500 (2004 SIL)
ads Adamorobe Sign Language Ghana 41 (Kusters 2012). Many of the approximately 3,500 hearing people in Adamorobe village also use AdaSL, to varying degrees of proficiency (Kusters 2012)
zpu Zapotec, Yalálag Mexico 3,500 in Mexico (2005). 2,000 are in Yalálag
mxe Mele-Fila Vanuatu 3,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
kvn Kuna, Border Colombia 2,600 in Colombia (2012 SIL). Population total all countries: 3,500
pwb Panawa Nigeria 3,500 (Blench 2003)
saw Sawi Indonesia 3,500 (1993 R. Doriot)
prc Parachi Afghanistan 3,500 (Kiefer 2009)
lkj Remun Malaysia 3,500 (2000 SIL)
asb Assiniboine Canada 150 L1 speakers for Canada and the United States; 3,500 ethnic population for Canada and the United States (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 3,500 ethnic population for Canada and the United States (Golla 2007)
jim Jimi Cameroon 3,500 (1982 SIL)
xsi Sio Papua New Guinea 3,500 (1987 SIL)
nhg Nahuatl, Tetelcingo Mexico 3,500 (1990 census)
glj Gula Iro Chad 3,500 (1991 SIL). 2,000 Pongaal, 730 Tiaala, 200 Tiitaal, 350 Patool, 170 Korintal
bjx Itneg, Banao Philippines 3,500 (2003 SIL). Unknown number in Malibcong dialect area
azg Amuzgo, San Pedro Amuzgos Mexico 3,480 (2000 INALI)
aai Miniafia Oyan Papua New Guinea 3,470 (2000)
ykm Kap Papua New Guinea 3,460 (2003 SIL), decreasing
tdq Tita Nigeria 3,420 (2000)
ksm Kumba Nigeria 3,420 (2000)
jrr Jiru Nigeria 3,420 (2000)
bbl Bats Georgia 3,420 (2000). Active users may be far fewer than 3,000 (Salminen 2007)
des Desano Brazil 960 in Brazil (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 3,420. Ethnic population: 1,530 (Moore 2006)
obu Obulom Nigeria 3,420 (2000)
ldh Lamja-Dengsa-Tola Nigeria 3,420 (2000)
xtd Mixtec, Diuxi-Tilantongo Mexico 3,410 (2000 INALI), decreasing. In rapid decline due to migration to the United States. 150 monolinguals
bcr Babine Canada 430 (FPCC 2014). 295 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). 100 fluent speakers and 100 passive speakers of Wetsuwet’en. 200 speakers of all degrees of fluency of Babine Proper (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 3,410 (FPCC 2014)
zaq Zapotec, Aloápam Mexico 3,400 (2000 census)
xks Kumbewaha Indonesia 3,400 (2004 SIL)
aez Aeka Papua New Guinea 3,400 (2007)
pne Penan, Western Malaysia 3,400 (2007 SIL)
tnr Ménik Senegal 3,380 (2002 NTM)
tao Yami China–Taiwan 3,380 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 3,380
zpt Zapotec, San Vicente Coatlán Mexico 3,380 (2005 census). 340 monolinguals
fad Wagi Papua New Guinea 3,380 (2003 SIL)
xkk Kaco’ Cambodia 3,370 (2007)
udg Muduga India 3,370 (1991 census)
kji Zabana Solomon Islands 3,360 (2003 SIL)
nmb V’ënen Taut Vanuatu 3,350 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
mbk Malol Papua New Guinea 3,330
tkp Tikopia Solomon Islands 3,320 (1999 SIL)
pgu Pagu Indonesia 3,310 (2000)
bee Byangsi India 2,830 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 3,310. 0 monolinguals
tfr Teribe Panama 3,300 in Panama (Adelaar 2007)
tpo Tai Pao Laos 3,300 (1995 census)
zrs Mairasi Indonesia 3,300 (1996 SIL)
yuz Yuracare Bolivia 2,680 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 3,300 (Adelaar 2004)
kqa Mum Papua New Guinea 3,290 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
kzz Kalabra Indonesia 3,290 (2000)
mqm Marquesan, South French Polynesia 2,700 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 3,270
iwk I-wak Philippines 3,260 (2000)
xtl Mixtec, Tijaltepec Mexico 3,250 (2005 census). 420 monolinguals
lka Lakalei East Timor 3,250 (2010 census)
hul Hula Papua New Guinea 3,240 (2000 census)
bzn Boano Indonesia 3,240 (1982)
dgr Dogrib Canada 2,080 (2011 census). 250 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,220
kxa Kairiru Papua New Guinea 3,200 (2000 census)
sto Stoney Canada 3,160 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 3,200 (Golla 2007)
okn Oki-No-Erabu Japan 3,200 (2004)
sol Solos Papua New Guinea 3,200 (1977 P. Lincoln)
itl Itelmen Russian Federation 80 (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 3,200 (2010 census)
ldq Lufu Nigeria 3,200 (2006)
pkh Pangkhua Bangladesh 3,200 in Bangladesh (2012 SIL)
bls Balaesang Indonesia 3,200 (Himmelmann 2001)
nmh Naga, Monsang India 3,200 (2001). Ethnic population: 3,200
eot Beti Côte d’Ivoire 200 (Blench, Spriggs, and Connell 1999). Ethnic population: 3,180 (1988 census)
kuv Kur Indonesia 3,180 (2000)
mit Mixtec, Southern Puebla Mexico 3,180 (2010 INEGI). 150 monolinguals (2010)
sbr Sembakung Murut Indonesia 3,180 in Indonesia (2000)
bbd Bau Papua New Guinea 3,150 (2000 SIL)
chz Chinantec, Ozumacín Mexico 3,140 (2000 INALI). 260 monolinguals (1990 census)
cut Cuicatec, Teutila Mexico 3,140 (2000 INALI). 260 monolinguals
ssx Samberigi Papua New Guinea 3,130 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
sdp Sherdukpen India 3,100 (2001)
str Salish, Straits Canada 7 in Canada (FPCC 2014). 100 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Population total all countries: 12. Ethnic population: 3,060 (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 100 in Canada
kkr Kir-Balar Nigeria 3,050 (1993)
bwm Biwat Papua New Guinea 3,040 (2003 SIL)
tnh Maiani Papua New Guinea 3,040 (2003 SIL)
smb Simbari Papua New Guinea 3,040 (1990 census)
uli Ulithian Micronesia 3,000 in Micronesia (1987 UBS). Population total all countries: 3,039
ree Kayan, Rejang Malaysia 3,030 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
pos Popoluca, Sayula Mexico 3,030 (Adelaar 2007). 15 monolinguals
loy Loke Nepal 3,030 (2011 census)
apr Arop-Lokep Papua New Guinea 3,020 (2000 census), increasing. Few monolinguals
mow Moi Congo 3,020 (2000)
byf Bete Nigeria 50 (1992). Ethnic population: 3,000
bzm Bolondo Democratic Republic of the Congo 3,000 (1983 census)
sgz Sursurunga Papua New Guinea 3,000 (1991 SIL)
kpl Kpala Democratic Republic of the Congo 3,000 (1986 SIL)
pym Fyam Nigeria 3,000
eip Lik Indonesia 3,000 (1987 SIL)
ppo Folopa Papua New Guinea 3,000 (1985 SIL)
www Wawa Cameroon 3,000 (1991 SIL). 700 in Gandoua dialect (2014 SIL)
apm Apache, Mescalero-Chiricahua United States 1,500 (Golla 2007). 1,500 Mescalero in New Mexico, 3 Chiricahua in Oklahoma (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: More than 3,000 Mescalero (Golla 2007). 175 Chiricawa, including 149 in New Mexico (2000 census)
wrx Wae Rana Indonesia 3,000 (2010)
wms Wambon Indonesia 3,000 (1987 SIL)
kgr Abun Indonesia 3,000 (1995 SIL)
kpa Kutto Nigeria 3,000 (1995)
nmd Ndumu Gabon 3,000 (Idiata 2007)
gza Ganza Sudan 2,600 in Sudan (2007 A. Krell). Population total all countries: 3,000
smz Simeku Papua New Guinea 3,000 (2007 SIL). 2,000 Koopei and 1,000 Mainoki
kpg Kapingamarangi Micronesia 3,000 (1995 SIL). 1,000 on Kapingamarangi and 2,000 in Pohnrakied village on Pohnpei
pqm Malecite-Passamaquoddy Canada 490 in Canada (2011 census). Population total all countries: 590. Ethnic population: 3,000 (1998 SIL)
ybj Hasha Nigeria 3,000 (Blench 1999)
cbu Candoshi-Shapra Peru 1,120 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 3,000 (Crevels 2007)
npu Naga, Puimei India 3,000 (2001). Mostly monolingual. Ethnic population: 3,000
kcl Kala Papua New Guinea 2,200 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,000
nkd Koireng India 3,000 (2002 BCA)
kfv Kurmukar India 3,000 (2000 SIL)
yum Quechan United States 150 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 3,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto)
scw Sha Nigeria 3,000 (1998 SIL)
kcs Koenoem Nigeria 3,000 (1973 SIL)
kcy Korandje Algeria 3,000 (2010 L. Souag)
roc Roglai, Cacgia Viet Nam 3,000 (2002)
kfn Kuk Cameroon 3,000 (1993 SIL)
cie Cineni Nigeria 3,000 (1998)
cfd Cara Nigeria 3,000 (1999 R. Blench)
gmn Gimnime Cameroon 3,000 (1982 SIL)
adn Adang Indonesia 3,000 (2000), decreasing
sdg Savi Afghanistan 3,000 in Afghanistan (1983)
cll Chala Ghana 3,000 (2003 GILLBT)
cay Cayuga Canada 240 in Canada (2011 census). Population total all countries: 250. Ethnic population: 3,000 (Yamamoto 2007)
nsy Nasal Indonesia 3,000 (2008 K. Anderbeck). Very few monolinguals
yko Yasa Cameroon 1,490 in Cameroon (2000). Population total all countries: 2,400. Ethnic population: 3,000
aik Ake Nigeria 3,000 (Blench, Spriggs, and Connell 1999)
clm Clallam United States No known L1 speakers (2014 R. Allen), decreasing. Last speaker died in 2014. Ethnic population: 3,000 (2014 R. Allen). L2 users: 6. L2 speakers have varying fluency, number is growing
prz Providencia Sign Language Colombia 19 (Washabaugh 1986). Known by most people on the island including 19 born deaf out of 2,500 to 3,000 population (Washabaugh 1986)
pwg Gapapaiwa Papua New Guinea 3,000 (2007 SIL), increasing
ahh Aghu Indonesia 3,000 (1987 SIL)
nrz Lala Papua New Guinea 3,000 (2007 SIL)
gvm Gurmana Nigeria 3,000 (1989)
yot Yotti Nigeria 3,000 (2011 SIL)
gne Ganang Nigeria 3,000 (2007), decreasing
yng Yango Democratic Republic of the Congo 3,000 (1986 SIL)
cbn Nyahkur Thailand 1,500 (2006 C. Shimmin), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,000 (Thongkum 1984)
llq Lolak Indonesia 3,000 (2004 SIL)
dbt Dogon, Ben Tey Mali 3,000 (2005 J. Heath)
bnq Bantik Indonesia 3,000 (Utsumi 2001), decreasing
boa Bora Peru 2,330 in Peru (2000). Population total all countries: 2,430. Ethnic population: 3,000 (Crevels 2007)
bcg Baga Binari Guinea 3,000
tpt Tepehua, Tlachichilco Mexico 3,000 (1990 SIL)
pif Pingelapese Micronesia 2,500 in Micronesia. 500 on Pingelap, about 2,000 on Ponape. Population total all countries: 3,000
mff Naki Cameroon 3,000 (Breton 1993). 300 in Nse chiefdom
hoz Hozo Ethiopia 3,000 (1995 SIL)
tst Tondi Songway Kiini Mali 3,000 (1998 SIL)
pim Powhatan United States No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 3,000 (1977 SIL)
isk Ishkashimi Afghanistan 2,500 in Afghanistan (2009 S. Beck), decreasing. Population total all countries: 3,000. 0 monolinguals
bbi Barombi Cameroon 3,000 (2001 SIL)
nbp Nnam Nigeria 3,000 (1987 O. Asinya)
kig Kimaghima Indonesia 3,000 (1987 SIL)
bok Bonjo Congo 3,000
bvg Bonkeng Cameroon 3,000 (2000)
ktm Kurti Papua New Guinea 3,000 (2002 SIL). About 400 outside the language area
bnd Banda Indonesia 3,000 (1987 SIL)
ncs Nicaraguan Sign Language Nicaragua 3,000 (1997 ANSNIC)
ndn Ngundi Congo 3,000 in Congo (2004)
mht Mandahuaca Venezuela 3,000 (1975 G. Indigenista). Ethnic population: The size of the ethnic group is not clear since the usually cited number of 3,000 (1975 G. Indigenista) probably includes Baré [bae], Baniva [bwi] and Mandahuaca (Crevels 2007)
tgu Tanggu Papua New Guinea 3,000 (1991 SIL)
thn Thachanadan India 3,000 (2004 survey)
pbn Kpasham Nigeria 3,000
bgu Mbongno Nigeria 3,000 in Nigeria (Blench, Spriggs, and Connell 1999)
tee Tepehua, Huehuetla Mexico 3,000 (1982 SIL)
bfg Kayan, Busang Indonesia 3,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
mko Mingang Doso Nigeria 3,000 (1995 SIL)
bfp Beba Cameroon 3,000 (2002 SIL)
tdk Tambas Nigeria 3,000 (2001 R. Blench)
hru Hruso India 3,000 (Van Driem 2007)
ncl Nahuatl, Michoacán Mexico 3,000 (1990 census)
knv Tabo Papua New Guinea 3,000 (2002 SIL). Population split equally between dialects
sze Seze Ethiopia 3,000 (1995 SIL)
nzz Dogon, Nanga Dama Mali 3,000 (2009 SIL)
ulu Uma’ Lung Indonesia 3,000 (Soriente 2006), decreasing
aye Ayere Nigeria 3,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992)
iwm Iwam Papua New Guinea 3,000 (1998 NTM)
hap Hupla Indonesia 3,000 (1982 WT)
mmo Buang, Mangga Papua New Guinea 1,500 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 3,000
ste Liana-Seti Indonesia 3,000 (1989 SIL)
ura Urarina Peru 3,000 (2002 SIL). Women are monolingual
due Agta, Umiray Dumaget Philippines 3,000 (1994 SIL), decreasing
kmp Gimme Cameroon 3,000 (1982 SIL)
dtu Dogon, Tebul Ure Mali 3,000 (2005 FEL)
auj Awjilah Libya 3,000 (2000). Women are monolingual
kmo Kwoma Papua New Guinea 3,000 (2003 SIL)
lud Ludian Russian Federation 3,000 (2012 T. Salminen)
mmx Madak Papua New Guinea 3,000 (1985 UBS)
swt Sawila Indonesia 3,000 (Grimes et al. 1997)
pns Ponosakan Indonesia 3,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
ont Ontenu Papua New Guinea 3,000 (1996 SIL)
kid Koshin Cameroon 3,000 (Good 2011)
one Oneida Canada 180 in Canada (2011 census). Population total all countries: 192. Ethnic population: 3,000 (Golla 2007). On Thames River near London, Ontario
wli Waioli Indonesia 3,000 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987)
ncp Ndaktup Cameroon 2,980 (2000)
dek Dek Cameroon 2,980 (2000)
bby Befang Cameroon 2,980 (2000)
kdz Kwaja Cameroon 2,980 (2000)
xbi Kombio Papua New Guinea 2,970 (2003 SIL), decreasing. Small groups in West New Britain, Vanimo and Lae areas; a few elsewhere. About 2,400 live in Kombio area. Very few monolinguals
bgl Bo Laos 2,950 (2000)
cav Cavineña Bolivia 1,680 (2006 PIB). Ethnic population: 2,950 (2001 DNPI)
mte Mono Solomon Islands 2,940 (1999 SIL). 660 Mono, 2,270 Alu, 14 Fauro
ito Itonama Bolivia 5 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,940 (2006 PIB)
hya Hya Cameroon 940 in Cameroon (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 2,940
fun Iatê Brazil 2,930 (1999 ISA)
dtt Dogon, Toro Tegu Mali 2,900 (1998 J. Durieux)
bpv Marind, Bian Indonesia 2,900 (2002 Sohn Myo-sook)
waw Waiwai Brazil 2,020 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Population total all countries: 2,230. Ethnic population: 2,900 (2005 ISA)
zbt Batui Indonesia 2,900, decreasing
gzn Gane Indonesia 2,900 (1982 D. Teljeur)
zae Zapotec, Yareni Mexico 2,900 (2000 census)
kbt Abadi Papua New Guinea 2,900 (Kassell 2011), increasing
sdk Sos Kundi Papua New Guinea 2,850 (2000 census)
cui Cuiba Colombia 2,200 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 2,850. 1,500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,280 (Crevels 2007)
var Huarijío Mexico 2,840 (2005 SIL). 1,570 in Chihuahua, 1,210 in Sonora
elo El Molo Kenya 8 (1994 I. Larsen), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,840 (2009 census)
sws Seluwasan Indonesia 2,840 (Florey 2005). 740 in Makatian, 2,100 in Seluwasan
bdz Badeshi Pakistan No known L1 speakers. No known speakers for three or more generations. Ethnic population: 2,830 (2000)
kcx Kachama-Ganjule Ethiopia 2,830 (2007 census). L2 users: 420 (1994 census). 220 Kachama, 200 Ganjule
rkh Rakahanga-Manihiki Cook Islands 320 in Cook Islands (2011 census). Population total all countries: 2,820
ysd Samatao China 400 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,810 (Bradley 2007)
bmk Ghayavi Papua New Guinea 2,810 (2000 census)
yml Iamalele Papua New Guinea 2,800 (1987 SIL). 1,120 monolinguals
cpg Cappadocian Greek Greece 2,800 (2015 M. Janse)
dmr Damar, East Indonesia 2,800 (1990 SIL)
csw Cree, Swampy Canada 2,500 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 2,800 (Golla 2007)
nop Numanggang Papua New Guinea 2,300 (2000 census). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,800
spq Spanish, Loreto-Ucayali Peru 2,800 (2006). Some monolinguals
svb Ulau-Suain Papua New Guinea 2,800 (2003 SIL), decreasing
ruu Lobu, Lanas Malaysia Ethnic population: 2,800 (1986 SIL). 2,000 in Lobu, 800 in Rumanau
foi Foi Papua New Guinea 2,800 (1980 UBS)
lec Leco Bolivia 20 (2001 S. van de Kerke). Ethnic population: 2,800 (2001 DNPI)
kfg Kudiya India 2,800 (2007)
kih Kilmeri Papua New Guinea 1,970 (2004 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,800 (2004 SIL)
bae Baré Venezuela 240 in Venezuela (2011 W. Largo). Ethnic population: 2,790 (1998)
ulc Ulch Russian Federation 150 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 2,770 (2010 census)
lga Lungga Solomon Islands 2,770 (1999 SIL)
obk Bontok, Southern Philippines 2,760 (2007 census)
djr Djambarrpuyngu Australia 2,760 (2006 census)
xky Uma’ Lasan Malaysia 1,250 in Malaysia (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Population total all countries: 2,750
knm Kanamarí Brazil 1,330 (Moore 2006). 100 Tsohom-Djapa speakers (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,750 (2006 FUNASA)
kmx Waboda Papua New Guinea 2,750 (2003 SIL)
mgn Mbangi Central African Republic 2,750 (1996)
uam Uamué Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,740 (Crevels 2007)
goc Gorakor Papua New Guinea 2,740 (1979 census)
zpv Zapotec, Chichicapan Mexico 2,720 (2005 INEGI)
pav Pakaásnovos Brazil 1,930 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,720 (2006 FUNASA)
auk Heyo Papua New Guinea 2,710 (2000 census). 270 monolinguals
hka Kahe Tanzania 2,700 (1987)
rap Rapa Nui Chile 2,400 in Chile (Wurm 2007). Population total all countries: 2,700
sbb Simbo Solomon Islands 2,700 (1999 SIL)
bzl Boano Indonesia 2,700 (Himmelmann 2001)
hbu Habun East Timor 2,700 (2010 census)
aih Ai-Cham China 2,700 (2000)
kqi Koitabu Papua New Guinea 2,700 (Wurm 2000)
bgf Bangandu Cameroon 2,700 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
bbh Bugan China 2,700 (Yunbin 2005)
mik Mikasuki United States 190 (2010 census). Spoken by most of the 400 members of the Miccosukee Tribe as well as by many of the 2,700 members of the Seminole Tribe (Golla 2007). 35 monolinguals
hnu Hung Laos 2,000 in Laos (Ferlus 1996). Population total all countries: 2,700
fuj Ko Sudan 2,680 (Stevenson 1984)
vam Vanimo Papua New Guinea 2,670 (2000 census)
pjt Pitjantjatjara Australia 2,660 (2006 census). 2,130 monolinguals. L2 users: 500
gyb Garus Papua New Guinea 2,650 (2003 SIL)
taz Tocho Sudan 2,650 (2013 T. Alaki and R. Norton). Home area population: 2,000
gei Gebe Indonesia 2,650 (2000)
aim Aimol India 2,640 (2001 census)
cta Chatino, Tataltepec Mexico 2,640 (2000 INALI). 470 monolinguals
pni Aoheng Indonesia 2,630 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
blv Bolo Angola 2,630 (2000)
gar Galeya Papua New Guinea 2,620 (2000 census). 790 monolinguals
alc Qawasqar Chile 12 (2006 O. Aguilera). 10 in Puerto Edén. Ethnic population: 2,620 (2002 census)
mbq Maisin Papua New Guinea 2,610 (2000 census). 600 in Kosirava dialect
cal Carolinian Northern Mariana Islands 2,420 in Northern Mariana Islands (2000 census). Population total all countries: 2,610. 0 monolinguals
mpp Migabac Papua New Guinea 2,600 (2010 SIL)
cam Cemuhî New Caledonia 2,600 (2009 census), increasing
spb Sepa Indonesia 2,600 (1989 SIL)
lof Logol Sudan 2,600
add Dzodinka Cameroon 2,600 in Cameroon (2000), increasing
tuj Tugutil Indonesia 2,590 (2000)
pay Pech Honduras 990 (Rivas 1993). Ethnic population: 2,590 (Rivas 1993)
ksl Kumalu Papua New Guinea 2,580 (1979 census)
six Sumau Papua New Guinea 2,580 (2003 SIL)
mza Mixtec, Santa María Zacatepec Mexico 2,570 (2005 census). 510 monolinguals
aah Arapesh, Abu’ Papua New Guinea 2,560 (2000 SIL)
ubr Ubir Papua New Guinea 2,560 (2000 census)
hve Huave, San Dionisio del Mar Mexico 2,550 (2005 census). 1 monolinguals
bbm Babango Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,550 (2000)
agv Dumagat, Remontado Philippines 2,530 (2000)
hei Heiltsuk Canada 66 (FPCC 2014). 50 semi-speakers; 6 remaining speakers of Oowekyala (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 2,530 (FPCC 2014). L2 users: A few fluent L2 speakers
swf Sere Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,500 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Population total all countries: 2,528
bzq Buli Indonesia 2,520 (2000)
ghn Ghanongga Solomon Islands 2,510 (1999 SIL)
wbp Warlpiri Australia 2,510 (2006 census)
xua Kurumba, Alu India 2,500 (1997)
mbh Mangseng Papua New Guinea 2,500 (1998 SIL)
sbe Saliba Papua New Guinea 2,500 (2007 SIL), increasing. 1,000 monolinguals. Young children, elderly
sax Sa Vanuatu 2,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
kmt Kemtuik Indonesia 2,500 (1987 SIL)
kwe Kwerba Indonesia 2,500 (1996 SIL)
ved Veddah Sri Lanka Ethnic population: 2,500 (2002)
ndt Ndunga Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,500 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
klc Kolbila Cameroon 2,500 (1997 L. Lode)
fqs Fas Papua New Guinea 2,500 (2000 census)
nmn !Xóõ Botswana 2,000 in Botswana (2011 C. Naumann). Population total all countries: 2,500
lui Luiseño United States 5 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,500 (Golla 2007)
gwj |Gwi Botswana 2,500 (2004 R. Cook)
lhp Lhokpu Bhutan 2,500 (Van Driem 1993)
ass Ipulo Cameroon 2,500 (1990 SIL)
cbl Chin, Bualkhaw Myanmar 2,500 (2006)
aix Aighon Papua New Guinea 2,000 (2003 SIL), increasing. 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,500
gwe Gweno Tanzania 2,200 (2006). Ethnic population: 2,500
fir Firan Nigeria 2,500 (Blench 2003)
dlk Dahalik Eritrea 2,500 (2012 J. McLaughlin)
sbu Stod Bhoti India 2,500 (1996)
sgp Singpho India 2,500 (Morey 2006)
ktc Kholok Nigeria 2,500 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
uis Uisai Papua New Guinea 2,500 (1991 SIL)
uan Kuan Laos 2,500 (1995 census)
bqa Tchumbuli Benin 2,500 (2000 SIL)
bdj Bai South Sudan 2,500 (Welmers 1971)
grs Gresi Indonesia 2,500 (1987 SIL)
kqj Koromira Papua New Guinea 2,500 (2007 SIL). 2,300 Koromira and 200 Koianu
tey Tulishi Sudan 2,500 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007)
zal Zauzou China 2,100 (Bradley 2007). 210 monolinguals. Mainly older adults. Ethnic population: 2,500 (1999 Sun Hong Kai)
nnk Nankina Papua New Guinea 2,500 (1991 SIL)
iws Iwam, Sepik Papua New Guinea 2,500 (2000 census)
yok Yokuts United States 50 (Golla 2007). Wukchumne dialect: fewer than 10; Choinumne dialect: 6; Yowlumne dialect: 20–25 fluent and semispeakers; Chukchansi: a few semispeakers; Tachi dialect: a few speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 2,500 (2000 A. Yamamoto)
jeb Jebero Peru 2,500 (2006). Ethnic population: 2,500 (2000 W. Adelaar)
paw Pawnee United States 10 (Golla 2007). 79 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,500 (Golla 2007)
ram Canela Brazil 2,500 (2008 FUNASA)
bml Bomboli Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,500 (1986 SIL)
sua Sulka Papua New Guinea 2,500 (1991 SIL)
brp Barapasi Indonesia 2,500 (1995 SIL)
zav Zapotec, Yatzachi Mexico 2,500 in Mexico (1990 census)
ztg Zapotec, Xanaguía Mexico 2,500 (1990 census). 880 monolinguals. Mainly older women
sko Seko Tengah Indonesia 2,500 (Laskowske and Laskowske 1987)
boo Bozo, Tiemacèwè Mali 2,500 (1991)
gdk Gadang Chad 2,500 (1997 SIL)
nps Nipsan Indonesia 2,500 (1993 R. Doriot)
lrr Yamphu, Southern Nepal 2,500 (2011 SIL), decreasing
wpc Maco Venezuela 2,500 (2002 J. Miller)
dww Dawawa Papua New Guinea 2,500 (1994 SIL). 500 monolinguals
zpr Zapotec, Santiago Xanica Mexico 2,500 (1990 census)
uvh Uri Papua New Guinea 2,500 (1991 SIL)
ega Ega Côte d’Ivoire 2,500 (2001 B. Connell)
bco Kaluli Papua New Guinea 2,500 (1994 SIL)
tbb Tapeba Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,490
byz Banaro Papua New Guinea 2,480 (1991 SIL)
zoo Zapotec, Asunción Mixtepec Mexico 100 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 2,480 (1990 census)
slt Sila Laos 1,770 in Laos (1995 census). Most members of the ethnic group speak the language (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 2,480
vbk Bontok, Southwestern Philippines 2,470 (2007 census)
yll Yil Papua New Guinea 2,470 (2000 census)
nhz Nahuatl, Santa María la Alta Mexico 2,470 (2000). 9 monolinguals
tht Tahltan Canada 45 (FPCC 2014). 60 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 2,460 (FPCC 2014)
kyi Kiput Malaysia 2,460 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
arw Arawak Suriname 700 in Suriname (1980 census). Population total all countries: 2,450. Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,050 (1980 census)
mum Maiwala Papua New Guinea 2,450 (2000 census)
jbu Jukun Takum Cameroon 2,440 in Cameroon (2000)
kit Agob Papua New Guinea 2,440 (2000 census). 1,440 Agob, 540 Ende, 460 Kawam
chd Chontal, Highland Oaxaca Mexico 2,420 (2000 INALI)
svs Savosavo Solomon Islands 2,420 (1999 SIL)
tcn Tichurong Nepal 2,420 (2000)
geb Kire Papua New Guinea 2,420 (2003 SIL)
dor Dori’o Solomon Islands 2,410 (1999 SIL)
nua Yuanga New Caledonia 2,400 (2009 census)
ksg Kusaghe Solomon Islands 2,400 (1999 SIL)
tte Bwanabwana Papua New Guinea 2,400 (2007 SIL), increasing. 720 monolinguals
klw Lindu Indonesia 2,400 (2000 census), increasing
ksr Borong Papua New Guinea 2,200 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 2,400
mxs Mixtec, Huitepec Mexico 2,400 (2000 INALI). 200 monolinguals
kse Kuni Papua New Guinea 2,400 (2000 census)
kto Kuot Papua New Guinea 2,400 (2002 SIL)
con Cofán Ecuador 900 in Ecuador (2001 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 2,400. Many monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,500
kmv Karipuna Creole French Brazil 2,400 (2008 SIL)
spu Sapuan Laos 2,400 (1981)
pkp Pukapuka Cook Islands 450 in Cook Islands (2011 census). Population total all countries: 2,400
gdn Umanakaina Papua New Guinea 2,400 (1987 SIL)
wok Longto Cameroon 2,400 (1982 SIL)
nti Natioro Burkina Faso 2,400 (Vanderaa 1991)
dal Dahalo Kenya 400 (1992 M. Brenzinger). Ethnic population: 2,400 (2009 census)
apz Safeyoka Papua New Guinea 2,390 (1980 census)
mhl Mauwake Papua New Guinea 2,390 (2003 SIL)
jei Yei Indonesia 2,390 (2001 SIL)
aer Arrernte, Eastern Australia 2,380 (2006 census)
ojv Ontong Java Solomon Islands 2,370 (1999 SIL)
dsi Disa Chad 2,370 (2000)
sqq Sou Laos 2,360 (2000)
xko Kiorr Laos 2,360 (1985 F. Proschan)
hot Hote Papua New Guinea 2,300 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,350
tbx Kapin Papua New Guinea 2,350 (1979 census)
lsh Lish India 2,340
dev Domung Papua New Guinea 2,330 (1991 SIL)
kce Kaivi Nigeria 2,320 (2000)
nke Duke Solomon Islands 2,310 (1999 SIL)
svm Slavomolisano Italy 1,000 (2012 W. Breu). 1,000 speakers among 2,300 inhabitants of the 3 villages, plus a number in expatriate communities (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 2,000 ( W. Breu)
kbm Iwal Papua New Guinea 2,100 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 2,300
ale Aleut United States 150 in United States (Krauss 2007). Population total all countries: 155. Ethnic population: 2,300 (Dorais 2010)
tsh Tsuvan Cameroon 2,300 (2000 SIL)
xkt Kantosi Ghana 2,300 (2003 GILLBT). 280–400 in Sandema District, probably about 280 in Kpaliwongo
bup Busoa Indonesia 2,300 (2000 SIL)
kkl Yale, Kosarek Indonesia 2,300 (1993 R. Doriot). 2,300 monolinguals. Nearly 100% are monolingual. Ethnic population: 2,300
zum Kumzari Oman 1,700 in Oman (1993 census). Population total all countries: 2,300
awv Awyu, Jair Indonesia 2,300 (2002 SIL)
koy Koyukon United States 300 (Golla 2007). 300 (1995 M. Krauss); 100 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,300 (Golla 2007)
mvn Minaveha Papua New Guinea 2,300 (2007 SIL), increasing. 600 monolinguals
yav Yangben Cameroon 2,300 (1994 SIL)
cof Colorado Ecuador 2,300 (2000 SIL), increasing. Some monolingual in remote communities. Ethnic population: 2,300 (2000 SIL)
spn Sanapaná Paraguay 2,270 (2002 census)
kku Tumi Nigeria 2,270 (2000)
tug Tunia Chad 2,260 (1993 census)
urw Sop Papua New Guinea 2,250 (2003 SIL)
bhl Bimin Papua New Guinea 2,250 (2003 SIL)
zrn Zerenkel Chad 2,240 (1993 census)
zpn Zapotec, Santa Inés Yatzechi Mexico 2,240 (1990 census). 180 monolinguals
tbv Tobo Papua New Guinea 2,230 (1980 census)
bjz Baruga Papua New Guinea 2,230 (2003 SIL), increasing. 800 Tafota, 990 Bareji, 440 Mado. 200 monolinguals
nkc Nkongho Cameroon 2,230 (2000)
mcf Matsés Peru 1,400 in Peru (2006 SIL). Population total all countries: 2,230
bqo Balo Cameroon 2,230 (2000)
mzd Malimba Cameroon 2,230 (2001 SIL)
nul Nusa Laut Indonesia No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,230 (1989 SIL)
kve Kalabakan Malaysia Ethnic population: 2,230 (2000)
uve Fagauvea New Caledonia 2,220 (2009 census), increasing. 51% live in greater Nouméa
myh Makah United States 12 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 2,220 (2000 census)
eri Ogea Papua New Guinea 2,210 (2003 SIL)
wed Wedau Papua New Guinea 2,200 (2000 D. Tryon). 900 monolinguals
sgy Sanglechi Afghanistan 2,200 (2009 S. Beck). Ethnic population: 2,200
bmc Biem Papua New Guinea 2,200 (2000 census)
soq Kanasi Papua New Guinea 2,200 (1998 SIL)
zpy Zapotec, Mazaltepec Mexico 2,200 (1990 census). 25 monolinguals
zka Kaimbulawa Indonesia 2,200 (2005 SIL)
npb Nupbikha Bhutan 2,200 (2006)
aaw Solong Papua New Guinea 2,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
gcc Mali Papua New Guinea 2,200 (1988 SIL)
lww Lewo Vanuatu 2,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Only very elderly and very young are monolingual. L2 users: Speakers of neighboring languages also use Lewo
bey Beli Papua New Guinea 2,200 (2000)
aij Lishanid Noshan Israel 2,200 (1994 H. Mutzafi)
jyy Jaya Chad 2,200 (1993 census)
kjr Kurudu Indonesia 2,180 (1993 R. Doriot)
ddi Goodenough, West Papua New Guinea 2,180 (2000). 440 monolinguals
xra Krahô Brazil 1,900 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 2,180 (2006 FUNASA)
kdk Numèè New Caledonia 2,180 (2009 census)
scu Shumcho India 2,170 (1998)
bgk Bit Laos 1,960 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 2,160
drq Dura Nepal Ethnic population: 2,160 (2011 census)
ham Hewa Papua New Guinea 2,150 (1986 SIL). 290 in Yoliapi (1982 SIL). 1,600 monolinguals
tin Tindi Russian Federation 2,150 (2010 census)
crq Chorote, Iyo’wujwa Argentina 1,500 in Argentina (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 2,150. 750 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Crevels 2007). Includes all ethnic Chorote, both [crt] and [crq]
pgi Pagi Papua New Guinea 2,140 (2003 SIL)
ltu Latu Indonesia 2,130 (1982 SIL)
tri Trió Suriname 1,400 in Suriname (2003 ISA). Population total all countries: 2,130. Ethnic population: 1,400 (2003)
tsu Tsou China–Taiwan 2,130 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 2,130
bjk Barok Papua New Guinea 2,120 (1985)
mle Manambu Papua New Guinea 2,110 (2003 SIL)
tmy Tami Papua New Guinea 2,100 (2010 SIL), increasing. 1,000 in each dialect
hwa Wané Côte d’Ivoire 2,100 (1993 SIL)
wic Wichita United States 1 (2008 B. Levy). Ethnic population: 2,100 (Golla 2007)
hrw Warwar Feni Papua New Guinea 2,100 (2000 census)
zen Zenaga Mauritania 200 in Mauritania, decreasing. Population total all countries: 2,100
coe Koreguaje Colombia 2,100 (Civallero 2008). Speakers of Koreguaje represent a fusion of various ethnic groups. Also spoken by Inga, Witoto, Carijona, and Tama (Crevels 2007)
agm Angaataha Papua New Guinea 2,100 (2003 BTA)
miz Mixtec, Coatzospan Mexico 2,090 (2000 INALI). 300 monolinguals (2005 census)
gai Mbore Papua New Guinea 2,090 (2003 SIL)
jae Yabem Papua New Guinea 2,080 (McElhanon 1978)
tzx Tabriak Papua New Guinea 2,080 (2003 SIL)
tef Teressa India 2,080 (2001 census)
sjr Siar-Lak Papua New Guinea 2,080 (2000 census)
tmf Toba-Maskoy Paraguay 1,680 (2007 R. Perik), decreasing. All women and young children are monolingual. Ethnic population: 2,060 (Crevels 2007)
nnf Ngaing Papua New Guinea 2,020 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,060
awb Awa Papua New Guinea 2,050 (2003 SIL)
cur Chhulung Nepal 2,050 (2011 census), decreasing. L1 speakers dwindling (Van Driem 2007)
bya Batak Philippines 200 (Wurm 2000), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,040 (1990 census)
cnc Côông Viet Nam 2,030 (2009 census)
boj Anjam Papua New Guinea 2,020 (2003 SIL)
mtp Wichí Lhamtés Nocten Bolivia 1,810 in Bolivia (1994). Population total all countries: 1,910. Ethnic population: 2,020 (1994)
yda Yanda Australia Few speakers reported in 2012
mkt Vamale New Caledonia 100 (2009 census), decreasing. Estimated population based on census. 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203
mrk Hmwaveke New Caledonia 200 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203
tow Jemez United States 1,790 (Ichihashi-Nakayama, Yumitani, and Yamamoto 2007), decreasing. 2,009 listed as Towa in 2000 census. 6 monolinguals (1990). Ethnic population: 1,940 (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2007)
bwa Bwatoo New Caledonia 150 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on census. 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203
hvk Haveke New Caledonia 300 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on 2009 census figures for all Voh-Koné languages: 1,203
aek Haeke New Caledonia 300 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on census. 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203
gac Great Andamanese, Mixed India 7 (2009 A. Abbi). The last fluent speaker died in 2009 (2009 A. Abbi). Ethnic population: 55
xda Darkinyung Australia A few speakers reported in 2008
eya Eyak United States No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in January 2008. Ethnic population: 50 (1995 M. Krauss)
adw Amundava Brazil 83 (2003 ISA). Crevels 2007 groups the Amundava together with the Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau [urz] for a total population of 170 (2003)
xiy Xipaya Brazil 1 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 600 (2002 ISA). The ethnic population probably includes Kuruaya [kyr] as they are sometimes considered a single ethnic group. There were 8 elders of Kuruaya and Xipaya descendance in Altamira reported to speak the native language in 2007 (Crevels 2007)
llj Ladji Ladji Australia No known L1 speakers. Estimated 10 speakers in 2005 (National Indigenous Languages Survey Report). Date of last speaker’s death unknown
nig Ngalakan Australia No known L1 speakers (Baker 2007). Last fluent speaker died in 2004 (Baker 2007)
kla Klamath-Modoc United States No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 2003 (Watanabe and Sasama 2007). Ethnic population: 170 (2000 census). L2 users: 6 (Golla 2007). 6 adult L2 speakers (Golla 2007)
sia Saami, Akkala Russian Federation No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker died in 2003. Ethnic population: 100 (1995 M. Krauss). 1,770 including all Saami (2010 census)
ilg Garig-Ilgar Australia No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 2003
ldd Luri Nigeria No known L1 speakers. In 2002, spoken only by the old chief and his wife (R. Blench)
tgx Tagish Canada 2 (Krauss 1997). One semi-fluent speaker and one elderly deaf speaker in 2001 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 400 (Krauss 1997)
tol Tolowa United States 1 (Golla 2007). One elderly semispeaker in 2001 but growing numbers of younger emerging speakers with limited competence (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). L2 users: 1 (2000)
kgg Kusunda Nepal 3 (2014 M. Donohue), decreasing. 87 reported in 2001 census, living in Pyuthan, Dang and Tanahun. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 160
cjh Chehalis, Upper United States No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 2001 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL)
btn Ratagnon Philippines 2 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 SIL)
mqo Modole Indonesia 2,000 (1983 SIL)
anh Nend Papua New Guinea 2,000 (1991 UBS)
bon Bine Papua New Guinea 2,000 (1987 SIL)
mqf Momuna Indonesia 2,000 (Wurm 2000)
kte Nubri Nepal 2,000 (2001 census). 500 monolinguals
tgo Sudest Papua New Guinea 2,000 (1987 SIL), increasing. 400 monolinguals
jmb Zumbun Nigeria 2,000 (1995 CAPRO)
juo Jiba Nigeria 2,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
swy Sarua Chad 2,000 (1997 SIL)
sxg Shixing China 1,800 (2000 D. Bradley). 1,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 D. Bradley)
bpo Anasi Indonesia 2,000 (1993 R. Doriot)
kzq Kaike Nepal 50 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2011 A. Regmi)
tgt Tagbanwa, Central Philippines 2,000 (1985 SIL)
tgd Ciwogai Nigeria 2,000 (1995 CAPRO)
wud Wudu Togo 2,000
kwt Kwesten Indonesia 2,000 (1987 SIL)
mpm Mixtec, Yosondúa Mexico 2,000 (2010 SIL). 60 monolinguals
jqr Jaqaru Peru 740 (Adelaar 2004). 730 Jaqaru, 11 Kawki. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 W. Adelaar)
mov Mohave United States 100 (Golla 2007). 30–35 at Fort Mohave, 35–50 at Colorado River. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Golla 2007)
xkn Kayan, Kayan River Indonesia 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
crt Chorote, Iyojwa’ja Argentina 800 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,000 ethnic Chorote [crt] and [crq] (Crevels 2007)
lau Laba Indonesia 2,000 (1991 SIL)
tck Tchitchege Gabon 2,000 (2003)
wuh Wutunhua China 2,000 (1995)
pbe Popoloca, Mezontla Mexico 2,000 (1993 SIL)
phk Phake India 2,000 (Bradley 2007)
buj Basa-Gurmana Nigeria 2,000 (Blench 1987)
xba Kamba Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1986 SIL)
dka Dakpakha Bhutan 2,000 (2011 SIL)
hup Hupa United States 8 (1998 J. Brook), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Hinton 2007). L2 users: 30
biy Birhor India 2,000 (Van Driem 2007). Nomadic habits make assessment difficult. Some estimates as low as 1,000 (Parkin 1991)
trq Triqui, San Martín Itunyoso Mexico 2,000 (1983)
kii Kitsai United States No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1940 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 S. DeLancey)
bcn Bali Nigeria 2,000 (1991 R. Blench)
puj Punan Tubu Indonesia 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
guo Guayabero Colombia 1,000 (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 2,000 (2007 N. López)
pab Parecís Brazil 2,000 (2008 Administração Executiva Regional Tangara da Serra)
cco Chinantec, Comaltepec Mexico 2,000 (1990 census). 150 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000
psg Penang Sign Language Malaysia 1,000, decreasing. 150 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000
kil Kariya Nigeria 2,000 (1995 CAPRO)
mae Bo-Rukul Nigeria 2,000 (Blench, Spriggs, and Connell 1999). 1,000 in each dialect
usp Uspanteko Guatemala 2,000 (2013 Language Museum)
ush Ushojo Pakistan 2,000 (1992)
mdl Maltese Sign Language Malta 200 (2014 Malta Deaf People Association). 200 signers out of 1,000 deaf and hard-of-hearing (2014 Malta Deaf People Association). 2,000 (2014 IMB)
tuh Taulil Papua New Guinea 2,000 (2012 SIL)
ukh Ukhwejo Central African Republic 2,000 (1996 SIL)
uiv Iyive Cameroon 1,000 in Cameroon (1996 WT). Population total all countries: 2,000
mxm Meramera Papua New Guinea 2,000 (1995 SIL). 100 monolinguals
cle Chinantec, Lealao Mexico 2,000 (1990 census). 500 monolinguals
gnk ||Gana Botswana 2,000 (2004 R. Cook)
ckz Kaqchikel-K’iche’ Mixed Language Guatemala 2,000 (1998 SIL)
cug Cung Cameroon 2,000 (2001 SIL)
gmd Mághdì Nigeria 2,000 (1992)
kzy Kango Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,000 (1998 T. Harvey)
mia Miami United States No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1977 SIL). L2 users: A Miami language scholar has acquired L2 fluency and his 2 youngest children are acquiring it as L1
gqu Qau China 2,000 (2011 SIL)
kze Kosena Papua New Guinea 2,000 (1987 SIL)
cpo Kpeego Burkina Faso 2,000 (2012 SIL)
pmo Pom Indonesia 2,000 (1987 SIL)
two Tswapong Botswana 2,000 (Andersson and Janson 1997)
sje Saami, Pite Sweden 20 in Sweden (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 2,000 (1995 M. Krauss)
mwo Maewo, Central Vanuatu 1,400 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 2,000 (2001)
khl Lusi Papua New Guinea 2,000 (1994 SIL)
lst Trinidad and Tobago Sign Language Trinidad and Tobago 2,000 (2008 E. Parks)
huz Hunzib Russian Federation 1,010 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 1,420. Ethnic population: 2,000
kov Kudu-Camo Nigeria 42 (1990 M. Bross). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007)
sge Segai Indonesia 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
dba Bangime Mali 2,000 (Blench 2005)
tmd Haruai Papua New Guinea 2,000 (2000 SIL). Many monolinguals
ppt Pare Papua New Guinea 2,000 (1990 UBS)
mhj Mogholi Afghanistan No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,000
ata Pele-Ata Papua New Guinea 2,000 (2007 SIL)
goe Gongduk Bhutan 2,000 (2006)
sgk Sangkong China 1,500 (1995 D. Bradley), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,000
asy Asmat, Yaosakor Indonesia 2,000 (1991 SIL)
skd Miwok, Southern Sierra United States 7 (1994 L. Hinton). 2000 census lists 50 Sierra Miwok which may include Northern Sierra [nsq] and Southern Sierra [skd]
jbe Judeo-Berber Israel 2,000 (1992 B. Podolsky)
kyj Karao Philippines 2,000 (2011 SIL)
ycp Chepya Laos 2,000 (Bradley 2007)
liu Logorik Sudan 2,000 (Welmers 1971)
nif Nek Papua New Guinea 2,000 (2011 SIL), increasing
yyz Ayizi China 50 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Bradley 2007)
zat Zapotec, Tabaa Mexico 2,000 (1992 SIL)
zir Ziriya Nigeria No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,000
zhw Zhoa Cameroon 2,000 (Troyer 1995)
nsq Miwok, Northern Sierra United States No known L1 speakers. 2000 census lists 50 Sierra Miwok which may include Northern Sierra [nsq] and Southern Sierra [skd]
kxs Kangjia China 1,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Bradley 2007)
nxk Naga, Koki Myanmar 2,000 (2004 SIL)
nxo Ndambono Gabon 2,000 (Idiata 2007)
ahm Aizi, Mobumrin Côte d’Ivoire 2,000 (1999 SIL)
ymd Muda China 2,000 (2007), decreasing
ngx Nggwahyi Nigeria 2,000 (1995)
alr Alutor Russian Federation 25 (2010 census), decreasing. Some monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 M. Krauss)
duf Drubea New Caledonia 2,000 (1996 census), decreasing. Over a third live outside the traditional area, mostly in greater Nouméa
yne Lang’e China 2,000 (2007)
yby Yaweyuha Papua New Guinea 2,000 (1991 SIL)
dym Dogon, Yanda Dom Mali 2,000 (Blench 2005)
ysg Sonaga China 2,000 (2009 SIL)
ley Lemolang Indonesia 2,000 (Vail 1991), decreasing
nuo Nguôn Viet Nam 1,000 (1995 census). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Bradley 2007)
kes Kugbo Nigeria 2,000 (1973 SIL)
zpi Zapotec, Santa María Quiegolani Mexico 2,000 (2000 census)
onr One, Northern Papua New Guinea 2,000 (2000 M. Crowther). Ethnic population: 2,000
let Amio-Gelimi Papua New Guinea 2,000 (2000 census)
enr Emem Indonesia 2,000 (2005 SIL). Some elderly monolinguals
qui Quileute United States No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1999 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 500 (Golla 2007). L2 users: 3 or 4 users in their fifties have a limited L2 command of some vocabulary (Golla 2007)
bjf Barzani Jewish Neo-Aramaic Israel 20 (2004 H. Mutzafi). In 1951, it was spoken among the 8 Jewish families of Bijil, a village in Iraqi Kurdistan. (1998 H. Mutzafi). Speaker who died in 1998 was over 80. Last Bijil dialect speaker died in 1998
bqd Bung Cameroon 3 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Nearly extinct in 1998 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007)
lhs Mlahsö Syria No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1998
laz Aribwatsa Papua New Guinea No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1997 (Wurm 2007)
ysr Yupik, Sirenik Russian Federation No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1997 (Dorais 2010)
win Ho-Chunk United States 250 (Golla 2007). 230 reported in 1997 (1997 V. Zeps). Ethnic population: 1,650 (2000 census)
jui Ngadjuri Australia No known L1 speakers. No speakers in 1996 (AUSTLANG census)
iow Iowa-Oto United States No known L1 speakers. Last fluent speakers of Iowa and Oto died in 1996 (1997 J. GoodTracks). Ethnic population: 1,150 (Golla 2007). L2 users: 20 L2 learners, none fluent
nha Nhanda Australia In 1995, a few speakers were reported. Some still survive (Wurm 2007)
ure Uru Bolivia 2 (Adelaar 2004). There are 3 groups of Uru origin: Chipaya, Iru Itu, Murato. Of these only Chipaya have conserved the language. The 1994 census has surprisingly shown that 59 of the 142 Iru Itu contended to know the language, which in reality is spoken by a few elders (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 590 (Crevels 2007). 450 Murato, 140 Iru Itu
anb Andoa Peru No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker died in 1993
aaq Abenaki, Eastern United States No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1993 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 90 (2000 census). Total Abenaki in the United States
uby Ubykh Turkey No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1992
pno Panobo Peru No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1991
huk Hulung Indonesia No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Spoken by fewer than 10 speakers in 1991, but now probably extinct (Wurm 2007)
vka Kariyarra Australia No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1991. Some people still know some words (Wurm 2007)
yiy Yir Yoront Australia 15 (1991 B. Sommer). Fewer than the 15 reported in 1991 (Wurm 2007). L2 users: Some L2 speakers
krk Kerek Russian Federation No known L1 speakers (Salminen 2007). 3 elderly speakers in 1991 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 4 (2010 census)
yss Yessan-Mayo Papua New Guinea 1,990 (2000 census). 993 Yawu dialect (2000 census)
jna Jangshung India 1,990 (1998 survey)
opt Opata Mexico No known L1 speakers. Last speakers previously reportedly died about 1930. Considered extinct but 1990 census lists 12 speakers (Adelaar 2007)
sjt Saami, Ter Russian Federation 350 (2010 census). Census includes Kildin Saami [sjd] and Skolt Saami [sms]. 6 elderly speakers in the early 1990s (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 1,770 (2010 census). 1,770 includes all Saami
sih Sîshëë New Caledonia No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker died in the 1990s. Ethnic population: 19 (2009 census)
tcl Taman Myanmar No known L1 speakers. Last Taman speaker died in 1990s. Descendants intermarried and now speak other languages
yuk Yuki United States No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died around 1990 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,200 (2000 A. Yamamoto)
pmw Miwok, Plains United States No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in the late 1990s (Golla 2007)
cah Cahuarano Peru No known L1 speakers (2012 SIL). Last speaker died in the late 1980s or early 1990s
ggk Kungarakany Australia No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1989
sgu Salas Indonesia 50 (1989 SIL). Likely less than the 50 reported in 1989 (Wurm 2007)
kzl Kayeli Indonesia No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Last speaker of Liliali dialect died in 1989 (Wurm 2007)
xas Kamas Russian Federation No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1989 (Salminen 2007)
jur Jurúna Brazil 280 (Moore 2006). 1 speaker left in the Terra Indígena Paquiçamba in 1989. Ethnic population: 360 (2006 FUNASA). 35 ethnic group members in the Tierra Indígena Paquiçamba (Crevels 2007)
nok Nooksack United States No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died about 1988. Ethnic population: 1,600 (1997 B. Galloway)
xeg ||Xegwi South Africa No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker died in 1988
cup Cupeño United States No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1987 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 20 (2000 census)
hti Hoti Indonesia No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). 10 elderly speakers in 1987, but now probably extinct (Wurm 2007)
yxl Yardliyawarra Australia 2 (Hercus and Austin 2004). 2 speakers in 1987 (Hercus and Austin 2004)
ibu Ibu Indonesia 35 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). In 1987, there were a few elderly speakers but it is now probably extinct (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 50 (1984)
grz Guramalum Papua New Guinea No known L1 speakers. 3–4 speakers in 1987. Now probably extinct
jay Yan-nhangu Australia 40 (Black 1983). Speaker number decreasing since 40 in 1983 (Wurm 2007)
tuu Tututni United States No known L1 speakers. The last fluent speaker died in 1983 (Golla 2007)
dix Dixon Reef Vanuatu 50 (1982 SIL). Likely fewer than the 50 reported in 1982 (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 60. 80% of the ethnic group speaks Dixon Reef
wik Wikalkan Australia 86 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Fewer than the 86 reported in 1981 (Wurm 2007)
lgb Laghu Solomon Islands 3 (Wurm 2007). In 1981, 5 speakers were reported (Wurm 2007)
dyy Dyaabugay Australia 29 (2006 census). Only 3 speakers in 1981 (Wurm 2007)
wih Wik-Me’anha Australia 12 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Fewer than the 12 reported in 1981 (Wurm 2007)
wij Wik-Iiyanh Australia 40 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Fewer than the 40 reported in 1981 (Wurm 2007)
wig Wik-Ngathana Australia 130 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Fewer than the 126 reported in 1981 (Wurm 2007)
twa Twana United States No known L1 speakers. The last fluent speaker died in 1980 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 350 (1977 SIL)
vis Vishavan India 150 (Shashi and Shri 1994). Disappearing. Many died in the 1980s from a smallpox epidemic
ksk Kansa United States No known L1 speakers. No fluent speakers since the early 1980s; 12 people claim to know Kansa (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,700 (Golla 2007)
gww Kwini Australia 50 (Black 1983). Number of speakers has seriously dropped since 1979 (Wurm 2007)
dsn Dusner Indonesia No known L1 speakers. There were 6 elderly speakers in 1978 (Wurm 2007)
gdm Laal Chad 750 (2000). Damtar village had its own dialect called Laabe with 3 speakers left in 1977
yga Malyangapa Australia No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker, Laurie Quayle, died in 1976
uky Kuuk-Yak Australia No known L1 speakers. Estimated 40 speakers in 1975, but the date of last speaker’s death unknown
hom Homa South Sudan No known L1 speakers. No remaining speakers as of 1975
glv Manx Isle of Man No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. L2 users: Several hundred who mainly learned it as adults. Last L1 native speaker died in 1974
vms Moksela Indonesia No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1974
atm Ata Philippines 2 (Wurm 2000). In 1973, only a few families of speakers were reported. Probably extinct (Wurm 2007)
wbt Wanman Australia 20 (1973 SIL). Considerably fewer than the 20 reported in 1973 (Wurm 2007)
csz Coos United States No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1972 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 150 (Golla 2007)
aew Ambakich Papua New Guinea 770 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,970 (2003 SIL)
sis Siuslaw United States No known L1 speakers. No speakers by the 1970s (Golla 2007). No speakers of Siuslaw for many years (1998 M. Kinkade). Ethnic population: 100 (Golla 2007)
til Tillamook United States No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1970
wua Wikngenchera Australia 50 (Oates and Oates 1970). Fewer than the 50 reported in 1970 (Wurm 2007)
gko Kok-Nar Australia No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in the early 1970s
ona Ona Argentina No known L1 speakers (Crevels 2007). The ethnic group disintegrated by early 20th century; last speakers died in the 1970s (Crevels 2007)
teb Tetete Ecuador No known L1 speakers. Only 3 ethnic group members reported in 1969 (SIL)
rnr Nari Nari Australia No known L1 speakers. Date of the last speaker’s death is unknown. Two speakers, Jack Wise and Mary Moore, provided language information in 1965 and 1967
ncz Natchez United States 6 (2011 H. Fields). Last speaker died in 1965 (Golla 2007)
wkw Wakawaka Australia No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Last native speaker of Duunidjawu dialect died in 1965 (Wurm 2007). L2 users: 2 (Wurm 2007)
boi Barbareño United States No known L1 speakers (Golla 2007), but emerging L2 speakers. Last speaker died in 1965 (Golla 2007)
wiy Wiyot United States No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1962 (1975 K. Teeter). Ethnic population: 450 (2000 A. Yamamoto)
pef Pomo, Northeastern United States No known L1 speakers. Last fluent speaker died in 1961 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1 (Golla 2007)
ktw Kato United States No known L1 speakers (Golla 2007). The last speaker died in the 1960s. A few have fragmentary memories of the language (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 92 (1982 SIL)
sln Salinan United States No known L1 speakers. Last speakers died in the early 1960s (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (1997 K. Turner)
kej Kadar India 1,960 (2004 survey), decreasing
gce Galice United States No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in the 1960s (Golla 2007)
snv Sa’ban Malaysia 1,110 in Malaysia (2000). Population total all countries: 1,960
chc Catawba United States No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Ethnic population: 500 (1977 SIL). The last speaker died before 1960
vot Vod Russian Federation 68 (2010 census). Last speakers of East Vod dialect died in the 1960s. Ethnic population: 73
yly Nyelâyu New Caledonia 1,960 (2009 census)
tva Vaghua Solomon Islands 1,960 (1999 SIL)
mbe Molale United States No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1958 (Golla 2007)
jor Jorá Bolivia No known L1 speakers (Crevels 2007). 5 speakers in 1955 (Crevels 2007)
iff Ifo Vanuatu No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1954
scs Slavey, North Canada 230 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 1,950 (Golla 2007). Bearlake dialect: 1,070. Hare dialect: 710. Mountain dialect: 170 (Golla 2007)
tun Tunica United States No known L1 speakers (Golla 2007). Became extinct after 1950 (Golla 2007)
awx Awara Papua New Guinea 1,900 (2011 SIL), increasing. 670 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,950
cid Chimariko United States No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died around 1950 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: No ethnic group members left (1997 K. Turner)
mfw Mulaha Papua New Guinea No known L1 speakers. Extinct since the 1950s (Wurm 2007)
dby Dibiyaso Papua New Guinea 1,950 (2000 census)
mvb Mattole United States No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in the 1950s
kyl Kalapuya United States No known L1 speakers. The last speaker (Santiam dialect) died in the 1950s (Golla 2007)
ctm Chitimacha United States No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1940 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 300 (1977 SIL)
pue Puelche Argentina No known L1 speakers. The last L1 speaker was Trruúlmani, a woman who died in 1934
nwo Nauo Australia No known L1 speakers. There were two potential speakers in the 1920s
tae Tariana Brazil 100 in Brazil (Aikhenvald 1996). Ethnic population: 1,910 (2002 ISA)
kyh Karok United States 12 (Golla 2007). 30 have some L2 fluency (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 340 (2000 census). 1,900 (2000 A. Yamamoto)
adu Aduge Nigeria 1,900 (Crozier and Blench 1992)
coo Comox Canada 36 (FPCC 2014). 710 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 1,900 (FPCC 2014)
mhn Mócheno Italy 1,900 (1992 R. Zamponi). 400 Fierozzo, 1,000 Palú, 460 Gereut
vao Vao Vanuatu 1,900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
slc Sáliba Colombia 1,300 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 1,550. Ethnic population: 1,900 (2004 DNP)
erg Sie Vanuatu 1,900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
guv Gey Cameroon No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,900 (1982 SIL)
uro Ura Papua New Guinea 1,900 (1991 SIL)
gwi Gwich’in Canada 370 in Canada (2011 census). Population total all countries: 670. Ethnic population: 1,900 (Krauss 2007)
kvd Kui Indonesia 1,900. Ethnic population: 1,900
lgu Longgu Solomon Islands 1,890 (1999 SIL)
bsn Barasana-Eduria Colombia 1,890 (1993 census)
xtu Mixtec, Cuyamecalco Mexico 1,880 (2000 INALI). 70 monolinguals in San Miguel
pir Piratapuyo Brazil 1,430 in Brazil (2005 FOIRN). Population total all countries: 1,880
gao Gants Papua New Guinea 1,880 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
tqu Touo Solomon Islands 1,870 (1999 census)
khv Khvarshi Russian Federation 1,740 (2010 census). 1,000 Inxokvari speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 1,870 (2002 census)
fwa Fwâi New Caledonia 1,860 (2009 census), increasing. 30% live in greater Nouméa
klf Kendeje Chad 1,860 (2000)
mbp Malayo Colombia 1,850 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,850 (Crevels 2007)
bcb Bainouk-Samik Senegal 1,850 (2006)
mij Mungbam Cameroon 1,850 (Good et al. 2011)
sob Sobei Indonesia 1,000 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 1,850 (2000 D. Tryon)
cnt Chinantec, Tepetotutla Mexico 1,850 (2000 INALI)
dia Dia Papua New Guinea 1,840 (2003 SIL)
ncf Notsi Papua New Guinea 1,840 (2000 census)
lcs Lisabata-Nuniali Indonesia 1,830 (1982)
pcb Pear Cambodia 1,670 (2011). Ethnic population: 1,830 (2008 census)
mzu Inapang Papua New Guinea 1,830 (2007)
tpj Ñandeva Paraguay 110 in Paraguay (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Population total all countries: 360. Ethnic population: 1,830 (Crevels 2007)
cdn Chaudangsi India 1,830 (2000 USCWM). 0 monolinguals
mwf Murrinh-Patha Australia 1,830 (2006 census)
twf Tiwa, Northern United States 1,070 (Ichihashi-Nakayama, Yumitani, and Yamamoto 2007), decreasing. 998 Taos, 66 Picuris speakers (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2007). Picuris spoken by nearly all 230 members of the Picuris Pueblo. 800 Taos speakers out of 1,600 in the pueblo (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,830 (Golla 2007)
zeg Zenag Papua New Guinea 1,820 (1979 census)
xer Xerénte Brazil 1,810 (2000 ISA). Ethnic population: 1,810 (Moore 2006)
cly Chatino, Eastern Highland Mexico 1,800 (2000 INALI)
vay Wayu Nepal 1,520 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,800 (2001 census)
mlv Mwotlap Vanuatu 1,800 (2007 A. François), increasing
ycn Yucuna Colombia 1,800 (2001 SIL). 10 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,800
auc Waorani Ecuador 1,650 (2004). Ethnic population: 1,800 (2012 SIL)
ceg Chamacoco Paraguay 1,600 (Fabre 2007). Ethnic population: 1,800
vmm Mixtec, Mitlatongo Mexico 1,800 (2011 SIL)
bvo Bolgo Chad 1,800 (1993 census)
grm Kota Marudu Talantang Malaysia Ethnic population: 1,800 (2000)
thw Thudam Nepal 1,800 (2000)
nis Nimi Papua New Guinea 1,700 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,800
jct Krimchak Ukraine 200 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 1,800 (Salminen 2007). 1,200 ethnic Krimchak in the Crimea, 600 elsewhere (Salminen 2007)
cap Chipaya Bolivia 1,200 (1995), increasing. 60 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,800
nlu Nchumbulu Ghana 1,800 (2003 SIL)
srl Isirawa Indonesia 1,800 (Wurm 2000)
ams Amami-Oshima, Southern Japan 1,800 (2004)
tnc Tanimuca-Retuarã Colombia 300 (1976 SIL). 180 Tanimuca. Retuarã more monolingual than Tanimuca. Ethnic population: 1,800 (Crevels 2007)
njj Njen Cameroon 1,800 (2002 SIL)
wbw Woi Indonesia 1,800 (2012 Y. Sawaki)
don Toura Papua New Guinea 1,800 (2007 SIL)
itz Itza’ Guatemala 12 (1986 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,800 (2001)
low Lobu, Tampias Malaysia Ethnic population: 1,800 (1985 SIL)
ali Amaimon Papua New Guinea 1,780 (2003 SIL)
lvk Lavukaleve Solomon Islands 1,780 (1999 SIL), decreasing
sjd Saami, Kildin Russian Federation 350 (2010 census). Census includes Skolt Saami [sms] and Ter Saami [sjt]. Ethnic population: 1,770 (2010 census). Number includes all Saami
ply Bolyu China 500 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 1,770 (Bradley 2007)
blp Blablanga Solomon Islands 1,770 (1999 SIL)
jee Jerung Nepal 1,760 (2011 census)
leq Lembena Papua New Guinea 1,760 (2000 census), increasing. 750 monolinguals
nho Takuu Papua New Guinea 1,750 (2003 SIL), decreasing. 350 monolinguals
bmh Kein Papua New Guinea 1,750 (2000 census)
ssz Sengseng Papua New Guinea 1,750 (2003 SIL)
tiw Tiwi Australia 1,740 (2006 census)
van Valman Papua New Guinea 1,740 (2003 SIL)
tsx Mubami Papua New Guinea 1,730 (2002 SIL)
sib Sebop Malaysia 1,730 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
ctl Chinantec, Tlacoatzintepec Mexico 1,720 (2000 INALI). 550 monolinguals
kbk Koiari, Grass Papua New Guinea 1,700 (Wurm 2000). 170 monolinguals
rmm Roma Indonesia 1,700 (1991 SIL)
apf Agta, Pahanan Philippines 1,700 (2009 J. Lobel), increasing
jal Yalahatan Indonesia 1,700 (2004 SIL)
mpl Watut, Middle Papua New Guinea 1,700 (2012 SIL)
bzb Andio Indonesia 1,700 (Busenitz 1991)
mvr Marau Indonesia 1,700 (1987 SIL)
llm Lasalimu Indonesia 1,700 (1999 SIL)
ptp Patep Papua New Guinea 1,700 (2003 SIL)
can Chambri Papua New Guinea 1,700 (1991)
yuw Yau Papua New Guinea 1,700 (1991 SIL)
bnb Bookan Malaysia Ethnic population: 1,700 (2000 SIL)
yag Yámana Chile 1 in Chile (2013 Y. Meroz). One elderly speaker in Ukika, 85 years old (2013 Y. Meroz). Ethnic population: 1,690 (2002 census)
piu Pintupi-Luritja Australia 1,690 (2006 census). 1,520 monolinguals
kbv Dera Indonesia 1,000 in Indonesia (1987 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,690
has Haisla Canada 240 (FPCC 2014). 21 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 1,680 (FPCC 2014). L2 users: A few fluent L2 speakers
etr Edolo Papua New Guinea 1,670 (2000 census). 1,000 monolinguals
ekl Kol Bangladesh 1,660 (2012 SIL)
jhi Jehai Malaysia 1,000 in Malaysia (2006). Ethnic population: 1,660 (2008 JHEOA)
aly Alyawarr Australia 1,660 (2006 census)
piv Vaeakau-Taumako Solomon Islands 1,660 (1999 SIL)
blc Bella Coola Canada 17 (FPCC 2014). 510 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 1,660 (FPCC 2014). L2 users: There are a few L2 speakers, all literate
abc Ayta, Ambala Philippines 1,660 (1986 SIL)
noc Nuk Papua New Guinea 900 (2006 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,650
elk Elkei Papua New Guinea 1,640 (2000 census)
dju Kapriman Papua New Guinea 1,640 (2003 SIL)
woe Woleaian Micronesia 1,630 (1987 census)
kbc Kadiwéu Brazil 1,590 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 1,630 (2006 FUNASA)
woy Weyto Ethiopia No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,630. 1,520 (93%) speak Amharic as L1
bwb Namosi-Naitasiri-Serua Fiji 1,630 (2000)
tud Tuxá Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,630 (1999)
nwm Nyamusa-Molo South Sudan 1,630 (2011 R. Abraham)
nxx Nafri Indonesia 1,630 (1975 SIL)
lmv Lomaiviti Fiji 1,630 (2000)
nlz Nalögo Solomon Islands 1,620 (2007 census), increasing
kyz Kayabí Brazil 1,000 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 1,620 (2006 FUNASA)
hug Huachipaeri Peru 310 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,620 (Crevels 2007). Includes Amarakaeri [amr]
amr Amarakaeri Peru 500 (1987 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,620 (Crevels 2007). Includes Huachipaeri [hug]
woc Wogeo Papua New Guinea 1,620 (2003 SIL)
tqt Totonac, Ozumatlán Mexico 1,610 (2000 census), decreasing
juw Wãpha Nigeria 1,610 (2000)
idi Idi Papua New Guinea 1,610 (2000 census). 780 Idi, 800 Tame
tlx Khehek Papua New Guinea 1,600 (1991 SIL)
ury Orya Indonesia 1,600 (1985 P. Fields). 900 in Unurum-Guay, 100 in Bonggo subdistrict, 600 in Lereh subdistrict. 0 monolinguals. L2 users: Some store owners and police have learned Orya
nib Nakame Papua New Guinea 980 (1980 census). Ethnic population: 1,600
mwi Ninde Vanuatu 1,100 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,600
lbu Labu Papua New Guinea Ethnic population: 1,600
ykg Yukaghir, Northern Russian Federation 370 (2010 census). Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux]. Ethnic population: 1,600 (2010 census). Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux]
skk Sok Laos 1,600 (1981)
clh Chilisso Pakistan 1,000 (1992 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,600
lwh Lachi, White Viet Nam 1,600 (Liang Min 1990). 300 households
aak Ankave Papua New Guinea 1,600 (1987 SIL)
kph Kplang Ghana 1,600 (2003 GILLBT)
yux Yukaghir, Southern Russian Federation 370 (2010 census). Census includes Northern Yukaghir [ykg]. Ethnic population: 1,600. Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux]
rmp Rempi Papua New Guinea 1,590 (2003 SIL)
xbw Kambiwá Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,580 (1999)
ymp Yamap Papua New Guinea 1,580 (2000 census)
irx Kamberau Indonesia 1,570 (1993 R. Doriot)
gmb Gula’alaa Solomon Islands 1,570 (1999 SIL)
meb Ikobi Papua New Guinea 1,570 (2009 SIL)
dah Gwahatike Papua New Guinea 1,570 (2003 SIL)
yaa Yaminahua Peru 750 in Peru (2003 SIL). 400 Yaminahua (1998 SIL), 150 Chitonahua. Population total all countries: 1,570
bea Beaver Canada 160 (FPCC 2014). 450 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 1,560 (FPCC 2014)
pre Principense São Tomé e Príncipe 200 (1999 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,560
tcx Toda India 1,560 (2001 census)
qup Quechua, Southern Pastaza Peru 1,550 (2000). 310 monolinguals
caz Canichana Bolivia No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,550 (2001 DNPI)
nuz Nahuatl, Tlamacazapa Mexico 1,550 (1990 census). 10 monolinguals
plu Palikúr Brazil 1,290 in Brazil (2010 IEPE). Population total all countries: 1,540
amp Alamblak Papua New Guinea 1,530 (2000 census)
bwf Boselewa Papua New Guinea 610 (1999 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,530
apn Apinayé Brazil 1,260 (2003 FUNASA). Ethnic population: 1,530 (2006 FUNASA)
sew Sewa Bay Papua New Guinea 1,520 (1972 census). 300 monolinguals
tme Tremembé Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,510 (1999)
pzn Naga, Para Myanmar 1,500 (2004)
maq Mazatec, Chiquihuitlán Mexico 1,500 (2000 INALI). 340 monolinguals
zbc Berawan, Central Malaysia 1,500 (2010 SIL)
qun Quinault United States No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,500 (1977 SIL). L2 users: Up to 6 L2 speakers in their 50s have limited knowledge of vocabulary (Golla 2007)
nec Nedebang Indonesia 1,500
wbb Wabo Indonesia 1,500 (1987 SIL)
ybo Yabong Papua New Guinea 1,500 (2000 census)
hih Pamosu Papua New Guinea 1,500 (2000 SIL)
bzp Kemberano Indonesia 1,500 (1987 SIL)
kmd Kalinga, Majukayang Philippines 1,500 (1990 SIL), increasing. L2 users: Used by those intermarrying with local speakers
bvz Bauzi Indonesia 1,500 (1991 SIL). 1,350 monolinguals
mkj Mokilese Micronesia 1,050 in Micronesia (1979 B. Bender). Fewer than 500 on Mokil Atoll. Population total all countries: 1,500
gak Gamkonora Indonesia 1,500 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987)
kvm Kendem Cameroon 1,500 (2001 SIL)
hoe Horom Nigeria 1,500 (1998 R. Blench)
scv Sheni Nigeria 6 (2004 R. Blench). Ethnic population: 1,500
xkd Kayan, Mendalam Indonesia 1,500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
yuc Yuchi United States 5 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,500 (Golla 2007)
zpx Zapotec, San Baltazar Loxicha Mexico 1,500 (1990 census). 20 monolinguals
nbt Na India 1,500
xku Kaamba Congo 1,500 (2007 census)
fkv Finnish, Kven Norway 1,500 (Laakso 2013)
nxl Nuaulu, South Indonesia 1,500 (1995 SIL)
cbr Cashibo-Cacataibo Peru 1,150 (Crevels 2007). Some women over 50 monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,500 (Crevels 2007)
bgb Bobongko Indonesia 1,500 (Mead 2001). 1,100 in Lembanato and 400 in Tumbulawa
mca Maka Paraguay 1,500 (2000 A. Chemhey). 600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,500 (2000)
bly Notre Benin 1,500 (2002 SIL)
duo Agta, Dupaninan Philippines 1,200 (1986 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2007 L. Reid)
tlo Talodi Sudan 1,500 (1989)
agz Agta, Mt. Iriga Philippines 1,500 (1979 SIL)
fut Futuna-Aniwa Vanuatu 1,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
yph Phupha China 1,300 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,500
dkk Dakka Indonesia 1,500 (Strømme 1987)
cbo Izora Nigeria 1,500 (Blench 2003)
cbg Chimila Colombia 350 (2009 T. Malone), increasing. Ethnic population: 1,500 (2009 T. Malone)
cob Chicomuceltec Mexico No known L1 speakers in Mexico. Ethnic population: 1,500
pla Miani Papua New Guinea 1,500 (1987 SIL)
ude Udihe Russian Federation 100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2010 census)
ymq Muji, Qila China 1,500 (2008), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,500
tgf Chalikha Bhutan 1,500 (2011 SIL)
vko Kodeoha Indonesia 1,500 (Mead 1999)
pax Pankararé Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,500
zik Zimakani Papua New Guinea 1,500 (1990 UBS)
hpo Hpon Myanmar No known L1 speakers (Bradley 2007), decreasing. Southern dialect extinct; northern dialect moribund; some older people remember lexical items but none can speak it (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 1,500 (Bradley 2007)
thm Aheu Thailand 450 in Thailand (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 700. Ethnic population: 1,500 (Bradley 2007)
dbf Edopi Indonesia 1,500 (2012 SIL)
skc Ma Manda Papua New Guinea 1,500 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,500
pnu Bunu, Jiongnai China 1,080 (1999 Mao Zongwu). 270 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,500 (Bradley 2007)
mpz Mpi Thailand 900 (Nahhas 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,500 (Nahhas 2007)
mqp Manipa Indonesia 1,500 (Voorhoeve and Collins 1981)
was Washo United States 10 (1998 J. Brook). Several dozen fully fluent speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,500 (Golla 2007). L2 users: A number of children and young adults have acquired moderate L2 fluency (Golla 2007)
atk Ati Philippines 1,500 (1980 SIL)
yir Awyu, North Indonesia 1,500 (1987 SIL)
myp Pirahã Brazil 360 (2000 ISA). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,500 (1995 SIL). Pirahã is a small group, Múra much larger
jeu Jonkor Bourmataguil Chad 1,500 (1993 SIL)
vmg Lungalunga Papua New Guinea 600 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,500
ola Walungge Nepal 1,500 in Nepal (2001 census), decreasing. 1,200 in the original language area. High language loss among those who have left the language area
aio Aiton India 1,500 (Morey 2006)
kqc Doromu-Koki Papua New Guinea 1,500 (2006 SIL). Half in language area and half in Port Moresby. Ethnic population: 1,500
jkr Koro India 1,500 (2011)
eno Enggano Indonesia 1,500 (2000 census), decreasing
kof Kubi Nigeria No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,500 (1995 CAPRO)
thh Tarahumara, Northern Mexico 1 (1998 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,500 (1993 SIL)
lmh Mugali Nepal 1,500 (2010 I. Rai), decreasing. Very few monolinguals
bxs Busam Cameroon 1,490 (2000)
xmb Mbonga Cameroon 1,490 (2000)
mtk Mbo’ Cameroon 1,490 (2000)
kxh Karo Ethiopia 1,480 (2007 census)
bcu Awad Bing Papua New Guinea 1,450 (2000 SIL)
wsu Wasu Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,450
kva Bagvalal Russian Federation 1,450 (2010 census)
mwb Juwal Papua New Guinea 1,440 (2000 census)
cin Cinta Larga Brazil 1,300 (Moore 2006). Nearly all are monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,440 (2006 FUNASA)
gnm Ginuman Papua New Guinea 1,440 (2000 census)
rhp Yahang Papua New Guinea 1,430 (2003 SIL). 1,120 in area, 66 outside
tij Tilung Nepal 1,420 (2011 census), decreasing
rgk Rangkas India No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,010 (2000). 1,420 all countries
guq Aché Paraguay 1,000 (2006 census). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,420
sek Sekani Canada 30 (FPCC 2014). 240 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 1,410 (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0 (Golla 2007)
gcn Gaina Papua New Guinea 1,410 (Dutton 1971). 1,000 in Bareji, 130 in Gaina
tce Tutchone, Southern Canada 140 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 1,400 (Golla 2007)
vmx Mixtec, Tamazola Mexico 1,400 (2000 INALI). 30 monolinguals
ess Yupik, Central Siberian United States 1,000 in United States (Dorais 2010). Population total all countries: 1,200. Ethnic population: 1,400 (Dorais 2010)
xns Kanashi India 1,400 (Chauhan 2002)
rak Tulu-Bohuai Papua New Guinea 1,400 (1982 SIL)
aku Akum Cameroon 1,400 in Cameroon (2002 SIL)
ilu Ili’uun Indonesia 1,400 (1990 SIL)
mti Maiwa Papua New Guinea 1,400 (1998 SIL), increasing
icl Icelandic Sign Language Iceland 300 (2010 The Ministry of Education, Science and Culture). 250 (2014 EUD). 1,400 (2014 IMB)
mvk Mekmek Papua New Guinea 1,400 (2000 census)
xpq Mohegan-Pequot United States No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,400 ethnic population of Mohegan-Pequot and Narragansett [xnt] (1977 SIL)
fau Fayu Indonesia 1,400 (2012 SIL)
ivb Ibatan Philippines 1,240 (2007 NCIP). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,400 (2008 SIL)
mpt Mian Papua New Guinea 1,400 (2000 census)
big Biangai Papua New Guinea 1,400 (1991 SIL). 700 monolinguals
sps Saposa Papua New Guinea 1,400 (1998 SIL)
ngy Tibea Cameroon 1,400 (1992 SIL)
keg Tese Sudan 1,400 (Welmers 1971)
naz Nahuatl, Coatepec Mexico 1,400 (1990 census). 15 monolinguals
bdg Bonggi Malaysia Ethnic population: 1,400 (1990 UBS)
xnt Narragansett United States No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,400 ethnic population of Narragansett and Mohegan-Pequot [xpq] (1977 SIL)
wnu Usan Papua New Guinea 1,400 (1991 SIL)
zpq Zapotec, Zoogocho Mexico 1,000 in Mexico (1991 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,400
urg Urigina Papua New Guinea 1,400 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
txo Toto India 1,400 (2012 SIL)
kfe Kota India 930 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 1,400
kfw Naga, Kharam India 1,400 (2000 SIL)
gnz Ganzi Central African Republic 1,400 (1996)
bor Borôro Brazil 1,390 in Brazil (2007 ISA). Population total all countries: 1,392
tpk Tupinikin Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,390
ped Mala Papua New Guinea 1,390 (2003 SIL)
bch Bariai Papua New Guinea 1,380 (1998 SIL)
ywa Kalou Papua New Guinea 1,370 (2003 SIL)
pkr Kurumba, Attapady India 1,370 (1991 census)
puw Puluwatese Micronesia 1,360 (1989 census)
pei Chichimeco-Jonaz Mexico 1,360 (2000 INALI)
bxh Buhutu Papua New Guinea 1,350 (2003 SIL), increasing. 270 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,350
mii Mixtec, Chigmecatitlán Mexico 1,350 (2010 INEGI). 160 monolinguals (2010 INEGI)
mds Maria Papua New Guinea 1,350 (2000 census)
mrm Mwerlap Vanuatu 1,350 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
atw Atsugewi United States No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). 1,350 with Achumawi (2000 A. Yamamoto)
fag Finongan Papua New Guinea 1,300 (2002 SIL). 40 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,350
saa Saba Chad 1,340 (2000)
mrv Mangareva French Polynesia 600 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 1,340. On Gambier Islands; many others throughout French Polynesia
kbg Khamba India 1,330 (1991)
ylb Yaleba Papua New Guinea 1,330 (2005 SIL). Only 25 Sileba dialect speakers
btr Baetora Vanuatu 1,330 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
gnu Gnau Papua New Guinea 1,330 (2000 census)
tka Truká Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,330 (1999)
pfa Pááfang Micronesia 1,320 (1989 census)
dbw Dogon, Bankan Tey Mali 1,320 (1998 census)
anx Andra-Hus Papua New Guinea 1,310 (2000)
lbv Lavatbura-Lamusong Papua New Guinea 1,310 (Beaumont 1972)
ssd Siroi Papua New Guinea 1,310 (2003 SIL)
usa Usarufa Papua New Guinea 1,300 (1996 SIL)
waj Waffa Papua New Guinea 1,300 (1988 SIL)
sod Songoora Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,300 (Welmers 1971)
slh Salish, Southern Puget Sound United States 210 (2010 census). 5 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,300 (2000 census)
kqg Khe Burkina Faso 1,300 in Burkina Faso (1983 SIL)
lle Lele Papua New Guinea 1,300 (1982 SIL)
mtt Mota Vanuatu 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,300
ptv Port Vato Vanuatu 1,300 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
pdi Pa Di China 1,000 in China. Population total all countries: 1,300
oin One, Inebu Papua New Guinea 1,300 (2000 M. Crowther). Ethnic population: 1,300
sny Saniyo-Hiyewe Papua New Guinea 1,300 (2000 census)
hah Hahon Papua New Guinea 1,300 (1977 P. Lincoln)
bqs Bosmun Papua New Guinea 1,300 (2004 PBT). 260 monolinguals
aup Makayam Papua New Guinea 1,300 (2003 SIL)
xay Kayan Mahakam Indonesia 1,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
ksj Uare Papua New Guinea 1,300 (2004 SIL)
skm Kutong Papua New Guinea 1,300 (2000 census). 200 monolinguals
tlm Tolomako Vanuatu 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,300
dmy Sowari Indonesia 1,300 (2000), decreasing
aoi Anindilyakwa Australia 1,290 (2006 census)
tbd Kaki Ae Papua New Guinea 630 (2004 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,280
tpa Taupota Papua New Guinea 1,280 (2001 SIL)
agg Angor Papua New Guinea 1,270 (1990 census). 840 in Nai, 430 in Samanai
afk Nanubae Papua New Guinea 1,270 (2005 SIL)
ddw Dawera-Daweloor Indonesia 1,270 (2007 SIL)
kkt Koi Nepal 1,270 (2011 census). L2 users: Some lower caste people and Sherpa speak Koi in northern Sungdel
mbl Maxakalí Brazil 1,270 (2006 FUNASA)
brz Bilbil Papua New Guinea 1,250 (2003 SIL)
mpo Miu Papua New Guinea 395 (2000 D. Tryon). Ethnic population: 1,250
mzr Marúbo Brazil 1,250 (2006 FUNASA)
miu Mixtec, Cacaloxtepec Mexico 460 (2005 census). 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,250
xmt Matbat Indonesia 1,250 (Remijsen 2001)
ktr Kota Marudu Tinagas Malaysia Ethnic population: 1,250 (1985 SIL)
imi Anamgura Papua New Guinea 1,250 (1990 census)
lgk Neverver Vanuatu 1,250 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
ors Orang Seletar Malaysia Population total all countries: 880. Ethnic population: 1,250 (2008 JHEOA)
mtv Asaro’o Papua New Guinea 1,250 (2003 SIL)
kql Kyenele Papua New Guinea 1,250 (2003 SIL)
tmi Tutuba Vanuatu 500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,250
slg Selungai Murut Indonesia 640 in Indonesia (2000). Population total all countries: 1,240
jup Hupdë Brazil 1,000 in Brazil (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 1,240. Ethnic population: 1,000 (Crevels 2007)
mwc Are Papua New Guinea 1,230 (1973 SIL)
bes Besme Chad 1,230 (1993 census)
sey Secoya Ecuador 550 in Ecuador (2007 M. Johnson). Population total all countries: 1,230. A few elderly monolinguals (2007 M. Johnson)
ket Ket Russian Federation 210 (2010 census). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,220 (2010 census)
gup Gunwinggu Australia 1,220 (2006 census)
oia Oirata Indonesia 1,220 (1987 SIL)
gga Gao Solomon Islands 1,220 (1999 SIL)
ttl Totela Zambia 1,120 in Zambia (2010 census). Population total all countries: 1,220
giw Duoluo China 1,200 in China (1987 Z. Guo-qiao). Population total all countries: 1,220
yla Yaul Papua New Guinea 1,210 (2003 SIL)
mwp Kala Lagaw Ya Australia 1,210 (2006 census)
faa Fasu Papua New Guinea 1,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 750 Fasu, 300 Namuni, 150 Some
noh Nomu Papua New Guinea 400 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,200
kud ’Auhelawa Papua New Guinea 1,200 (1998 SIL). 360 monolinguals
mqq Minokok Malaysia 1,200 (2007 SIL)
nqm Ndom Indonesia 1,200 (2002 SIL)
tzn Tugun Indonesia 1,200 (1990 SIL). 10 monolinguals. L2 users: Those who marry into group learn the language
sbg Seget Indonesia 1,200 (1988 SIL)
nvm Namiae Papua New Guinea 1,200 (2003 SIL)
uge Ughele Solomon Islands 1,200 (1999 SIL)
nmx Nama Papua New Guinea 1,200 (2003 SIL)
psw Port Sandwich Vanuatu 1,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
gbf Gaikundi Papua New Guinea 1,200 (2000)
eiv Askopan Papua New Guinea 1,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
kdw Koneraw Indonesia 1,200 (2001 SIL)
ylu Aribwaung Papua New Guinea 500 (2008 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,200
apo Ambul Papua New Guinea 1,200 (2000 census)
biq Bipi Papua New Guinea 1,200 (1990 SIL)
msf Mekwei Indonesia 1,200 (1987 SIL)
crc Lonwolwol Vanuatu 1,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
gua Shiki Nigeria 1,200 (2006)
sec Sechelt Canada 4 (FPCC 2014). 34 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 1,200 (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0
bkl Berik Indonesia 1,200 (1994 SIL)
iou Tuma-Irumu Papua New Guinea 1,100 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,200
bqy Bengkala Sign Language Indonesia 41 (2007 SIL). More than 1,200 Kata Kolok signers; about 50 of them are deaf (2011 C. de Vos). 40 monolinguals
glc Bon Gula Chad 1,200 (1997 SIL)
tln Talondo’ Indonesia 1,200 (2011 A. Tadollo), increasing
bpa Daakaka Vanuatu 1,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
seu Serui-Laut Indonesia 1,200 (1987 SIL)
luu Lumba-Yakkha Nepal 1,200 (2000)
neo Ná-Meo Viet Nam 1,200 (2002)
buq Brem Papua New Guinea 1,190 (2003 SIL)
wii Minidien Papua New Guinea 100 (2004 SIL). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,190 (2000 census)
wng Wanggom Indonesia 1,180 (2002 SIL)
oym Wayampi Brazil 530 in Brazil (2000 SIL). Includes 520 speakers of Amapari, 10 of Oiapoque. Population total all countries: 1,180
prm Kibiri Papua New Guinea 1,180 (2011 SIL). 900 Porome, 280 Kibiri
mqz Pano Papua New Guinea 1,180 (2000 census). Including 433 in Singorokai Ward, 461 in Malasanga Ward and 279 in Kiari Ward
sow Sowanda Papua New Guinea 970 in Papua New Guinea (2000 census). Population total all countries: 1,180
msq Caac New Caledonia 1,170 (2009 census), increasing. 33% live in greater Nouméa
omo Utarmbung Papua New Guinea 1,170 (2003 SIL)
myy Macuna Colombia 1,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 1,170
abw Pal Papua New Guinea 1,160 (2000 census)
zsu Sukurum Papua New Guinea 1,160 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,160
btq Batek Malaysia 1,000 (2006 JHEOA), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,160 (2008 JHEOA)
yui Wajiara Colombia 1,100 in Colombia (2011 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,150. Few monolinguals
aps Arop-Sissano Papua New Guinea 1,150 (1998 SIL)
cbs Kashinawa Peru 750 in Peru (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 1,150. Ethnic population: 1,000 (Crevels 2007)
kut Kutenai Canada 25 in Canada (FPCC 2014). 20 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Population total all countries: 31. Ethnic population: 1,150 (FPCC 2014)
jni Janji Nigeria 1,150 (2000)
bnk Bierebo Vanuatu 800 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,140
rkb Rikbaktsa Brazil 40 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,140 (2006 FUNASA)
yuj Karkar-Yuri Papua New Guinea 1,140 (1994 SIL)
ssv Shark Bay Vanuatu 450 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,130
rey Reyesano Bolivia 250 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,130 (1994 census)
hux Huitoto, Nüpode Peru 100 (1991 SIL). 1,130 Huitoto in Peru (Crevels 2007)
xtp Mixtec, San Miguel Piedras Mexico 460 (2000 INALI). Ethnic population: 1,120 (1990 census)
opo Opao Papua New Guinea 1,120 (Brown 1973)
mxr Murik Malaysia 1,120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
xti Mixtec, Sinicahua Mexico 1,110 (2005 census). 150 monolinguals
klv Maskelynes Vanuatu 1,100 (Lynch and Crowley 2001), increasing. 0 monolinguals
ykr Yekora Papua New Guinea 1,050 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,100
wrn Warnang Sudan 1,100 (1956 census)
dmv Dumpas Malaysia Ethnic population: 1,100 (2000)
bdf Biage Papua New Guinea 1,100 (2009 S. Cott)
goi Gobasi Papua New Guinea 1,100 (1993 ECP)
kuo Kumukio Papua New Guinea 1,050 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,100
tev Teor Indonesia 1,100 (1986 SIL)
zbe Berawan, East Malaysia 1,100 (2010 SIL)
ubi Ubi Chad 1,100 (1995 SIL)
brq Breri Papua New Guinea 1,100 (1986 PBT)
bdw Baham Indonesia 1,100 (1987 SIL)
nms Letemboi Vanuatu 800 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,100 (2001)
fni Fania Chad 1,100 (1997 SIL)
nty Mantsi Viet Nam 1,100 (2002 J. Edmondson)
kso Kofa Nigeria 1,100 (2003)
nmw Rifao Papua New Guinea 1,100 (2000 census). 440 monolinguals
rnn Roon Indonesia 1,100 (1993 R. Doriot)
ttp Tombelala Indonesia 1,100 (Mead and Mead 1991)
mze Morawa Papua New Guinea 1,100 (2000 census)
msn Vurës Vanuatu 1,100 (2011 SIL)
dbv Dungu Nigeria 1,100 (2000)
lya Layakha Bhutan 1,100 (2003)
szp Suabo Indonesia 1,100 (1987 SIL)
ttm Tutchone, Northern Canada 210 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 1,100 (Golla 2007)
xai Kaimbé Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,100 (1986 SIL)
ruo Romanian, Istro Croatia 300 (Salminen 2007). L2 users: 1,100 (Salminen 2007)
ran Riantana Indonesia 1,100 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
aya Awar Papua New Guinea 1,090 (2003 SIL)
kcj Kobiana Guinea-Bissau 690 in Guinea-Bissau (2006 World Factbook). Population total all countries: 1,090. Ethnic population: 690
ggt Gitua Papua New Guinea 760 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,090
cao Chácobo Bolivia 550 (2000 SIL). 275 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,090 (2006 PIB). L2 users: Bolivian non-Chacobo children at Alto Ivon learn Chácobo
nee Nêlêmwa-Nixumwak New Caledonia 1,090 (2009 census)
kxz Kerewo Papua New Guinea 1,090 (2011 SIL). Population represents speakers living in their language area
ymb Yambes Papua New Guinea 1,080 (2003 SIL), decreasing. 0 monolinguals
bjp Fanamaket Papua New Guinea 1,080 (2000 census)
mpd Machinere Brazil 940 in Brazil (2004 CPI-AC). Population total all countries: 1,080
aod Andarum Papua New Guinea 1,080 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
igm Kanggape Papua New Guinea 1,080 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
bvr Burarra Australia 1,070 (2006 census)
wnp Wanap Papua New Guinea 1,070 (2003 SIL)
pda Anam Papua New Guinea 1,070 (2003 SIL)
gut Maléku Jaíka Costa Rica 750 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,070 (2000)
clo Chontal, Lowland Oaxaca Mexico 1,060 (2000 INALI). 0 monolinguals
cik Kinnauri, Chitkuli India 1,060 (1998 survey)
hgw Haigwai Papua New Guinea 1,060 (2000 census). 160 monolinguals
wim Wik-Mungkan Australia 1,060 (2006 census). L2 users: 600
tof Gizrra Papua New Guinea 1,050 (2002 SIL)
bek Bebeli Papua New Guinea 1,050 (1982 SIL)
tvm Tela-Masbuar Indonesia 1,050 (2007 SIL)
twp Ere Papua New Guinea 1,030 (1980 census)
udj Ujir Indonesia 1,030 (2011 SIL)
wag Wa’ema Papua New Guinea 1,020 (2000 census)
kui Kuikúro-Kalapálo Brazil 1,010 (2006 FUNASA). 510 Kuikúro and 500 Kalapálo
sru Suruí Brazil 1,010 (2006 FUNASA)
klt Nukna Papua New Guinea 1,000 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,010
gda Lohar, Gade India 1,010 (2000)
phd Phudagi India 1,010 (2000)
zph Zapotec, Totomachapan Mexico 260 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 1,010 (1990 census)
kpu Kafoa Indonesia 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 1,000
vkj Kujarge Chad 1,000 (Bender 1983)
yku Kuamasi China 1,000 (2011 SIL)
gye Gyem Nigeria 1,000 (1995 CAPRO)
xnh Kuanhua China 1,000 (1991)
thy Tha Nigeria 1,000 (1998 U. Kleinewillinghöfer)
att Atta, Pamplona Philippines 1,000 (1998 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000
ats Gros Ventre United States 10 (Golla 2007), decreasing. No fully fluent speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Golla 2007)
keb Kélé Gabon 1,000 (Idiata 2007)
nqy Naga, Akyaung Ari Myanmar 1,000 (2004 SIL)
nlq Naga, Lao Myanmar 1,000 (2012 SIL)
lpn Naga, Long Phuri Myanmar 1,000 (2004)
gly Gule Sudan No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,000 (Bender 1983)
kbj Kari Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,000. May be nearly extinct (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007)
sju Saami, Ume Sweden 20 (2000 T. Salminen). No speakers in Norway (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1995 M. Krauss)
tia Tamazight, Tidikelt Algeria 1,000 (2011), decreasing
koh Koyo Congo 1,000
hnh ||Ani Botswana 1,000 (Brenzinger 1998)
bhn Bohtan Neo-Aramaic Georgia 1,000 in Georgia (1999 S. Fox)
zbw Berawan, West Malaysia 1,000 (2010 SIL)
ula Fungwa Nigeria 1,000 (1992 R. Blench)
tkv Mur Pano Papua New Guinea 1,000 (2012 SIL)
ztn Zapotec, Santa Catarina Albarradas Mexico 1,000 (1990 census)
kqt Kadazan, Klias River Malaysia 1,000 (1984 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1984 SIL)
cry Cori Nigeria 1,000 (2004)
ues Kioko Indonesia 1,000 (1991 SIL)
kbu Kabutra Pakistan 1,000 (1998)
buz Bukwen Nigeria 1,000
gnq Gana Malaysia Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000 SIL)
emx Erromintxela France 500 in France (2009 J. McLaughlin). Population total all countries: 1,000
abo Abon Nigeria 1,000 (1973 SIL)
jbj Arandai Indonesia 1,000 (1987 SIL)
pty Pathiya India 1,000 (2004 SIL)
kjx Ramopa Papua New Guinea 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
mmf Mundat Nigeria 1,000 (1998 SIL)
cth Chin, Thaiphum Myanmar 1,000 (2005 SIL)
sxe Sighu Gabon 1,000 (1990 CMA)
ima Mala Malasar India 1,000 (2004)
acv Achumawi United States 10 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000
myo Anfillo Ethiopia 500 (1990 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1990 SIL)
brw Bellari India 1,000 (Van Driem 2007)
jmi Jimi Nigeria 1,000 (1995 CAPRO)
blq Baluan-Pam Papua New Guinea 1,000 (1982 SIL)
bqw Buru Nigeria 1,000
aqm Atohwaim Indonesia 1,000 (1987 SIL)
are Arrarnta, Western Australia 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
wku Kunduvadi India 1,000 (2004 SIL)
jms Mashi Nigeria 1,000
kzo Kaningi Gabon 1,000 (Idiata 2007)
dem Dem Indonesia 1,000 (1987 SIL)
dpp Papar Malaysia Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000)
brn Boruca Costa Rica 3 (Adelaar 2007). 30–35 nonfluent speakers. Ethnic population: 1,000 (1991)
mpk Mbara Chad 1,000 (Tourneux, Seignobos, and LaFarge 1986)
lsa Lasgerdi Iran 1,000 (2006 census)
oue Oune Papua New Guinea 1,000 (2007 SIL)
hrt Hértevin Turkey 1,000 (1999 H. Mutzafi)
nbo Nkukoli Nigeria 1,000 (1973 SIL)
dgb Dogon, Bunoge Mali 1,000 (2005 D. Douyon and R. Blench)
wno Wano Indonesia 1,000 (2011), decreasing. 200 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000. L2 users: 0
pkt Maleng Laos 500 in Laos (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 700. Ethnic population: Less than 1,000 (Bradley 2007)
amx Anmatyerre Australia 1,000 (2006 census)
pic Pinji Gabon 1,000 (Idiata 2007)
onp Sartang India 1,000 (2005)
bkf Beeke Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,000 (1994 SIL)
pnx Phong-Kniang Laos 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
api Apiaká Brazil 1 (Tempesta 2009). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Tempesta 2009)
asi Buruwai Indonesia 1,000 (2000)
ssg Seimat Papua New Guinea 1,000 (1992 SIL)
huo Hu China 1,000 (Li Jinfang 2006)
bnf Masiwang Indonesia 1,000 (1989 SIL)
wuv Wuvulu-Aua Papua New Guinea 1,000 (1982 SIL)
air Airoran Indonesia 1,000 (1998 SIL)
yet Yetfa Indonesia 1,000 (1996). L2 users: 400 (2013 M. Donohue)
bxd Pela China 400 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2001 J. Edmondson)
drb Dair Sudan 1,000 (1978 GRN)
bko Kwa’ Cameroon 1,000 (2000 SIL)
onn Onobasulu Papua New Guinea 1,000 (2010 SIL). 500 monolinguals. L2 users: 200
jko Kubo Papua New Guinea 1,000
slw Sialum Papua New Guinea 400 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000
sts Shumashti Afghanistan 1,000 (1994)
bxc Molengue Equatorial Guinea 1,000 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000. L2 users: 0
apk Apache, Kiowa United States 3 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). L2 users: 0
stq Saterfriesisch Germany 1,000 (Salminen 2007)
fam Fam Nigeria 1,000 (1984)
mme Mae Vanuatu 1,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
nkr Nukuoro Micronesia 860 in Micronesia (Johnstone 1993). 130 on Pohnpei. Population total all countries: 1,000
bbg Barama Gabon 1,000 (Idiata 2007)
cno Con Laos 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
xse Sempan Indonesia 1,000 (1987 SIL)
nks Asmat, North Indonesia 1,000 (1991 SIL)
cbq Tsucuba Nigeria 1,000 (2014 S. McGill)
hov Hovongan Indonesia 1,000 (1991 NTM)
tak Tala Nigeria 1,000 (1993)
mnr Mono United States 37 (1994 L. Hinton), decreasing. More than 20 speakers and 100 semispeakers of Western Mono. Under 30 speakers of Eastern Mono (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 Eastern Mono (Golla 2007)
ayt Ayta, Magbukun Philippines 1,000 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000
ago Tainae Papua New Guinea 1,000 (1991 SIL)
twn Twendi Cameroon 30 (2000 B. Connell). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1991 SIL)
agk Agta, Isarog Philippines 5 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1984 SIL)
etz Semimi Indonesia 1,000 (1991 SIL)
kfj Kemiehua China 1,000 (1991)
ttf Tuotomb Cameroon 1,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007)
amb Ambo Nigeria 1,000
loj Lou Papua New Guinea 1,000 (1994 SIL)
fgr Fongoro Chad A few elderly speakers (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Dimmendaal 2007)
tqn Tenino United States 50 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL)
lac Lacandon Mexico 560 (2000 INALI). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000)
bdk Budukh Azerbaijan 200 (Bril 2010). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1990 A. Kibrik)
mtf Murik Papua New Guinea 1,000 (Wurm 2000)
afg Afghan Sign Language Afghanistan 1,000 (2012)
beg Belait Brunei 1,000 in Brunei
ckv Kavalan China–Taiwan 24 (2000 P. Li). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Tsukida 2007)
bcd Babar, North Indonesia 1,000 (2007 SIL)
ckn Chin, Kaang Myanmar 1,000 (2010 SIL)
mue Media Lengua Ecuador 1,000 (1999 P. Bakker). L1 and L2 speakers. 0 monolinguals
bcm Bannoni Papua New Guinea 1,000 (1977 P. Lincoln)
klq Rumu Papua New Guinea 1,000 (1985 UBS)
spo Spokane United States 2 (Golla 2007). A few semispeakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL)
goq Gorap Indonesia 1,000 (1992 SIL)
msg Moraid Indonesia 1,000 (1988 SIL)
ntj Ngaanyatjarra Australia 1,000 (2006 census)
ksa Shuwa-Zamani Nigeria 1,000 (1973 SIL)
syx Samay Gabon 1,000 (Idiata 2007)
agy Alta, Southern Philippines 1,000 (1982 SIL)
zam Zapotec, Miahuatlán Mexico 1,000 (2007 SIL)
kjj Khinalugh Azerbaijan 1,000 (Salminen 2007)
jaz Jawe New Caledonia 990 (2009 census), increasing
urb Kaapor Brazil 800 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 990 (2006 FUNASA)
ena Apali Papua New Guinea 980 (2003 SIL)
gwb Gwa Nigeria 980 (2000)
brg Baure Bolivia 40 (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 980 (2006 PIB)
anj Anor Papua New Guinea 980 (2000)
aqc Archi Russian Federation 970 (2010 census)
stk Arammba Papua New Guinea 970 (2003 SIL)
mdc Male Papua New Guinea 970 (2000 census)
doy Dompo Ghana 65 (Blench 1999), decreasing. Ethnic population: 970 (2000)
pkg Pak-Tong Papua New Guinea 970 (1977 P. Lincoln)
aif Agi Papua New Guinea 960 (2003 SIL)
kms Kamasau Papua New Guinea 960 (2003 SIL)
bye Pouye Papua New Guinea 960 (2003 SIL), increasing
mab Mixtec, Yutanduchi Mexico 960 (2000 INALI). 8 monolinguals
ytl Tanglang China 950 (Bradley 2007), decreasing
gat Kenati Papua New Guinea 950 (1990 census)
akt Akolet Papua New Guinea 950 (1982 SIL)
tyh O’du Viet Nam 300 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 950. Ethnic population: 380 (2009 census)
niz Ningil Papua New Guinea 950 (2000 census)
guf Gupapuyngu Australia 330 (2006 census). 500 use other Dhuwal varieties. L2 users: 950
wdg Wadaginam Papua New Guinea 950 (2003 SIL)
dof Domu Papua New Guinea 950 (2000)
bkq Bakairí Brazil 950 (1999 ISA)
yox Yoron Japan 950 (2004)
huf Humene Papua New Guinea 940 (2000 census)
dtd Ditidaht Canada 7 (FPCC 2014). 6 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 940 (FPCC 2014)
tue Tuyuca Colombia 350 in Colombia (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 940. Ethnic population: 570 (Crevels 2007)
nmt Namonuito Micronesia 940 (1989 census)
ese Ese Ejja Bolivia 500 in Bolivia (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 730. Ethnic population: 940 (2006 PIB)
gbe Niksek Papua New Guinea 930 (2003 SIL)
atr Waimiri-Atroarí Brazil 930 (2001 ISA). Ethnic population: 930 (Moore 2006)
duv Duvle Indonesia 930 (2000)
vmq Mixtec, Soyaltepec Mexico 220 (2000 INALI). Ethnic population: 930 (1990 census)
bbv Karnai Papua New Guinea 920 (2000 D. Tryon)
mtc Munit Papua New Guinea 910 (2003 SIL)
nem Nemi New Caledonia 910 (2009 census)
mpr Vangunu Solomon Islands 910 (1999 SIL). 400 Bareke, 510 Vangunu
igo Isebe Papua New Guinea 910 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
bjl Bulu Papua New Guinea 910 (2000 census)
mtx Mixtec, Tidaá Mexico 380 (2000 INALI). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 900 (1990 census)
smq Samo Papua New Guinea 900 (2001 SIL)
taw Tai Papua New Guinea 900 (1990 UBS)
aty Aneityum Vanuatu 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
zpk Zapotec, Tlacolulita Mexico 140 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 900 (1990 census)
lcd Lola Indonesia 900 (2011 SIL)
ktt Ketum Indonesia 900 (2003 SIL)
xir Xiriâna Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 900 (2000)
tub Tübatulabal United States 5 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 900 (Golla 2007)
sei Seri Mexico 900 (2007 SIL)
qvp Quechua, Pacaraos Peru 250 (Adelaar 1992). Ethnic population: 900
azn Nahuatl, Western Durango Mexico 900 (2011 SIL)
faf Fagani Solomon Islands 900 (1999 SIL)
azm Amuzgo, Ipalapa Mexico 900 (2000 INALI). 20 monolinguals (2000 census)
zkr Zakhring China 600 in China (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 900
tfn Tanaina United States 75 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 900 (Golla 2007)
pak Parakanã Brazil 900 (Fausto 1995). Ethnic population: 900 (2004 ISA)
cks Tayo New Caledonia 900 (2009 census), decreasing
ckr Kairak Papua New Guinea 900 (2012 SIL)
kqf Kakabai Papua New Guinea 900 (2003 SIL). 135 monolinguals
klx Koluwawa Papua New Guinea 900 (1998 SIL)
ist Istriot Croatia 400 (Salminen 2007). L2 users: 900 (Salminen 2007)
bgg Bugun India 900 (2001 Asia Harvest)
una Watut, North Papua New Guinea 630 (2012 SIL). Ethnic population: 900
njl Njalgulgule South Sudan 900 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
mmt Malalamai Papua New Guinea 900 (2011 SIL)
mzz Maiadomu Papua New Guinea 900 (2000 SIL), increasing
zpp Zapotec, El Alto Mexico 900 (1990 census). 30 monolinguals
vrt Banam Bay Vanuatu 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
rma Rama Nicaragua 24 (1989 J. Holm). Ethnic population: 900 (2000 C. Grinevald)
mml Man Met China 900 (1990 J-O. Svantesson)
tgs Nume Vanuatu 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
hmu Hamap Indonesia 900
juu Ju Nigeria 900 (1993)
jet Manem Papua New Guinea 500 in Papua New Guinea (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 900
wut Wutung Papua New Guinea 900 (2003 SIL)
mcy Watut, South Papua New Guinea 890 (Holzknecht 1988)
aui Anuki Papua New Guinea 890 (2001 SIL)
zaf Zapotec, Ayoquesco Mexico 880 (1990 census). 9 monolinguals
tqb Tembé Brazil 150 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 880 (Crevels 2007). Tembé: 820 (1999), Turiwara: 60 (1998)
dny Dení Brazil 740 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 880 (2006 FUNASA)
mpj Martu Wangka Australia 880 (2006 census). 650 Martu Wangka, 25 Kartujarra, 170 Manyjilyjarra, 16 Wangkajunga, 21 Yulparija (2006 census)
tro Naga, Tarao India 870 (2000)
pad Paumarí Brazil 290 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 870 (2000)
kpd Koba Indonesia 870 (2011 SIL)
sns Nahavaq Vanuatu 600 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 860
bkn Bukitan Indonesia 570 in Indonesia (2000). Population total all countries: 860
syo Suoy Cambodia 860 (Bradley 2007), decreasing
nio Nganasan Russian Federation 130 (2010 census). A group of about 100 lead a semi-nomadic life in Dudypta river region near Ust’-Avam (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 860 (2010 census)
mcc Bitur Papua New Guinea 860 (2000 census)
byg Baygo Sudan No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 850 (1978 GRN)
mce Mixtec, Itundujia Mexico 850 (2000 INALI). 17 monolinguals (2005 census)
cvg Chug India 850 (2005)
trx Bidayuh, Tringgus-Sembaan Malaysia 850 in Malaysia (2007 Z. Akter)
gsn Gusan Papua New Guinea 800 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 850
mbj Nadëb Brazil 400 (Moore 2006). Deb, a separate ethnic group from the Nadëb, now reclaiming their identity by using Nadëb. 280 Deb (2008 M. Rodriquez), 580 Nadëb (2009 FUNASA). Ethnic population: 850 (2010 S. Anonby)
bpu Bongu Papua New Guinea 850 (2000 census)
way Wayana Suriname 500 in Suriname (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 850. Ethnic population: 500 (Crevels 2007)
bmz Baramu Papua New Guinea 850 (2000 census)
mgk Mawes Indonesia 850 (2006 SIL)
lmu Lamenu Vanuatu 850 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Very few monolinguals
jml Jumli Nepal 850 (2011 census)
mss Masela, West Indonesia 850 (2007 SIL)
lnn Lorediakarkar Vanuatu 340 (2000). Ethnic population: 850
lgt Pahi Papua New Guinea 840 (2000 census)
kwp Kodia Côte d’Ivoire 840 (1993 SIL)
myd Maramba Papua New Guinea 840 (2000 census)
aad Amal Papua New Guinea 830 (2003 SIL)
agt Agta, Central Cagayan Philippines 780 (2000). Ethnic population: 820
izh Ingrian Russian Federation 120 (2010 census). L1 speakers should not be confused with Ingrian Finns, who speak Finnish [fin]. Ethnic population: 820 (1989 census)
tyu Kua Botswana 820 (2004 R. Cook)
dij Dai Indonesia 820 (2007 SIL)
kic Kickapoo United States 400 in United States (Golla 2007), decreasing. Population total all countries: 510. 6 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 820 (2000 census)
gvp Gavião, Pará Brazil Ethnic population: 810 (2005 ISA). 340 Parakatêjê, 470 Pukobjê
hob Mari Papua New Guinea 810 (2000 D. Tryon)
asx Muratayak Papua New Guinea 810 (2003 SIL)
szv Isu Cameroon 800 (1982 SIL). Few speakers (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007)
btc Bati Cameroon 800 (1975 census)
anz Anem Papua New Guinea 800 (2011 SIL)
xla Kamula Papua New Guinea 800 (1998 SIL)
chl Cahuilla United States 35 (2009 SIL). Ethnic population: 800 (Hinton 2007)
bbb Barai Papua New Guinea 800 (2003 SIL)
lji Laiyolo Indonesia 800 (1997 SIL). 250 Laiyolo, 550 Barang-Barang
mez Menominee United States 35 (Golla 2007), decreasing. 65 semispeakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 800 (2000 census). L2 users: 25
mth Munggui Indonesia 800 (1982 SIL)
emn Eman Cameroon 800 (1990 SIL)
ksu Khamyang India 50 (2003 S. Morey). Ethnic population: 800
msz Momare Papua New Guinea 10. Ethnic population: 800
kbz Duhwa Nigeria 800 (1973 SIL)
ret Reta Indonesia 800
aom Ömie Papua New Guinea 800 (1993 SIL). 400 monolinguals
urx Urimo Papua New Guinea 800 (2003 SIL)
psn Panasuan Indonesia 800 (2004 SIL). Ethnic population: 800
drn Damar, West Indonesia 800 (1987 SIL)
jaa Jamamadí Brazil 800 (Moore 2006). 220 Banawa Yafi (Kitiya) mostly monolingual; 160 ethnic Jarawara, also mostly monolingual (Crevels 2007)
yoi Yonaguni Japan 800 (2004)
twg Tereweng Indonesia 800 (Grimes et al. 1997)
koa Konomala Papua New Guinea 800 (1985 SIL)
ayu Ayu Nigeria 800 (2003 SIL)
mrc Maricopa United States 100 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 800 (Golla 2007). 160 in Arizona (2000 census)
tty Sikaritai Indonesia 800 (1993 R. Doriot)
miw Akoye Papua New Guinea 800 (1998 SIL), decreasing
kxt Koiwat Papua New Guinea 800 (2000 census)
tgp Tangoa Vanuatu 800 (2001 SIL)
hts Hadza Tanzania 800 (2000 M. Brenzinger), decreasing. Ethnic population: 800
sno Snohomish United States 10 (1998 J. Brook). Ethnic population: 800 (1977 SIL)
bxl Jalkunan Burkina Faso 500 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 800 (1995 SIL)
kqd Koy Sanjaq Surat Iraq 800 (1995 H. Mutzafi)
bpg Bonggo Indonesia 790 (2006 SIL)
tmq Tumleo Papua New Guinea 790 (2003 SIL)
tbj Tiang Papua New Guinea 790 (Beaumont 1972)
pah Tenharim Brazil 580 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 790 (2000 ISA). 590 Tenharim, 160 Parintintin, 50 Diahhoi (2000 ISA)
dge Degenan Papua New Guinea 790 (2003 SIL)
snx Sam Papua New Guinea 780 (2000 census)
kky Guguyimidjir Australia 780 (2006 census)
kop Waube Papua New Guinea 780 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
kvz Tsaukambo Indonesia 780 (2000 SIL)
ydk Yoidik Papua New Guinea 770 (2003 SIL)
zpw Zapotec, Zaniza Mexico 770 (1990 census). 4 monolinguals
xes Kesawai Papua New Guinea 770 (2003 SIL)
nao Naaba Nepal 770 (2006)
axx Xârâgurè New Caledonia 760 (2009 census)
xok Xokleng Brazil 760 (1998 ISA)
yri Yarí Colombia 760 (2000)
kim Karagas Russian Federation 93 (2010 census). Less than 40 fluent speakers, same number of passive speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 760 (2010 census)
sac Meskwaki United States 200 (2001 I. Goddard). 200 Mesquakie in Iowa, more than 50 Sac and Fox in central Oklahoma, a few Nemaha Sauks on the Kansas-Nebraska border (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 760 Fox
cih Chinali India 750 (1996)
skp Sekapan Malaysia 750 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
dam Damakawa Nigeria No known L1 speakers (2012 S. McGill). Ethnic population: 750
yrb Yareba Papua New Guinea 750 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
bvn Buna Papua New Guinea 750 (2003 SIL)
aul Aulua Vanuatu 750 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
ahb Axamb Vanuatu 750 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
sri Siriano Colombia 200 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 217. Ethnic population: 750 (2001 Guía Etnográfica de Colombia)
vkp Korlai Creole Portuguese India 750 (1998 J. Clements). 250 families (2002)
bio Nai Papua New Guinea 750 (2010 SIL)
knr Kaningra Papua New Guinea 300 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 750
aki Aiome Papua New Guinea 750 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
wkl Kalanadi India 750 (2004 survey)
onu Unua Vanuatu 750 (1999), increasing. 50 in Bush Unua
lhl Lohar, Lahul India 750 (1996)
net Nete Papua New Guinea 750 (2000 census)
gvc Guanano Brazil 450 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Population total all countries: 750
wac Wasco-Wishram United States 58 (2010 census). 7 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 750 (1977 SIL)
jma Dima Papua New Guinea 750 (2001 SIL). 115 monolinguals
aur Aruek Papua New Guinea 740 (2003 SIL)
tbs Tanguat Papua New Guinea 740 (2003 SIL)
snn Siona Colombia 200 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 500. Ethnic population: 730 (2001 Guía Etnográfica de Colombia)
ymo Yangum Mon Papua New Guinea 730 (2000 census)
sky Sikaiana Solomon Islands 730 (1999 SIL)
mkv Mafea Vanuatu 250 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 730 (2001)
crg Michif United States 75 in United States (2010 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 725. L2 users: 0 in United States
chn Chinook Wawa Canada 83 in Canada (1962). Population total all countries: 723
lkl Laeko-Libuat Papua New Guinea 720 (2003 SIL). 520 in area; 200 outside
nab Nambikuára, Southern Brazil 720 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 720 (Moore 2006)
msd Yucatec Maya Sign Language Mexico 100% monolingual in deaf population. L2 users: 400 (1999 H. Smith). 17 deaf people out of a village of 720 (approximately 2.4%) in Chican, the primary location for which information is available. (Escobedo 2012, Zeshan et al 2013) Numbers elsewhere unknown
kgu Kobol Papua New Guinea 720 (2000 census)
mll Malua Bay Vanuatu 500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 715 (2001)
ncm Nambo Papua New Guinea 710 (2003 SIL)
vnm Neve’ei Vanuatu 500 (Musgrave 2007). Ethnic population: 710
atp Atta, Pudtol Philippines 710 (2000)
mvg Mixtec, Yucuañe Mexico 710 (2000 INALI). 90 monolinguals
laq Qabiao Viet Nam 690 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Population total all countries: 708. Ethnic population: Most of the ethnic group use the language (Bradley 2007)
bsm Busami Indonesia 700 (1993 R. Doriot)
lsr Aruop Papua New Guinea 700 (1991 SIL)
wog Wogamusin Papua New Guinea 700 (1998 SIL)
ybm Yaben Papua New Guinea 700 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
waa Walla Walla United States 25 (Golla 2007). 25–50 Walla Walla and Umatilla [uma] speakers together (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 700 (1977 SIL)
pru Puragi Indonesia 700 (1991 SIL)
ngm Ngatik Men’s Creole Micronesia 700. 500 on atoll (1983 L. Poyer), 200 on Ponape. 0 monolinguals
auz Arabic, Uzbeki Spoken Uzbekistan 700
kzm Kais Indonesia 700 (1993 R. Doriot)
luk Lunanakha Bhutan 700 (1998)
anf Animere Ghana 700 (2003). Only a few fluent speakers left in an ethnic group of several hundred (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007)
kvh Komodo Indonesia 700 (2000)
skv Skou Indonesia 700 (1999 M. Donohue)
knt Katukína, Panoan Brazil 700 (2010 S. Kennell). Ethnic population: 700 ( S. Kennell)
mka Mbre Côte d’Ivoire 200 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 700
mhz Mor Indonesia 700 (1987 SIL)
tqp Tomoip Papua New Guinea 700 (1982 SIL)
spe Sepa Papua New Guinea 700 (2003 SIL)
idr Indri South Sudan 700
tmb Avava Vanuatu 700 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
tcp Chin, Tawr Myanmar 700 (1996 D. van Bik)
nuq Nukumanu Papua New Guinea 700 (2003 SIL)
nur Nukuria Papua New Guinea 550 (2003 SIL). 170 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 700
shd Kundal Shahi Pakistan 700 (Rehman and Baart 2005)
mdb Morigi Papua New Guinea 700 (Wurm 1975)
mbr Nukak Makú Colombia 700 (2010 A. Gonzalez). 400 monolinguals
dol Doso Papua New Guinea 700 (Shaw 1973)
nkj Nakai Indonesia 700 (1999 M. Donohue)
skj Seke Nepal 700 (2002 SIL)
tci Wára Papua New Guinea 700 (2002 SIL)
bzi Bisu Thailand Population total all countries: 240. Ethnic population: 700 (Bradley 2007)
lkn Lakon Vanuatu 700 (2003 A. François)
cga Changriwa Papua New Guinea 690 (2003 SIL)
goo Gone Dau Fiji 690 (2000)
kqw Kandas Papua New Guinea 300 (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 690
num Niuafo’ou Tonga 690 (1981 SIL)
xri Krikati-Timbira Brazil 680 (2005 FUNASA). Ethnic population: 680 (2005 FUNASA)
mmi Musar Papua New Guinea 680 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
hix Hixkaryána Brazil 600 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 680 (Moore 2006)
lrv Larevat Vanuatu 680 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
bfh Blafe Papua New Guinea 670 (2003 SIL)
mpv Mungkip Papua New Guinea 12 (2006 SIL). Ethnic population: 670 (2006 SIL)
jnl Rawat India 670 (1998)
ssm Semnam Malaysia 670 (2000)
los Loniu Papua New Guinea 460 (1977 P. Lincoln). Ethnic population: 660
tsr Akei Vanuatu 650 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
aby Aneme Wake Papua New Guinea 650 (1990 SIL)
mat Matlatzinca, San Francisco Mexico 650 (2000 INALI)
lek Leipon Papua New Guinea 650 (1977 P. Lincoln)
mkr Malas Papua New Guinea 650 (2003 SIL)
jil Jilim Papua New Guinea 650 (2000 census)
lht Lo-Toga Vanuatu 650 (2007 A. François)
bmx Baimak Papua New Guinea 650 (2003 SIL)
spm Akukem Papua New Guinea 650 (2003 SIL)
cyb Cayubaba Bolivia 4 (Crevels 2007). 4 elderly speakers and a few semi-speakers (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 650 (2006 PIB)
pia Pima Bajo Mexico 650 (2000 INALI)
sms Saami, Skolt Finland 300 in Finland (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 650. Ethnic population: 500 (1995 M. Krauss)
gae Guarequena Venezuela 160 in Venezuela (2001 census). Population total all countries: 650. Ethnic population: 510
cbc Carapana Colombia 600 in Colombia (1990 SIL). Population total all countries: 642
nej Neko Papua New Guinea 640 (2000 census)
rwa Rawo Papua New Guinea 640 (2003 SIL)
yau Yuwana Venezuela 640 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 640 (Crevels 2007)
mwh Mouk-Aria Papua New Guinea 630 (1982 SIL)
rmk Romkun Papua New Guinea 630 (2003 SIL)
vto Vitou Indonesia 630 (2007)
tpf Tarpia Indonesia 630 (2006 SIL)
omg Omagua Peru 10 in Peru (2011). Ethnic population: 630 (1976)
bxz Binahari Papua New Guinea 630 (2000 census)
sam Samaritan Aramaic Palestine No known L1 speakers in Palestine. Ethnic population: 620 (1999 H. Mutzafi)
smp Samaritan Palestine No known L1 speakers in Palestine. Ethnic population: 620 (1999 H. Mutzafi)
avb Avau Papua New Guinea 620 (2002 SIL)
nsk Naskapi Canada 620 (2011 census)
mty Nabi Papua New Guinea 620 (2003 SIL)
msu Musom Papua New Guinea 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 620
dgc Agta, Casiguran Dumagat Philippines 610 (Headland 1989)
nez Nez Perce United States 100 (1997 H. Aoki), decreasing. Spoken fluently only by a handful of elders on Nez Perce and Colville Reservations. 30–40 semispeakers, mostly in Idaho (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 610 (2000 census)
mvt Mpotovoro Vanuatu 430 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 610
tpq Tukpa India 610 (2000)
kyd Karey Indonesia 610 (2011 SIL)
lni Daantanai’ Papua New Guinea 600 (2007 SIL)
dif Dieri Australia 10 (2013 P. Austin). Ethnic population: 600
hid Hidatsa United States 200 (Golla 2007). 25–50 semifluent speakers. 6 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 600 (2000 census)
sma Saami, South Sweden 300 in Sweden (Krauss 1992). Population total all countries: 600. Ethnic population: 600
oac Oroch Russian Federation 8 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 600 (2010 census)
kct Kayan Papua New Guinea 600 (2004 PBT)
duj Dhuwal Australia 600 (2006 census). 140 Dhuwal, 26 Datiwuy, 320 Dhuwaya, 59 Liyagawumirr, 12 Marrangu, 45 Djapu (2006 census)
cir Tîrî New Caledonia 600 (2009 census), decreasing
uka Kaburi Indonesia 600 (1986 SIL)
mlx Na’ahai Vanuatu 600 (1983 SIL)
pnn Pinai-Hagahai Papua New Guinea 600 (1997 SIL)
byw Belhariya Nepal 600 (2011 census), decreasing
kwh Kowiai Indonesia 600 (2000 SIL)
srs Sarsi Canada 170 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 600 (1977 SIL). L2 users: A small number of semi-speakers and passive speakers (Golla 2007)
wgb Wagawaga Papua New Guinea 600 (2000 census). 60 monolinguals
bfe Betaf Indonesia 600 (2005 SIL)
khs Kasua Papua New Guinea 600 (1990 SIL)
tmu Iau Indonesia 600 (2000 J. Bateman), increasing. 500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 600
tdi Tomadino Indonesia 600 (Mead 1999)
xmx Maden Indonesia 600 (Remijsen 2001)
npa Nar Phu Nepal 600 (2011 K. Hildebrandt). 200 Phu speakers, 400 Nar speakers
yha Buyang, Baha China 600 (Li Jinfang 1997), decreasing
nce Yale Papua New Guinea 600 (1991 SIL). 30 monolinguals
hss Harsusi Oman 600 (2011)
wsa Warembori Indonesia 600 (1998 SIL). L2 users: 20
kgy Kyerung China 100 in China (2002). Population total all countries: 600
sbc Kele Papua New Guinea 600 (1982 SIL)
yzg Buyang, E’ma China 600 (Li Jinfang 1997)
sbf Shabo Ethiopia 400 (2000 M. Brenzinger), decreasing. Ethnic population: 600 (2000)
pig Pisabo Peru 600 (2006)
pyy Pyen Myanmar 600 (2013 Pyen Language Committee)
gbn Mo’da South Sudan 600 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
kwo Kwomtari Papua New Guinea 600 (1998 SIL)
wrv Waruna Papua New Guinea 600 (1991 SIL)
kxw Konai Papua New Guinea 600 (1991 SIL)
kgb Kawe Indonesia 600 (Remijsen 2001)
ttu Torau Papua New Guinea 600 (1963 SIL)
azt Atta, Faire Philippines 300 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 600
kfl Kung Cameroon 600 (Good 2011)
bbx Bubia Cameroon 600 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
kou Koke Chad 600 (1993 census)
ppm Papuma Indonesia 600 (1982 SIL)
ttw Long Wat Malaysia 600 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
zsa Sarasira Papua New Guinea 600 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 600
mmh Mehináku Brazil 230 (2006 FUNASA). All Mehinaku still speak their mother tongue (Crevels 2007). Combined Waura [wau] and Mehinaku speakers: 600 (2011). Ethnic population: 230 (2006 FUNASA)
rea Rerau Papua New Guinea 590 (2000 census)
gue Gurinji Australia 590 (2006 census)
tpc Me’phaa, Azoyú Mexico 590 (2000 INALI)
wax Marangis Papua New Guinea 590 (2003 SIL)
utp Amba Solomon Islands 590 (1999 SIL)
wnb Wanambre Papua New Guinea 590 (2003 SIL)
kav Katukína Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 590 (2008 FUNASA)
gsp Wasembo Papua New Guinea 590 (1980 census)
met Mato Papua New Guinea 580 (2002 SIL)
soi Sonha Nepal 580 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals
gmu Gumalu Papua New Guinea 580 (2003 SIL)
utu Utu Papua New Guinea 580 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
lmb Merei Vanuatu 400 (1997 J. Chung). Ethnic population: 570
kkm Kiong Nigeria 100 (2004). Ethnic population: 570
snr Sihan Papua New Guinea 570 (2003 SIL)
mkp Moikodi Papua New Guinea 570 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 290 monolinguals
mnl Tiale Vanuatu 400 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 570
mjn Ma Papua New Guinea 570 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 570
mmw Emae Vanuatu 400 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 570
sbh Sori-Harengan Papua New Guinea 570 (1977 P. Lincoln)
kdd Yankunytjatjara Australia 560 (2006 census)
imr Imroing Indonesia 560 (2007 SIL)
frt Fortsenal Vanuatu 450 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 560
taf Tapirapé Brazil 560 (2006 Projeto Aranowayao)
ymn Sunum Indonesia 560 (2005 SIL)
ssk Sunam India 560 (1998)
tgq Tring Malaysia 550 (2000)
bmr Muinane Colombia 150 (2007 F. Cuéllar). Ethnic population: 550 (Crevels 2007)
geq Geme Central African Republic 550 (1996)
waz Wampur Papua New Guinea 530 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 550
plb Polonombauk Vanuatu 120 (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 550
tgi Lawunuia Papua New Guinea 550 (1977 P. Lincoln)
pek Penchal Papua New Guinea 550 (1982 SIL)
spd Saep Papua New Guinea 550 (2003 SIL)
xkx Karore Papua New Guinea 550 (2003 SIL)
bjh Bahinemo Papua New Guinea 550 (1998 NTM)
tlk Taloki Indonesia 550 (2005 R. Van den Berg). 400 in Maligano, 150 in Wakalambe
ufi Ufim Papua New Guinea 550 (McElhanon 1978)
wkd Mo Indonesia 550 (2005 SIL)
pgk Rerep Vanuatu 380 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 540
xop Kopar Papua New Guinea 540 (2000 census)
mbn Macaguán Colombia 300 (Civallero 2008). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 540 (Crevels 2007)
kkz Kaska Canada 300 (2011 census). 150 additional passive speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 540 (FPCC 2014)
tcw Totonac, Tecpatlán Mexico 540 (2000 census). 110 monolinguals
unk Enawené-Nawé Brazil 320 (Moore 2006). Most are still monolingual (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 540 (2009 FUNASA)
vnp Vunapu Vanuatu 380 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 540
coz Chocholtec Mexico 540 (2011 INALI). Chocholteco del este: 180 speakers, Chocholteco del oeste: 160 speakers, Chocholteco del sur: 200 speakers (2011 INALI)
bao Waimaha Colombia 500 in Colombia (2004 DNP). Population total all countries: 539. Some monolinguals over 40
pih Pitcairn-Norfolk Norfolk Island 430 in Norfolk Island (2011 census). Population total all countries: 532
kkk Kokota Solomon Islands 530 (1999 SIL)
ert Eritai Indonesia 530 (2000)
lpe Lepki Indonesia 530 (1991 SIL)
raq Saam Nepal 530 (2011 census). 130 Lingkhim, 400 Saam (2011 census)
cuo Cumanagoto Venezuela 49 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 530
oma Omaha-Ponca United States 85 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 525 (2000 census). 365 Omaha and 160 Ponca (2000 census)
kay Kamayurá Brazil 400 (2011 S. Drude). Ethnic population: 520 (2009 FUNASA)
gvo Gavião do Jiparaná Brazil 340 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 520 (2004 Associação de Defensa Etnoambiental)
tkw Teanu Solomon Islands 520 (2007 A. François)
ywn Yawanawa Brazil 520 (2006 FUNASA). Includes 360 Shanenawa (2002 FUNAI). Scattered; only 1 village of 100 people
bwk Bauwaki Papua New Guinea 520 (2000 census)
vme Masela, East Indonesia 520 (1980 N. de Jonge)
mkc Siliput Papua New Guinea 520 (2003 SIL)
tei Torricelli Papua New Guinea 520 (2003 SIL)
spk Sengo Papua New Guinea 520 (2003 SIL)
nsw Navut Vanuatu 520 (1983 SIL)
pat Papitalai Papua New Guinea 520 (1977 P. Lincoln)
bnr Butmas-Tur Vanuatu 520 (1983 SIL)
mjm Medebur Papua New Guinea 510 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 510
wmt Walmajarri Australia 510 (2006 census)
wat Kaninuwa Papua New Guinea 360 (2001). 40 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 510
neg Negidal Russian Federation 74 (2010 census). Only a few fully fluent (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 510 (2010 census)
sry Sera Papua New Guinea 510 (2000 census)
koz Korak Papua New Guinea 510 (2003 SIL)
kmn Awtuw Papua New Guinea 510 (2003 SIL)
wtf Watiwa Papua New Guinea 510 (2003 SIL)
mxz Masela, Central Indonesia 510 (1980 N. de Jonge)
kgi Selangor Sign Language Malaysia 500
ypo Phola, Alo China 500 (Pelkey 2011). Ethnic population: 500
aos Taikat Indonesia 500 (Wurm 2000)
kag Kajaman Malaysia 500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
drc Minderico Portugal 500 (2010 V. Ferreira)
ngh N|u South Africa 12 (2005 N. Crawhall), decreasing. Ethnic population: 500 (1998 N. Crawhall)
auu Auye Indonesia 350 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 500 (2012 SIL)
ole Olekha Bhutan 500 (Van Driem 2007)
mrb Marino Vanuatu 500 (2008 A. Henri), increasing
oni Onin Indonesia 500 (Wurm 2000)
knd Konda Indonesia 500 (1988 SIL)
tlc Totonac, Yecuatla Mexico 500 (1994 SIL)
pub Purum India 500 (2001 census)
aun One, Molmo Papua New Guinea 500 (2000 M. Crowther). Ethnic population: 500 (2000). L2 users: 200. Speakers of other One varieties use Molmo when in Molmo One villages
amc Amahuaca Peru 90 in Peru (2000 SIL), decreasing. Population total all countries: 310. 20 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 500. 300 in Peru; 200 in Brazil; perhaps 50 not contacted in border areas. L2 users: A few women by reason of intermarriage with Amahuaca men use the language at home
kkd Kinuku Nigeria 500 (1973 SIL)
cog Chong Thailand 500 in Thailand
orz Ormu Indonesia 500 (Wurm 2000)
dti Dogon, Ana Tinga Mali 500 (2005 D. Douyon and R. Blench)
kxn Melanau, Kanowit-Tanjong Malaysia 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 500
kbs Kande Gabon 500 (Idiata 2007)
aht Ahtena United States 80 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 500 (1995 M. Krauss)
xkq Koroni Indonesia 500 (Mead 1999)
ner Yahadian Indonesia 500 (1991 SIL)
xke Kereho Indonesia 500 (2003)
yab Yuhup Brazil 400 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Population total all countries: 500
kly Kalao Indonesia 500 (Friberg and Laskowske 1989)
afs Afro-Seminole Creole Mexico 200 in Mexico (1990). Ethnic population: 500 (2007)
trt Tunggare Indonesia 500 (1993 R. Doriot)
kzb Kaibobo Indonesia 500 (Collins 1983)
arl Arabela Peru 50 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 500 (2002 SIL)
whu Kayan, Wahau Indonesia 500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
etn Eton Vanuatu 500 (1989 census)
tcm Tanahmerah Indonesia 500 (1978 SIL)
nni Nuaulu, North Indonesia 500 (1990 SIL)
uks Kaapor Sign Language Brazil 7 (Kakumasu 1968). Deaf users are monolingual. L2 users: 500
hvv Huave, Santa María del Mar Mexico 500 (1993 SIL)
waf Wakoná Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 500 (1995 SIL)
nbn Kuri Indonesia 500 (1982 SIL)
bvh Bure Nigeria 20 (Batic 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 500
zps Zapotec, Coatlán Mexico 500 (1992 SIL)
kch Vono Nigeria 500 (1973 SIL)
eit Eitiep Papua New Guinea 500 (2003 SIL), decreasing. 0 monolinguals
boe Mundabli Cameroon 500 (Good et al. 2011)
abf Abai Sungai Malaysia Ethnic population: 500 (2000 SIL)
ytp Thopho China 200 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 500
sbt Kimki Indonesia 500 (2004 SIL)
tsy Tebul Sign Language Mali 500 (2007 SIL)
njs Nisa Indonesia 500 (1987 SIL)
hax Haida, Southern Canada 7 (FPCC 2014). 6 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 500 (Golla 2007). L2 users: 0
hoy Holiya India 500 (2002 survey)
snz Sinsauru Papua New Guinea 500 (2003 SIL)
kuc Kwinsu Indonesia 500 (2007)
tax Tamki Chad 500 (1999 SIL)
ugo Ugong Thailand 80 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 500
bpk Orowe New Caledonia 490 (2009 census), decreasing
wei Kiunum Papua New Guinea 490 (2000 census)
kkc Odoodee Papua New Guinea 490 (2002 SIL)
ray Rapa French Polynesia 300 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 480. 480 (on the island; many more on other islands, esp. Tahiti)
amm Ama Papua New Guinea 480 (1990 census)
buv Bun Papua New Guinea 480 (2003 SIL)
itr Iteri Papua New Guinea 480 (2003 SIL)
ggl Ganglau Papua New Guinea 470 (2003 SIL)
gvs Gumawana Papua New Guinea 470 (2000 census), increasing. 50 monolinguals
duk Uyajitaya Papua New Guinea 470 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
klm Migum Papua New Guinea 470 (2003 SIL)
mcz Mawan Papua New Guinea 470 (2003 SIL), decreasing
stw Satawalese Micronesia 460 (1987 census)
bjc Bariji Papua New Guinea 460 (2000)
aof Bragat Papua New Guinea 460 (2003 SIL)
nuc Nukuini Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 460 (2001)
akz Alabama United States 250 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 460 (2000 census). Alabama and Texas
tua Wiarumus Papua New Guinea 460 (2000 census)
hoa Hoava Solomon Islands 460 (1999 SIL)
syn Senaya Iran 60 in Iran (1997 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 460
rau Raute Nepal 460 (2011 census), decreasing. All nomadic Raute are monolingual
cwg Cheq Wong Malaysia 460 (2008 JHEOA)
mxo Mbowe Zambia 460 (2010 census)
mcd Sharanahua Peru 450 in Peru (2000 SIL). 300 Mastanahua. Population total all countries: 453. 320 monolinguals
pna Penan, Bah-Biau Malaysia 450 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
lll Lilau Papua New Guinea 450 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
toy Topoiyo Indonesia 450 (Yamaguchi and Nakashima 2001), decreasing
gve Duwet Papua New Guinea 400 (2011 SIL), increasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 450
ctz Chatino, Zacatepec Mexico 450 (2000 INALI)
bnz Beezen Cameroon 450 (2001 SIL)
smg Simbali Papua New Guinea 450 (2012 SIL)
apy Apalaí Brazil 450 (1993 SIL). 100 monolinguals
bpp Kaure Indonesia 450 (1995 SIL)
jmw Mouwase Papua New Guinea 450 (2011 SIL). Speakers of other languages live at some of the Mouwase villages, especially Omati, and this may have skewed population figures. Speakers are widely scattered in bush villages, hamlets and squatter settlements
skz Sekar Indonesia 450 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
scq Sa’och Cambodia 10 (2009 J. Filipi), decreasing. Ethnic population: 450
bnw Bisis Papua New Guinea 450 (2000 census)
ynk Yupik, Naukan Russian Federation 60 (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 450 (Dorais 2010)
roe Ronji Papua New Guinea 450 (2003 SIL)
gin Hinukh Russian Federation 5 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 440 (2010 census)
kux Kukatja Australia 440 (2006 census)
cvn Chinantec, Valle Nacional Mexico 440 (2000 INALI)
rmx Romam Viet Nam 200 (2013 SIL). Ethnic population: 440 (2009 census)
dbe Dabe Indonesia 440 (2005 SIL)
prw Parawen Papua New Guinea 430 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
vlp Valpei Vanuatu 300 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 430
nkg Nekgini Papua New Guinea 430 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
wsi Wusi Vanuatu 300 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 430
ayq Ayi Papua New Guinea 430 (2000 census)
kbw Kaiep Papua New Guinea 200 (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 430
gdo Ghodoberi Russian Federation 130 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 430 (2010 census)
mjk Matukar Papua New Guinea 430 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 430
nht Nahuatl, Ometepec Mexico 430 (1990 census)
alm Amblong Vanuatu 300. Ethnic population: 430
ske Seke Vanuatu 300 (2011 K. Johnson). Ethnic population: 430
srq Sirionó Bolivia 400 (Adelaar 2004), increasing. 30 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 420 (Adelaar 2004). More than half the ethnic group is under 15 years old (Crevels 2007)
ksi Isaka Papua New Guinea 420 (2003 SIL)
ncc Ponam Papua New Guinea 420 (1977 P. Lincoln)
lnm Langam Papua New Guinea 420 (2003 SIL)
sdx Melanau, Sibu Malaysia 420 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
lce Sekak Indonesia 420 (2000), decreasing
xpn Kapinawá Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 420 (Crevels 2007)
pnr Panim Papua New Guinea 420 (2003 SIL)
mxk Monumbo Papua New Guinea 410 (2003 SIL)
ikt Inuinnaqtun Canada 410 (2011 census)
smf Auwe Papua New Guinea 410 (2003 SIL)
gni Gooniyandi Australia 410 (2006 census)
otl Otomi, Tilapa Mexico 400 (1990 census)
cbv Cacua Colombia 400 (2010 A. Gonzalez). Many monolinguals, especially children
dei Demisa Indonesia 400 (Wurm 2000)
mts Yora Peru 170 (Crevels 2007). Possibly another 400 uncontacted speakers on the Upper Piedras River (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 170 (Crevels 2007)
pas Papasena Indonesia 400 (1982 SIL)
tmj Samarokena Indonesia 400 (1982 SIL)
jel Yelmek Indonesia 400 (1978 SIL)
gev Eviya Gabon 50 (2013 D. Cavar). Ethnic population: 400 (2013 D. Cavar)
myj Mangayat South Sudan 400 (1987 SIL). 0 monolinguals
xau Kauwera Indonesia 400 (1987 SIL)
aqn Alta, Northern Philippines 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 400
azd Nahuatl, Eastern Durango Mexico 400 (2011 SIL)
dac Dambi Papua New Guinea 350 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 400
lpa Lelepa Vanuatu 400 (1989 census)
urn Uruangnirin Indonesia 400 (1983 SIL)
nkk Nokuku Vanuatu 160 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 400
eli Nding Sudan 400 (Welmers 1971)
afd Andai Papua New Guinea 400 (2005)
ktf Kwami Democratic Republic of the Congo 400
ynl Yangulam Papua New Guinea 400 (2000 census)
taa Tanana, Lower United States 15 (Krauss 2007). Ethnic population: 400 (Krauss 2007)
eme Emerillon French Guiana 400 (2001), increasing. Ethnic population: 400 (Crevels 2007)
hum Hungana Democratic Republic of the Congo 400
bvl Bolivian Sign Language Bolivia 350–400 (1988 E. Powlison)
sii Shom Peng India 400 (2004). Mainly monolingual
umu Munsee Canada 7 (Kinkade 1991). Ethnic population: 400 (Kinkade 1991)
bvk Bukat Indonesia 400 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
nnt Nanticoke United States No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 400 (1977 SIL)
hij Hijuk Cameroon 400 (1992 SIL)
zua Zeem Nigeria 400 (Blench 2003)
aww Awun Papua New Guinea 400 (2003 SIL)
ost Osatu Cameroon 400 (2002 SIL)
pyn Poyanáwa Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 400 (1999 ISA)
tav Tatuyo Colombia 400 (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 400 (Crevels 2007)
siq Sonia Papua New Guinea 400 (1993 SIL), decreasing
kxr Koro Papua New Guinea 400 (1983 SIL)
opk Kopkaka Indonesia 400 (2002 SIL). 400 monolinguals
kax Kao Indonesia 400 (2000)
nmm Manangba Nepal 390 (2011 census), decreasing
xtt Mixtec, Tacahua Mexico 390 (2005 census). 60 monolinguals
tpr Tuparí Brazil 340 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 380
kmf Kare Papua New Guinea 380 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
bpm Biyom Papua New Guinea 380 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
mxw Namo Papua New Guinea 380 (2003 SIL)
atl Agta, Mt. Iraya Philippines 150 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 380
yrn Yerong China 380 (2000)
yra Yerakai Papua New Guinea 380 (2000 census)
kre Panará Brazil 375 (2008 SIL). Ethnic population: 380
grg Madi Papua New Guinea 380 (2003 SIL)
dih Kumiai Mexico 220 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Population total all countries: 370. 0 monolinguals (1993)
gvj Guajá Brazil 280 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 370 (1995 AMTB)
oyy Oya’oya Papua New Guinea 370 (1990 census)
nbj Ngarinman Australia 370 (Black 1983). 360 Ngarinman, 15 Bilinara (2006 census)
urm Urapmin Papua New Guinea 370 (2003 SIL)
pud Punan Aput Indonesia 370 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
gta Guató Brazil 4 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 370 (2008 FUNASA)
kdy Keijar Indonesia 370 (2005 SIL)
tnz Tonga Thailand 350 in Thailand (2014 SIL). Population total all countries: 365
mmq Musak Papua New Guinea 360 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
psq Pasi Papua New Guinea 360 (2000 census)
gvn Kuku-Yalanji Australia 360 (2006 census), increasing
swo Shanenawa Brazil 9 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 360 (2002 FUNAI)
clw Chulym Russian Federation 44 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 360 (2010 census)
irn Irántxe Brazil 40 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 360 (2006 ISA)
ddj Jaru Australia 360 (2006 census)
tww Tuwari Papua New Guinea 360 (2000 census)
sov Sonsorol Palau 360 (2007 R. Dongosaro). About 60 on the outer islands (Sonsoral 30, Pulo Anna 10, Merir 3) and 300 in Koror town, Echang village
bjr Binumarien Papua New Guinea 360 (1990 census)
wtk Watakataui Papua New Guinea 350 (1998)
wsr Owenia Papua New Guinea 350 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
kzd Kadai Indonesia 350 (2000)
phq Phana’ Laos 350 (1995 census). Ethnic population: Included within the Ahka [ahk] ethnic group (Bradley 2007)
tya Tauya Papua New Guinea 350 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
auw Awyi Indonesia 350 (Wurm 2000)
kaq Capanahua Peru 50 (Crevels 2007). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 350 (Crevels 2007)
aas Aasáx Tanzania 350 (1999 J. Carr), decreasing
agl Fembe Papua New Guinea 350 (1986 SIL)
gop Yeretuar Indonesia 350 (2000)
gob Playero Colombia 150 in Colombia (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 350. Ethnic population: 160 (Crevels 2007)
wru Waru Indonesia 350 (Mead 1999)
lhn Lahanan Malaysia 350 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
mud Aleut, Mednyj Russian Federation 350 (2010 census). Census includes Aleut [ale]
bgy Benggoi Indonesia 350 (1989 SIL)
srk Serudung Murut Malaysia Ethnic population: 350 (2000 SIL)
niw Nimo Papua New Guinea 350 (1998 NTM)
gnt Guntai Papua New Guinea 350 (2003 SIL)
ulw Ulwa Nicaragua 350 (2009 J. Mejia)
tql Lehali Vanuatu 250 (2007 A. François). Ethnic population: 350
bit Berinomo Papua New Guinea 350 (2000 census)
nuh Ndunda Nigeria 350 (Blench, Spriggs, and Connell 1999)
aok Arhö New Caledonia 10 (Wurm 2000), decreasing. Ethnic population: 350
flh Foau Indonesia 350 (2010 SIL), increasing
thd Thayore Australia 29 (2006 census), decreasing. Kuuk-Yak dialect recently extinct (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 350 (1982 A. Hall)
pee Taje Indonesia 350 (Himmelmann 2001), decreasing
all Allar India 350 (Shashi and Shri 1994)
suy Suyá Brazil 350 (2006 FUNASA). 330 Suya (main dialect); 58 Tapayúna (1995 ISA). Ethnic population: 350 (2006 FUNASA). All Tapayuna speak their native language (Crevels 2007)
coc Cocopa Mexico 200 in Mexico (1998 P. Larson). Population total all countries: 350. Ethnic population: 200 (1998)
ska Skagit United States 100 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 350 (1977 SIL)
tgv Tingui-Boto Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 350 (2002)
sug Suganga Papua New Guinea 350 (2000 census)
jau Yaur Indonesia 350 (1978 SIL)
bki Baki Vanuatu 350 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Few monolinguals, youngest and oldest
ipo Ipiko Papua New Guinea 345 (2003 SIL)
txi Ikpeng Brazil 310 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 340 (2006 FUNASA)
zax Zapotec, Xadani Mexico 340 (1990 census). 1 monolinguals (1990)
mgt Mongol Papua New Guinea 340 (2003 SIL)
bbf Baibai Papua New Guinea 340 (2000 census)
gap Gal Papua New Guinea 340 (2003 SIL)
aap Arára, Pará Brazil 340 (2010 I. Souza)
dmk Domaaki Pakistan 340 (Matthias 2011), decreasing. Concentrated mostly in one village (Van Driem 2007)
tds Doutai Indonesia 70 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 340 (1993 R. Doriot)
sve Serili Indonesia 330 (1980 N. de Jonge)
kvp Kompane Indonesia 330 (1995 SIL)
dgg Doga Papua New Guinea 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 330
ele Elepi Papua New Guinea 330 (2003 SIL)
wmd Mamaindé Brazil 330 (2007)
owi Owiniga Papua New Guinea 330 (1998 NTM)
rpt Rapting Papua New Guinea 330 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
aeq Aer Pakistan 100 (1998). Women monolingual. Ethnic population: 330 Aer in Deh area
asd Asas Papua New Guinea 330 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
kco Kinalakna Papua New Guinea 305 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 330
siu Sinagen Papua New Guinea 330 (2003 SIL)
xtj Mixtec, San Juan Teita Mexico 330 (2000 INALI). 35 monolinguals
mpq Matís Brazil 320 (2008 ISA)
yis Yis Papua New Guinea 320 (2003 SIL)
xoi Kominimung Papua New Guinea 320 (2003 SIL)
ktn Karitiâna Brazil 210 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 320 (2005 ISA)
lio Liki Indonesia 11 (2005 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 320
auq Anus Indonesia 320 (2005 SIL)
jbk Barikewa Papua New Guinea 320 (2011 SIL)
arj Arapaso Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 320 (Moore 2006)
pti Pintiini Australia 320 (2006 census)
ktx Kaxararí Brazil 270 (2001 ISA). Ethnic population: 320 (2009 FUNASA)
wau Waurá Brazil 320 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 320 (Moore 2006)
yar Yabarana Venezuela 20 (1977 E. Migliazza). Ethnic population: 320 (Crevels 2007)
zpb Zapotec, Yautepec Mexico 310 (1990 census). 4 monolinguals (1990). All over 50
yij Yindjibarndi Australia 310 (2006 census)
nna Nyangumarta Australia 310 (2006 census)
nhv Nahuatl, Temascaltepec Mexico 310 (1990 census)
wrm Warumungu Australia 310 (2006 census)
btp Budibud Papua New Guinea 310 (2000). 50 monolinguals
bsa Abinomn Indonesia 300 (Clouse, Ma, and Donohue 2002)
tyj Tai Do Viet Nam 300 (2002)
bhc Biga Indonesia 300 (Remijsen 2001)
tad Tause Indonesia 300 (Wurm 2000)
jda Jad India 300 (Breton 1997)
wgo Waigeo Indonesia 300 (1978 SIL)
mru Mono Cameroon 300 (2001 SIL)
kjn Kunjen Australia 20 (1991 B. Sommer), decreasing. 40 with some knowledge. Ethnic population: 300 (1991 B. Sommer)
sxr Saaroa China–Taiwan 10 (2012 C. Pan). Ethnic population: 300 (2000 UNESCO)
acb Áncá Nigeria 300 (2006)
boq Bogaya Papua New Guinea 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
tip Trimuris Indonesia 300 (1999 SIL)
bro Brokkat Bhutan 300 (Van Driem 1993)
npn Mondropolon Papua New Guinea 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
awt Araweté Brazil 280 (Moore 2006). Nearly all are monolingual (1986). Ethnic population: 300 (2003 ISA)
xwr Kwerba Mamberamo Indonesia 300 (1993 R. Doriot)
fiw Fiwaga Papua New Guinea 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
ssf Thao China–Taiwan 5 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 300 (Tsukida 2007)
mcv Minanibai Papua New Guinea 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing
asu Asurini, Tocantins Brazil 300 (2001 ISA). Ethnic population: 300 (Moore 2006)
swr Saweru Indonesia 300 (1991 SIL)
giq Gelao, Green Viet Nam 300 in Viet Nam (2002 J. Edmondson)
vra Vera’a Vanuatu 300 (2005 A. François)
pok Pokangá Brazil 100 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 300 (1988 ISA)
nex Neme Papua New Guinea 300 (2002 SIL)
cot Caquinte Peru 300 (2000 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 300
bqb Bagusa Indonesia 300 (1987 SIL)
amt Amto Papua New Guinea 300 (2006 NTM)
ahn Àhàn Nigeria 300 (2000 R. Blench)
oaa Orok Russian Federation 47 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 50. Ethnic population: 300 (2010 census)
soh Aka Sudan 300 (Bender 1983)
kzv Komyandaret Indonesia 300 (2000 SIL)
lnz Lonzo Democratic Republic of the Congo 300
kja Mlap Indonesia 300 (Wurm 2000)
yln Buyang, Langnian China 300 (Li Jinfang 1997), decreasing
hud Huaulu Indonesia 300 (1987 SIL)
onk One, Kabore Papua New Guinea 300 (2000 M. Crowther). Ethnic population: 300
wuy Wauyai Indonesia 300 (Remijsen 2001)
mrf Elseng Indonesia 300 (1991 SIL)
yee Yimas Papua New Guinea 300 (Wurm 2000)
kme Bakole Cameroon 300 (1982 SIL)
kns Kensiu Malaysia Population total all countries: 300. Ethnic population: 200 (2013 SIL)
ccm Malaccan Creole Malay Malaysia Ethnic population: 300
llh Lamu China 120 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 300
wra Warapu Papua New Guinea 300 (Wurm 2000)
mqw Murupi Papua New Guinea 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
bgv Warkay-Bipim Indonesia 300 (1993 R. Doriot)
tys Tày Sa Pa Viet Nam 300 (2002 J. Edmondson)
tau Tanana, Upper United States 100 in United States (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 110. Ethnic population: 300 (Golla 2007)
tbp Diebroud Indonesia 300 (2006 SIL)
lgh Laghuu Viet Nam 300 (2002 J. Edmondson)
fss Finland-Swedish Sign Language Finland 150 (2014 EUD). 150 deaf signers out of 300 total signers (2014 EUD)
pep Kunja Papua New Guinea 290 (2003 SIL)
rmh Murkim Indonesia 290 (2004 SIL)
upi Umeda Papua New Guinea 290 (2003 SIL)
phw Phangduwali Nepal 290 (2011 census)
aag Ambrak Papua New Guinea 290 (2000 census)
cbd Carijona Colombia 6 (Crevels 2007). 6 speakers near La Pedrera and a few more near Miraflores (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 290 (Crevels 2007)
ore Orejón Peru 220 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 290 (Crevels 2007)
afp Tapei Papua New Guinea 290 (2005 SIL)
pme Pwaamei New Caledonia 290 (2009 census)
tml Citak, Tamnim Indonesia 290 (1993 R. Doriot)
ygm Yagomi Papua New Guinea 280 (2003 SIL)
ing Degexit’an United States 40 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 280 (Golla 2007)
aca Achagua Colombia 250 (2000 M. Lozano), decreasing. Ethnic population: 280 (Crevels 2007)
nax Nakwi Papua New Guinea 280 (2003 SIL)
isa Isabi Papua New Guinea 280 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
cbb Cabiyarí Colombia 270 (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 280 (Crevels 2007)
frq Forak Papua New Guinea 280 (2003 SIL)
pdn Fedan Indonesia 280 (2005 SIL)
stm Setaman Papua New Guinea 280 (2000 census)
mqi Mariri Indonesia 280 (2011 SIL)
wet Perai Indonesia 280 (Hinton 2000)
mqe Matepi Papua New Guinea 280 (2003 SIL)
dhg Djangu Australia 270 (2006 census). 58 Djangu, 170 Gaalpu, 44 Wangurri (2006 census)
usu Uya Papua New Guinea 270 (2003 SIL)
aud Anuta Solomon Islands 270 (1999 SIL)
alx Amol Papua New Guinea 270 (2000 census)
dgx Doghoro Papua New Guinea 270 (2000 census)
aem Arem Viet Nam 20 in Viet Nam (Ferlus 1996). Population total all countries: 270. Ethnic population: 100 (Ferlus 1996)
mnm Mapena Papua New Guinea 270 (1973 SIL)
lei Lemio Papua New Guinea 270 (2003 SIL)
mlj Miltu Chad 270 (1993 census)
mnq Minriq Malaysia Ethnic population: 270 (2008 JHEOA)
kdr Karaim Lithuania 50 in Lithuania (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 56. Ethnic population: 270
ytw Yout Wam Papua New Guinea 270 (2006 SIL)
mdz Suruí do Pará Brazil 260 (2006 FUNASA)
mmm Maii Vanuatu 180 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 260 (2001)
tba Aikanã Brazil 180 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 260 (Moore 2006)
dnr Danaru Papua New Guinea 260 (2003 SIL)
pnl Paleni Burkina Faso 260 (2012 SIL)
bry Burui Papua New Guinea 260 (2000)
bir Bisorio Papua New Guinea 260 (2003 SIL). 50–100 Pikaru
mph Maung Australia 260 (2006 census)
sbq Sileibi Papua New Guinea 260 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
imn Imonda Papua New Guinea 250 (1994 SIL)
mvx Meoswar Indonesia 250 (1993 R. Doriot)
gqn Guana Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 250 (2005 ISA)
brs Baras Indonesia 250 (Valkama 1987). 50 households
sao Sause Indonesia 250 (Wurm 2000)
xnb Kanakanabu China–Taiwan 4 (2012 P. Jen-Kuei). A few other semi-speakers who have passive knowledge of the language (2012 P. Jen-Kuei). Ethnic population: 250 ( UNESCO)
bzu Burmeso Indonesia 250 (Donohue 1998)
kiq Kosare Indonesia 250 (1993 R. Doriot)
emw Emplawas Indonesia 250 (2007 SIL)
srf Nafi Papua New Guinea 160 (Holzknecht 1988). May be less than 100 speakers (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 250
anq Jarawa India 250 (Abbi 2006)
muu Yaaku Kenya 50 (1983). Ethnic population: 250 (1983)
tlg Tofanma Indonesia 250 (2005 SIL)
snu Viid Indonesia 250 (2005 SIL). 0 monolinguals
xat Katawixi Brazil 10 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 250 (Moore 2006)
mso Mombum Indonesia 250 (1993 R. Doriot)
ler Lenkau Papua New Guinea 250 (1982 SIL). Ethnic population: 250 (2000 D. Tryon)
urr Löyöp Vanuatu 250 (2007 A. François)
xor Korubo Brazil 26 (2007 FPEVJ). Ethnic population: 250 (2000 ISA)
cox Nanti Peru 250 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 250 (Crevels 2007)
kiy Kirikiri Indonesia 250 (1982 SIL)
lcc Legenyem Indonesia 250 (Wurm 2000)
daz Dao Indonesia 250 (1991 SIL)
bqq Biritai Indonesia 250 (1988 SIL)
nqn Nen Papua New Guinea 250 (2002 SIL)
mok Morori Indonesia 50 (1998 M. Donohue). Ethnic population: 250 (1998 M. Donohue)
sij Numbami Papua New Guinea 200 (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 250
itk Judeo-Italian Italy 200 in Italy. Very few speakers are fluent (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 250
gnn Gumatj Australia 240 (2006 census)
lnh Lanoh Malaysia Ethnic population: 240 (2008 JHEOA)
kgv Karas Indonesia 240 (1983 SIL)
bhf Odiai Papua New Guinea 240 (2000 census)
djj Djeebbana Australia 240 (2006 census). L2 users: 100 (1991)
knq Kintaq Malaysia 110 in Malaysia (2008 JHEOA). Population total all countries: 111. Ethnic population: 240 (Bradley 2007)
nys Nyunga Australia 240 (2006 census)
slj Salumá Brazil 240 (2000)
nrg Narango Vanuatu 160 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 230
wla Walio Papua New Guinea 230 (2003 SIL)
msl Molof Indonesia 230 (2005 SIL)
wfg Zorop Indonesia 230 (2005 SIL). 0 monolinguals
iqu Iquito Peru 35 (2002 SIL), decreasing. 1 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 230 (Crevels 2007)
kbi Kaptiau Indonesia 230 (2006 SIL)
col Columbia-Wenatchi United States 40 (Watanabe and Sasama 2007). 25 Columbia speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 230 (2000 census). L2 users: 0
asz As Indonesia 230 (Wurm 2000)
aie Amara Papua New Guinea 230 (2011 SIL), decreasing. 0 monolinguals
enf Enets, Forest Russian Federation 40 (2010 census). Includes Tundra Enets [enh]. Ethnic population: 230 (2010 census). Includes Tundra Enets [enh]
enh Enets, Tundra Russian Federation 40 (2010 census). Includes Forest Enets [enf]. Ethnic population: 230 (2010 census). Includes Forest Enets [enf]
yaw Yawalapití Brazil 8 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 220 (Moore 2006)
tcq Kaiy Indonesia 220 (Wurm 2000)
tcb Tanacross United States 60 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 220 (Golla 2007)
elu Elu Papua New Guinea 220 (1983 SIL)
dmu Tebi Indonesia 220 (2005 SIL)
jru Japreria Venezuela 170 (2002 census). 10 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 220
wmc Wamas Papua New Guinea 220 (2000)
cku Koasati United States 200 (2000 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 220 (2000 census)
lrn Lorang Indonesia 220 (2011 SIL)
mzo Matipuhy Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 220 (Crevels 2007)
kis Kis Papua New Guinea 220 (2000 D. Tryon)
mmp Siawi Papua New Guinea 220 (2007 NTM), increasing
ulk Meriam Australia 210 (2006 census)
ngr Engdewu Solomon Islands 210 (1999 SIL)
dji Djinang Australia 210 (2006 census). 170 Djinang, 43 Wulaki (2006 census)
mrp Morouas Vanuatu 150 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 210
gia Kitja Australia 210 (2006 census)
tmt Tasmate Vanuatu 150 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 210
arr Karo Brazil 210 (2006 Associação de Defensa Etnoambiental). Spoken by almost everyone in the two villages (Crevels 2007)
mep Miriwung Australia 210 (2006 census)
ptr Piamatsina Vanuatu 150 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 210
erw Erokwanas Indonesia 200 (Wurm 2000). Probably fewer than 200 (Wurm 2007)
afn Defaka Nigeria 200 (2001 R. Blench)
aaf Aranadan India 200 (2001 census). Census did not include all people in interior settlements
liv Liv Latvia 1 (2007 T. Salminen). Ethnic population: 200
enc En Viet Nam 200 (1998 J. Edmondson)
zte Zapotec, Elotepec Mexico 200 (1990 census)
zro Záparo Ecuador 5 (2007 UNESCO). About 20 elderly Záparo still have some variable degree of knowledge of the language (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (2007 UNESCO)
osu One, Southern Papua New Guinea 200 (2000 M. Crowther). Ethnic population: 200
wbv Wajarri Australia 89 (2006 census). Ethnic population: 200 (1981 W. Douglas)
pnh Penrhyn Cook Islands 200 (2011 census)
wwo Dorig Vanuatu 200 (2003 A. François)
wai Wares Indonesia 200 (1993 R. Doriot)
uya Doko-Uyanga Nigeria 200
jbr Jofotek-Bromnya Indonesia 200 (2007), increasing. Few monolinguals
puc Punan Merap Indonesia 200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
xel Kelo Sudan 200
khh Kehu Indonesia 200 (2007 SIL)
khp Kapauri Indonesia 200 (2006 SIL)
yki Yoke Indonesia 200 (1998 M. Donohue)
nyl Nyeu Thailand 200
aja Aja South Sudan 200 (1993 SIL)
omt Omotik Kenya 50 (1980). Ethnic population: 200 (2000)
lnb Mbalanhu Namibia 200 (2006)
urp Uru-Pa-In Brazil 200 (1995 SIL)
yrs Yarsun Indonesia 200 (1991 SIL)
klh Weliki Papua New Guinea 200 (1990 SIL)
tnu Tay Khang Laos 200
bnv Beneraf Indonesia 200 (2005 SIL). Very few monolinguals
msx Moresada Papua New Guinea 200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
tyl Thu Lao Viet Nam 200 (2002 J. Edmondson)
tsd Tsakonian Greece 200 (Salminen 2007)
mft Mokerang Papua New Guinea 200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
hoi Holikachuk United States 6 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (Golla 2007)
cby Carabayo Colombia 150. Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007)
tqw Tonkawa United States No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 200 (Golla 2007)
bsu Bahonsuai Indonesia 200 (Mead 1999)
mmb Momina Indonesia 200 (1998 M. Donohue)
tno Toromono Bolivia Population total all countries: 200. Ethnic population: 200 (Adelaar 2004)
igg Igana Papua New Guinea 200 (2003 SIL)
mhf Mamaa Papua New Guinea 200 (McElhanon 1978)
mjd Maidu, Northwest United States 3 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL)
gwf Gowro Pakistan 200 (1990), decreasing
ite Itene Bolivia 75 in Bolivia (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 87. Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007)
bhm Bathari Oman 200 in Oman (2011)
cet Centúúm Nigeria 200 (Crozier and Blench 1992)
huc ‡Hua Botswana 200 (2004 R. Cook), decreasing
cow Cowlitz United States 110 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 200 (1990 M. Kinkade)
bvp Bumang China 200 (Jie 2007)
itx Itik Indonesia 80 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 200
klo Kapya Nigeria 200 (2004)
sxm Samre Cambodia No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 200 (2000 D. Bradley)
mcg Mapoyo Venezuela 12 (2001 census), decreasing. A few semi-speakers left (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007)
muc Ajumbu Cameroon 200 (Good et al. 2011)
rac Rasawa Indonesia 200 (1987 SIL)
oca Ocaina Peru 54 in Peru (2000). Population total all countries: 194. Ethnic population: 150 (2000 W. Adelaar)
nwr Nawaru Papua New Guinea 190 (1990 SIL)
jbt Jabutí Brazil 1 (Van der Voort 2008). Ethnic population: 190 (2009 FUNASA)
ama Amanayé Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 190 (2001 ISA)
xii Xiri South Africa 87 in South Africa (2000). Population total all countries: 187
stf Seta Papua New Guinea 180 (2000 census)
bed Bedoanas Indonesia 180 (Wurm 2000)
ffi Foia Foia Papua New Guinea 180 (2000 census)
cjn Chenapian Papua New Guinea 180 (2003 SIL)
ays Ayta, Sorsogon Philippines 15 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 180
nud Ngala Papua New Guinea 180 (2003 SIL)
bop Bonkiman Papua New Guinea 180 (1991 SIL). 70 monolinguals
piz Pije New Caledonia 180 (2009 census), decreasing
xsp Silopi Papua New Guinea 180 (2003 SIL)
nam Ngan’gityemerri Australia 180 (2006 census). Ngenkiwumerri dialect is endangered, moving towards seriously endangered (Wurm 2007)
yde Yangum Dey Papua New Guinea 180 (2000 census)
nkm Namat Papua New Guinea 180 (2000 census)
mzt Mintil Malaysia 180 (2005 Lye Tuck-Po)
ukg Ukuriguma Papua New Guinea 170 (2003 SIL)
aqr Arhâ New Caledonia 170 (2009 census)
dnd Daonda Papua New Guinea 170 (2003 SIL)
urz Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau Brazil 87 (Moore 2006). Crevels (2007) groups the Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau together with Amundava [adw] for a total population of 170 (2003). Ethnic population: 87 (Moore 2006)
nbk Nake Papua New Guinea 170 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
dax Dayi Australia 170 (2006 census). 53 Dhalwangu, 115 Dayi speakers (2006 census). 0 monolinguals
awe Awetí Brazil 170 (2011 S. Drude)
orn Orang Kanaq Malaysia Ethnic population: 160 (2008 JHEOA)
sbi Seti Papua New Guinea 160 (2003 SIL)
grx Guriaso Papua New Guinea 160 (2003 SIL)
kuu Kuskokwim, Upper United States 40 (Golla 2007). 3 households (1997). Ethnic population: 160 (Golla 2007)
ktl Koroshi Iran 160. 40–50 families
ylg Yelogu Papua New Guinea 160 (2003 SIL)
bcj Bardi Australia 160 (2006 census), decreasing
nay Narrinyeri Australia 160 (2006 census)
ulf Usku Indonesia 110 (2004 SIL). Population estimates range from 20 to 160 (Wurm 2007). Few monolinguals
krf Koro Vanuatu 160 (2003 A. François)
qua Quapaw United States 34 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 160 (2000 census)
mra Mlabri Thailand 130 in Thailand (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 154
agf Arguni Indonesia 150 (Wurm 2000)
tnx Tanema Solomon Islands 4 (2007 A. François). Ethnic population: 150 (Wurm 2007)
nby Ningera Papua New Guinea 150 (2003 SIL)
apx Aputai Indonesia 150 (Hinton 2000)
xaw Kawaiisu United States 5 (2005 J. Turner). Ethnic population: 150 (2005 J. Turner)
hiw Hiw Vanuatu 150 (2007 A. François)
atz Arta Philippines 11 (2013 Y. Kimoto). 35–45 have some knowledge of the language, but cannot speak properly (2013 Y. Kimoto). Ethnic population: 150
okk One, Kwamtim Papua New Guinea 150 (2000 M. Crowther). Ethnic population: 150
coj Cochimi Mexico No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 150 (Adelaar 2007). This may include Kumiai [dih] in La Huerta who call themselves Cochimí. Old Cochimí is extinct (Mixco 1978)
axg Arára, Mato Grosso Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 150 (1994 ISA)
pmr Paynamar Papua New Guinea 150 (Z’Graggen 1975)
kqq Krenak Brazil 10 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 150 (Moore 2006)
onj Onjob Papua New Guinea 150 (Wurm 2000)
kcd Kanum, Ngkâlmpw Indonesia 150 (1996 M. Donohue)
pto Zo’é Brazil 150 (1998 ISA). Ethnic population: 150 (Moore 2006)
wbe Waritai Indonesia 150 (Wurm 2000)
std Sentinel India 150 (Abbi 2006)
abg Abaga Papua New Guinea 5 (1994 SIL), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 150 (2011 SIL)
yii Yidiny Australia 150 (2006 census)
lbb Label Papua New Guinea 140 (1979 census)
puf Punan Merah Indonesia 140 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
yyu Yau Papua New Guinea 140 (2003 SIL)
wlr Wailapa Vanuatu 100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 140
yuq Yuqui Bolivia 120 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 140 (Adelaar 2004)
kyy Kambaira Papua New Guinea 140 (Wurm 1971)
chh Chinook United States 7 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 140 (2000 census)
swx Suruahá Brazil 140 (Moore 2006). 140 monolinguals
ail Aimele Papua New Guinea 140 (2000), decreasing
mhc Mocho Mexico 140 (2000 INALI). 0 monolinguals
ibd Iwaidja Australia 140 (2006 census)
seo Suarmin Papua New Guinea 140 (2000 S. Wurm)
gbb Kaytetye Australia 140 (2006 census)
gka Guya Papua New Guinea 130 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
kkb Kwerisa Indonesia 15 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 130
nek Neku New Caledonia 130 (2009 census), decreasing. 34% live in greater Nouméa
bie Bepour Papua New Guinea 50 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 130
mhq Mandan United States 10 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 130 (2000 census). L2 users: 0
yrw Yarawata Papua New Guinea 130 (2003 SIL)
bmp Bulgebi Papua New Guinea 50 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 130
mpu Makuráp Brazil 45 (de Olivera Braga 1992). Ethnic population: 130 (Crevels 2007)
rpn Repanbitip Vanuatu 90 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 130
kww Kwinti Suriname 130 (1980 census), decreasing
trb Terebu Papua New Guinea 130 (1990 SIL)
bpi Bagupi Papua New Guinea 50 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 130
sra Saruga Papua New Guinea 130 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
aan Anambé Brazil 6 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 130 (2000 ISA)
kyr Kuruáya Brazil 3 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 130 (2006 FUNASA). 115 (2002) in Cajueiro village (Crevels 2007)
nmr Nimbari Cameroon No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 130
bxq Beele Nigeria 120 (Temple and Temple 1922)
asn Asurini of Xingú Brazil 120 (2006 ISA). Ethnic population: 120 (2006 ISA)
djd Djamindjung Australia 120 (2006 census)
ppn Papapana Papua New Guinea 120 (Wurm 2000)
pup Pulabu Papua New Guinea 120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
tpy Trumai Brazil 51 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 120 (Moore 2006)
umi Ukit Malaysia 120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
ili Ili Turki China 120 in China (1980 R. Hahn), decreasing. The language of about 30 families (Salminen 2007)
umo Umotína Brazil 1 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 120 (1999)
uma Umatilla United States 25 (Golla 2007). 25–50 Umatilla and Walla Walla [waa] speakers together. Ethnic population: 120 (1977 SIL)
vnk Lovono Solomon Islands 5 (2007 A. François). Old people remember a few words (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 120 (Wurm 2007)
mwa Mwatebu Papua New Guinea 120 (Wurm 2000). 10 monolinguals
ttn Towei Indonesia 120 (1975 SIL)
mgf Maklew Indonesia 120
jao Yanyuwa Australia 120 (2006 census)
wab Wab Papua New Guinea 120 (Wurm 2000)
afz Obokuitai Indonesia 120 (Wurm 2000)
aro Araona Bolivia 110 (2006 PIB)
mlb Mbule Cameroon 110 (2009 SIL). 0 monolinguals
oon Öñge India 94 (Abbi 2006). Mainly monolingual. Ethnic population: 110 (1999)
nmu Maidu, Northeast United States 1 (1994 L. Hinton). Only a few semispeakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 110 (2000 census). Mountain Maidu
bck Bunaba Australia 110 (2006 census)
nuy Nunggubuyu Australia 110 (2006 census)
adt Adnyamathanha Australia 110 (2006 census)
dbo Dulbu Nigeria 100 (1993)
aic Ainbai Papua New Guinea 100 (2003 SIL)
ykk Yakaikeke Papua New Guinea 100 (1998 SIL)
zmo Molo Sudan 100 (1988 M. Bender), decreasing
srt Sauri Indonesia 100 (1987 SIL)
gnr Gureng Gureng Australia No known L1 speakers. L2 users: L2 by fewer than 100 children and adults
kpi Kofei Indonesia 100 (Wurm 2000)
tti Tobati Indonesia 100 (Wurm 2007)
hoh Hobyót Oman 100 in Oman (1998 H. Mutzafi)
byl Bayono Indonesia 100 (1999 SIL)
zgr Magori Papua New Guinea 100 (Wurm 2000)
xwk Wangkumara Australia 100 (2004 AUSTLANG)
brj Bieria Vanuatu 70 (Early 2006), decreasing. Ethnic population: 100. L2 users: Some older residents use it as L2
bti Burate Indonesia 100 (Wurm 2000)
ukq Ukwa Nigeria 100 (2004)
ppi Paipai Mexico 100 (Golla 2007)
tkx Tangko Indonesia 100 (2000 SIL)
awh Awbono Indonesia 100 (1999 SIL). 100 monolinguals
bdy Bandjalang Australia 100 (2006 census)
jie Jilbe Nigeria 100 (1999 H. Tourneux)
twr Tarahumara, Southwestern Mexico 100 (1983 SIL)
bic Bikaru Papua New Guinea 100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
cuw Chukwa Nepal 100 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Only 5 fluent speakers (2011)
krz Kanum, Sota Indonesia 100 (1996 M. Donohue)
pby Pyu Papua New Guinea 100 (2000 census)
zmg Marti Ke Australia 3 (2001 I. Alexander). Ethnic population: 100. L2 users: 50
pix Piu Papua New Guinea 100 (Wurm 2000)
ctc Chetco United States 5 (Chafe 1962), decreasing. Ethnic population: 100 (1977 SIL)
pin Piame Papua New Guinea 100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
rga Roria Vanuatu 75 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 100
diy Diuwe Indonesia 100 (1999 SIL)
ktj Krumen, Plapo Côte d’Ivoire 100 (2004)
nxi Nindi Tanzania 100
kwr Kwer Indonesia 100 (1998 M. Donohue)
mcj Mvanip Nigeria 100 (Blench, Spriggs, and Connell 1999)
kkp Gugubera Australia 100 (2006 census)
bvf Boor Chad 100 (1999 SIL)
sbw Simba Gabon 100 (Idiata 2007)
wrh Wiradhuri Australia 100 (2006 census)
ocu Matlatzinca, Atzingo Mexico 100 (2011 SIL)
zah Zangwal Nigeria 100 (1993)
bsx Yangkam Nigeria 100 (1996 R. Blench)
nmi Nyam Nigeria 100 (2006)
tfo Tefaro Indonesia 100 (1987 SIL)
zns Mangas Nigeria 100 (1995 CAPRO)
xmo Morerebi Brazil 100 (2000)
ump Umpila Australia 100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
ncn Nauna Papua New Guinea 100 (Wurm 2000)
par Timbisha United States 20 (Golla 2007). No speakers who did not also learn English [eng] as children (Golla 2007). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100 (1998 J. McLaughlin)
syw Kagate Nepal 100 (2011 census). Very few monolinguals
pnw Panytyima Australia 98 (2006 census)
hhy Hoyahoya Papua New Guinea 95 (2000 census), decreasing
kxo Kanoé Brazil 5 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 95 (Crevels 2007)
mmv Miriti Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 95 (1998)
ynu Yahuna Colombia No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 95 (Crevels 2007)
ari Arikara United States 10 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 94 (2000 census)
ssj Sausi Papua New Guinea 93 (Wurm 2007)
noj Nonuya Colombia 3 in Colombia (2007 J. Echeverri). Population total all countries: 4. Ethnic population: 90. Ethnic population covers both Colombia and Peru
swm Samosa Papua New Guinea 90 (Wurm 2000)
ybn Yabaâna Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 90 (1986 SIL)
wmb Wambaya Australia 89 (2006 census)
mvs Massep Indonesia 25 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 85
bpw Bo Papua New Guinea 85 (1998 NTM)
mnu Mer Indonesia 85 (2000)
kwa Dâw Brazil 85 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 85 (Crevels 2007)
wrr Wardaman Australia 84 (2006 census)
gva Guana Paraguay 28 (Crevels 2007). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 84 (Crevels 2007)
isc Isconahua Peru 82 (2000)
smc Som Papua New Guinea 80 (Wurm 2000)
kxq Kanum, Smärky Indonesia 80 (1996 M. Donohue)
hhi Hoia Hoia Papua New Guinea 80 (2000 census)
esq Esselen United States No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 80 (2000 A. Yamamoto)
crd Coeur d’Alene United States 2 (Watanabe and Sasama 2007). Ethnic population: 80 (2000 census). L2 users: Many L2 speakers of all ages, none fully fluent
mbx Mari Papua New Guinea 80 (Wurm 2000)
mpn Mindiri Papua New Guinea 80 (Wurm 2000)
lib Likum Papua New Guinea 80 (Wurm 2000)
siv Sumariup Papua New Guinea 80 (1993 SIL)
wyr Wayoró Brazil 8 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 77 (Moore 2006)
lix Liabuku Indonesia 75 (2004 SIL), decreasing
dul Agta, Alabat Island Philippines 30 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 75
akq Ak Papua New Guinea 75 (Wurm 2000)
afi Chini Papua New Guinea 75 (2013 J. Brooks)
gpn Taiap Papua New Guinea 75 (Wurm 2007)
moq Mor Indonesia 30 (2012 H. Hammarström). 70 semi-speakers (2012 H. Hammarström)
wym Wymysorys Poland 70 (2006)
tls Tambotalo Vanuatu 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 70
bdx Budong-Budong Indonesia 70 (Friberg and Laskowske 1989)
val Vehes Papua New Guinea 70 (Wurm 2000)
awr Awera Indonesia 70 (Wurm 2000)
bhe Bhaya Pakistan 70 (1998)
ppe Papi Papua New Guinea 70 (Wurm 2000)
ire Yeresiam Indonesia 70 (Wurm 2000)
kbb Kaxuiâna Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 69 (1998 ISA)
skf Sakirabiá Brazil 25 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 66 (Moore 2006)
ybx Yawiyo Papua New Guinea 66 (2000 census)
xrw Karawa Papua New Guinea 63 (2003 SIL), decreasing. 0 monolinguals (2007 SIL)
nyh Nyigina Australia 63 (2006 census)
mem Mangala Australia 61 (2006 census)
gge Guragone Australia 60 (2011 R. Singer and C. Bowern)
cuj Mashco Piro Peru 60 (1976 SIL). 60 monolinguals
opy Ofayé Brazil 2 (2005 S. Anonby). Ethnic population: 60 (2006 FUNASA)
awm Arawum Papua New Guinea 60 (Wurm 2000)
mzx Mawayana Guyana 50 in Guyana (1986 C. Howard). Population total all countries: 60
ate Atemble Papua New Guinea 60 (Wurm 2000)
dbn Duriankere Indonesia 30 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 60
yev Yapunda Papua New Guinea 60 (Wurm 2000)
bnl Boon Somalia 59 (2000)
wrk Garrwa Australia 59 (Mushin 2012)
ztm Zapotec, San Agustín Mixtepec Mexico 59 (1994 SIL)
unu Unubahe Papua New Guinea 7 (2012 SIL). Ethnic population: 59
arx Aruá Brazil 12 (1990 YWAM). Ethnic population: 58 (Moore 2006)
nck Nakara Australia 57 (2006 census)
ung Ngarinyin Australia 57 (2006 census)
mec Mara Australia 57 (2006 census)
lva Makuva East Timor 56 (2010 census)
orw Oro Win Brazil 2 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 55 (1998)
mrx Dineor Indonesia 55 (2006 SIL), decreasing
lbz Lardil Australia 54 (2006 census). More semi-speakers (Wurm 2007)
jig Djingili Australia 52 (2006 census)
ono Onondaga Canada 40 in Canada (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 52
trz Torá Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 51 (1999)
pcp Pacahuara Bolivia 17 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 18 (Adelaar 2004). Possibly 50 Pacahuara in 8 families scattered between Río Negro and Río Pacahuaras, Federico Román Province, Pando Department (Crevels 2007)
mfl Putai Nigeria 50
aac Ari Papua New Guinea 50 (Wurm 2000)
pur Puruborá Brazil 2 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 50 (Moore 2006)
aou A’ou China 50 (2011 SIL)
iks Inuit Sign Language Canada 50 (2014 J. MacDougall). An unknown number of hearing people also use the language
jng Yangman Australia No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 50 (Black 1983)
mfr Marithiel Australia 15 (2006 census). L2 users: 50
elh El Hugeirat Sudan 50 (2007 SIL), decreasing. 0 monolinguals
spg Sian Malaysia 50 (Wurm 2000)
faj Faita Papua New Guinea 50 (Wurm 2000)
mvq Moere Papua New Guinea 50 (Wurm 2000)
kbe Kanju Australia 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
amq Amahai Indonesia 50 (Wurm 2007)
vku Kurrama Australia 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
nuw Nguluwan Micronesia 50 (Sakiyama 2000)
mqv Mosimo Papua New Guinea 50 (Wurm 2000)
ppq Pei Papua New Guinea 50 (2000 census)
kzu Kayupulau Indonesia 50 (Wurm 2000). Used by under 10% of the ethnic group (Wurm 2007)
rmi Lomavren Armenia 50 in Armenia (2004)
ako Akurio Suriname 10 (Carlin and Arends 2002). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 50
yej Yevanic Israel 35 in Israel. Population total all countries: 50
prg Prussian Poland No known L1 speakers. L2 users: 50
haa Han United States 12 in United States (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 19. Ethnic population: 50 (Golla 2007)
mcl Macaguaje Colombia No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 50 (Crevels 2007)
lwu Lawu China 50 (2012 C. Yang)
dmm Dama Cameroon 50
paf Paranawát Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 50 (1986 SIL)
xkw Kembra Indonesia 20 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 50
plh Paulohi Indonesia 50 (1982). Very few left (Wurm 2007)
dmw Mudburra Australia 48 (2003)
sik Sikiana Brazil 33 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Population total all countries: 48
wrl Warlmanpa Australia 47 (2006 census)
psm Pauserna Bolivia No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 46 (Adelaar 2004)
avv Avá-Canoeiro Brazil 14 (Moore 2006). 14 monolinguals. All speakers are monolingual. Ethnic population: 46 (2009 ISA)
djb Djinba Australia 45 (2006 census)
ygl Yangum Gel Papua New Guinea 45 (2000 census)
cad Caddo United States 25 (Golla 2007). 0 monolinguals (2000 B. Levy). Ethnic population: 45 (2000 census)
kju Kashaya United States 45 (1994 L. Hinton), decreasing
djn Djauan Australia 43 (2006 census)
kgs Kumbainggar Australia 42 (2006 census)
atx Arutani Brazil 17 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Population total all countries: 42
sae Sabanê Brazil 7 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 40 (Crevels 2007)
aip Burumakok Indonesia 40 (1994 R. Kroneman)
jcs Jamaican Country Sign Language Jamaica 40 (L. Parks)
ccd Cafundo Creole Brazil 40 (1978 M. Gnerre)
aga Aguano Peru No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 40 families in Santa Cruz de Huallaga
kcb Kawacha Papua New Guinea 12 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 40
uwa Kuku-Uwanh Australia 40 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
xwa Kwaza Brazil 7 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 40
pop Pwapwâ New Caledonia 40 (2006 census), decreasing
hir Himarimã Brazil 40
bpl Broome Pearling Lugger Pidgin Australia No known L1 speakers. L2 users: 40
xkh Karahawyana Brazil 40 (1995 SIL)
bso Buso Chad 40 (Welmers 1971)
ora Oroha Solomon Islands 38 (1999 SIL)
rmb Rembarunga Australia 36 (2006 census)
noy Noy Chad 36 (1993 census)
pux Puare Papua New Guinea 35 (2003 SIL)
nly Nyamal Australia 35 (2006 census), decreasing
dui Dumun Papua New Guinea 35 (Wurm 2000)
kld Gamilaraay Australia 35 (2006 census). Recently extinct in its original form, but spoken by many as a mixture of English [eng] and Gamilaraay (Wurm 2007)
bzg Babuza China–Taiwan No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 35
xts Mixtec, Sindihui Mexico 34 (2005 census)
mpb Mullukmulluk Australia 33 (2006 census)
rit Ritarungo Australia 32 (2006 census)
cip Chiapanec Mexico No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 32
ark Arikapú Brazil 2 (2009 FUNASA). Ethnic population: 32 (2009 FUNASA)
xpk Kulina Pano Brazil 32 (2007 SIL)
xmh Kuku-Muminh Australia 31 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
tns Tenis Papua New Guinea 30 (Wurm 2000), decreasing
bql Bilakura Papua New Guinea 30 (Wurm 2000)
nhc Nahuatl, Tabasco Mexico 30 (2014 M. Hansen)
pmn Pam Cameroon 30 (2003 SIL)
naa Namla Indonesia 30 (2005 SIL)
goy Goundo Chad 30 (1998)
rge Romano-Greek Greece 30 (2000)
pnm Punan Batu 1 Malaysia 30 (Wurm 2000). L2 users: L2 used for most of the key domains
wub Wunambal Australia 30 (2006 census)
zmt Maringarr Australia 30 (Black 1983)
twt Turiwára Brazil No known L1 speakers. The Tembé [tqb] seem to have assimilated the closely related Turiwara group (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 30 (1995 SIL)
amy Ami Australia 30 (Wurm 2007)
dbl Dyirbal Australia 29 (2006 census)
ght Kuke Nepal 29 (2011 census)
klb Kiliwa Mexico 10 (Golla 2007). 29 (2000 INALI). 0 monolinguals (1993)
spc Sapé Venezuela 5 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 28 (1992)
grw Gweda Papua New Guinea 26 (2001 SIL)
nrl Ngarluma Australia 26 (2006 census)
unn Kurnai Australia 26 (2006 AUSTLANG)
gbd Karadjeri Australia 26 (2006 census)
zma Manda Australia 25 (Black 1983)
trh Turaka Papua New Guinea 25 (Wurm 2000)
xow Kowaki Papua New Guinea 25 (Wurm 2000)
mjj Mawak Papua New Guinea 25 (Wurm 2000)
zuy Zumaya Cameroon 25 (1987 SIL)
drl Paakantyi Australia 24 (2006 census)
nnr Narungga Australia 24 (2006 census)
gyd Kayardild Australia 23 (2006 census)
lrg Laragia Australia 23 (2006 census)
tox Tobian Palau 22 (1995 SIL)
kuy Kuuku-Ya’u Australia 21 (1996 census)
kuq Karipuna Brazil 10 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 21 (2001)
ixc Ixcatec Mexico 21 (2000 INALI). Only a few elderly speakers (M. Swanton)
dhl Dhalandji Australia 20 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Only a few speakers remain (Wurm 2007)
gir Gelao, Red Viet Nam 20 in Viet Nam
zmj Maridjabin Australia 20 (Oates and Oates 1970)
trr Taushiro Peru 1 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 20
ltn Latundê Brazil 10 (2010 S. Anonby). Ethnic population: 20 (2010 S. Anonby)
zmy Mariyedi Australia 20 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
mqr Mander Indonesia 20 (1991 SIL)
bia Badimaya Australia 20 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977)
sww Sowa Vanuatu 20 (2011 SIL)
oda Odut Nigeria 20 (1980 R. Blench). May be extinct (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007)
gds Ghandruk Sign Language Nepal 20 (2011 SIL)
zmd Maridan Australia 20 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
gih Githabul Australia 20 (2006 AUSTLANG)
wro Worrorra Australia 20 (2006 census)
yug Yug Russian Federation 1 (2010 census). Listed in census under Ket [ket]. Ethnic population: 19 (2002 census)
lby Lamu-Lamu Australia 19 (2006 census)
ktd Kokata Australia 19 (2006 census)
cst Ohlone, Northern United States No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Last fluent speakers in the 18th or early 19th centuries
rri Ririo Solomon Islands 18 (Wurm 2007)
dep Delaware, Pidgin United States No known L1 speakers. L2 users: Widely used in the 17th century between Algonquians and Europeans as L2
wlg Kunbarlang Australia 16 (2006 census), decreasing. Ethnic group members generally speak Gunwinggu [gup]
zmm Marimanindji Australia 15 (Black 1983)
grq Gorovu Papua New Guinea 15 (Wurm 2000), decreasing
zml Madngele Australia 15 (Black 1983)
zmr Maranunggu Australia 15 (Black 1983)
aob Abom Papua New Guinea 15 (2002 SIL)
brc Berbice Creole Dutch Guyana No known L1 speakers (2011 SIL). 15 with limited competence (Holm 1989)
tbe Tanibili Solomon Islands 15 (1999 SIL)
kgt Somyev Nigeria 15 (2000 B. Connell)
mrs Maragus Vanuatu 15 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
krm Krim Sierra Leone 15 (2014 T. Childs), decreasing
lzl Litzlitz Vanuatu 15 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
boy Bodo Central African Republic 15 (1996)
rgr Resígaro Peru 14 (1976 SIL)
rxd Ngardi Australia 14 (2012 AUSTLANG)
abe Abenaki, Western Canada 10 in Canada (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 14
wyb Wangaaybuwan-Ngiyambaa Australia 12 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
ard Arabana Australia 12 (2006 census)
alh Alawa Australia 12 (2006 census)
mpc Mangarayi Australia 12 (2006 census)
wdj Wadjiginy Australia 12 (1988 SIL). Ethnic group members understand the language when old people speak it, but use Kriol [rop] as L1 (Wurm 2007)
ant Antakarinya Australia 12 (2006 census)
bow Rema Papua New Guinea 12 (2012 J. Thiessen)
sht Shasta United States No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 12 (1990 census)
ngk Dalabon Australia 11 (2006 census)
kvs Kunggara Australia 10 (1971 SIL). Possibly has no remaining speakers
wny Wanyi Australia 10 (Tryon 2007). May be 2 Wanji semi-speakers and 1 full speaker (Wurm 2007)
nlr Ngarla Australia 3 (2006 AUSTLANG). 10 semispeakers
ssu Susuami Papua New Guinea 10 (Wurm 2000)
mpw Mapidian Brazil 10 in Brazil (Moore 2006)
aua Asumboa Solomon Islands 10 (1999 SIL)
khd Kanum, Bädi Indonesia 10 (1996 M. Donohue)
jaj Zazao Solomon Islands 10 (1999 SIL)
dda Dadi Dadi Australia 10 (2005 AUSTLANG)
ccc Chamicuro Peru 2 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 10 (2000 W. Adelaar)
pii Pini Australia 10. May have no remaining speakers
bxe Ongota Ethiopia 10 (2007 census)
waq Wageman Australia 10 (2000)
mnd Mondé Brazil 2 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 10
tpv Tanapag Northern Mariana Islands 10 (2011 SIL), decreasing
ism Masimasi Indonesia 10 (2005 SIL)
adg Andegerebinha Australia 10 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
tus Tuscarora Canada 7 in Canada (Kinkade 1991). Population total all countries: 9
bju Busuu Cameroon 8 (1986 R. Breton)
jus Jumla Sign Language Nepal 8 (2005 INF). 8 monolinguals
akr Araki Vanuatu 8
xet Xetá Brazil No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 8 (1998)
jua Júma Brazil 7 (Moore 2006). 5 speakers belong to one family, all married to Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau [urz] (Crevels 2007)
tjw Djabwurrung Australia 7 (2005 AUSTLANG)
klp Kamasa Papua New Guinea 7 (2003 SIL)
mqt Mok Thailand 7 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
xby Batyala Australia 7 (2006 AUSTLANG)
aqz Akuntsu Brazil 6 (2009 SIL)
nad Nijadali Australia 6 (1990 SIL)
xab Sambe Nigeria 6 (Blench 2003)
bxj Bayungu Australia 6 (Wurm 1981)
uur Ura Vanuatu 6 (1998 T. Crowley)
njr Njerep Nigeria 6 (2000 B. Connell)
btj Malay, Bacanese Indonesia 6 (2012 SIL)
weg Wergaia Australia 5 (2005 AUSTLANG)
xru Marriammu Australia 5 (2006 A. Brown)
xni Ngarigu Australia 5 (2004 AUSTLANG)
wor Woria Indonesia 5 (2000 R. Doriot)
gke Ndai Cameroon 5
ais Amis, Nataoran China–Taiwan 5 (Wurm 2000)
nvh Nasarian Vanuatu 5 (Lynch and Crowley 2001)
olk Olkol Australia 5 (2006 AUSTLANG)
olr Olrat Vanuatu 5 (2008)
rbp Barababaraba Australia 5 (2005 AUSTLANG)
yia Yinggarda Australia 5 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ruhlen (1987) reported no remaining speakers
vma Martuyhunira Australia 5 (Wurm and Hattori 1981)
tqm Turumsa Papua New Guinea 5 (2002 SIL), decreasing. Possibly no remaining speakers (2011)
inp Iñapari Peru 4 (1999 SIL)
bdn Baldemu Cameroon 4 (2003 SIL)
myr Muniche Peru 3 (1988 SIL)
wgy Warrgamay Australia 3 (2011 SIL)
gdh Gadjerawang Australia 3 (2011 SIL). A few elderly speakers (Wurm 2007)
wao Wappo United States 3 (Golla 2007). All speakers are elderly and none fully fluent (Golla 2007)
lmw Miwok, Lake United States 1 (1994 L. Hinton). 2–3 semispeakers only, not actively using language (Golla 2007)
bxn Burduna Australia 3 (2011 SIL)
muj Mabire Chad 3 (2001 SIL)
xny Nyiyaparli Australia 3 (2006 AUSTLANG)
scf San Miguel Creole French Panama 3 (1999 SIL)
lgi Lengilu Indonesia 3 (Wurm 2000)
ywg Yinhawangka Australia 3 (2006 AUSTLANG)
nji Gudanji Australia 3 (2011 SIL)
dcr Negerhollands U.S. Virgin Islands No known L1 speakers. L2 users: May be some remaining L2 speakers
wgu Wirangu Australia 2 (2011 AUSTLANG). 2 semi-speakers (Wurm 2007)
zsm Malay, Standard Malaysia Few L1 speakers. L2 includes most Malaysian population
jvd Javindo Indonesia No known L1 speakers. May be a few L2 speakers and even a very few L1 speakers (Wurm 2007)
tit Tinigua Colombia 2 (2000). Ethnic population: 2
ana Andaqui Colombia No known L1 speakers. L2 users: Rural Andaqui communities in Acevedo (Huila) and Belén de los Andaquíes (Caquetá), near Pescado and Fragua rivers, but no longer speaking their language. Some Incas who occupied former Andaqui areas insist that there are still uncontacted Andaqui people
dgw Daungwurrung Australia No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers
zoq Zoque, Tabasco Mexico 2 (2011 The Guardian)
fng Pidgin Bantu South Africa L2 users: Several hundred thousand L2 speakers in South Africa (Reinecke et al. 1975)
lrz Lemerig Vanuatu 2 (2008 A. François)
dyn Dyangadi Australia No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Extinct for 2 decades (Wurm 2007)
ajn Andajin Australia 2 (2005 AUSTLANG)
tnq Taíno Puerto Rico No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers
giy Giyug Australia 2 (2011 SIL)
njt Ndyuka-Trio Pidgin Suriname No known L1 speakers
ktq Katabaga Philippines No known L1 speakers
aho Ahom India No known L1 speakers
avm Angkamuthi Australia No known L1 speakers
okj Oko-Juwoi India No known L1 speakers
drr Dororo Solomon Islands No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Extinct for several decades (Wurm 2007)
bxi Pirlatapa Australia No known L1 speakers
kzk Kazukuru Solomon Islands No known L1 speakers
vmb Barbaram Australia No known L1 speakers
vkm Kamakan Brazil No known L1 speakers
tgy Togoyo South Sudan No known L1 speakers
tgz Tagalaka Australia 1 (2005 NILS)
gbw Gabi-Gabi Australia No known L1 speakers. Speaker numbers are not known but there is a sizable community in Brisbane who identify with this group
gcd Ganggalida Australia 1 (Wurm 2007). Six semi-speakers; one full speaker (Wurm 2007)
yme Yameo Peru No known L1 speakers
aid Alngith Australia No known L1 speakers
nts Natagaimas Colombia No known L1 speakers
mvl Mbara Australia No known L1 speakers
ack Aka-Kora India No known L1 speakers
urv Uruava Papua New Guinea No known L1 speakers
umg Umbuygamu Australia No known L1 speakers
slq Salchuq Iran No known L1 speakers
aea Areba Australia No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2003). Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003)
tbu Tubar Mexico No known L1 speakers
hbo Hebrew, Ancient Israel No known L1 speakers
srw Serua Indonesia No known L1 speakers
urc Urningangg Australia No known L1 speakers
avo Agavotaguerra Brazil No known L1 speakers
grc Greek, Ancient Greece No known L1 speakers
ntw Nottoway United States No known L1 speakers
puy Purisimeño United States No known L1 speakers
dth Adithinngithigh Australia No known L1 speakers
gll Garlali Australia No known L1 speakers
ngv Nagumi Cameroon No known L1 speakers
ylr Yalarnnga Australia No known L1 speakers
okg Koko Babangk Australia No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death unknown
uru Urumi Brazil No known L1 speakers
gbu Gagadu Australia 1 (Wurm 2007)
gyy Gunya Australia No known L1 speakers
lku Kungkari Australia No known L1 speakers
fos Siraya China–Taiwan No known L1 speakers
hod Holma Nigeria No known L1 speakers
vml Malgana Australia No known L1 speakers
rkw Arakwal Australia No known L1 speakers
vmu Muluridyi Australia No known L1 speakers
ygi Yiningayi Australia No known L1 speakers
nrx Ngurmbur Australia No known L1 speakers
syc Syriac Turkey No known L1 speakers
llf Hermit Papua New Guinea No known L1 speakers
ajw Ajawa Nigeria No known L1 speakers
bxo Barikanchi Nigeria No known L1 speakers
omu Omurano Peru No known L1 speakers
vmv Maidu, Valley United States No known L1 speakers
rmd Traveller Danish Denmark No known L1 speakers
hib Hibito Peru No known L1 speakers
akm Aka-Bo India No known L1 speakers
tas Tay Boi Viet Nam No known L1 speakers
yei Yeni Cameroon No known L1 speakers
wnd Wandarang Australia No known L1 speakers
gnl Gangulu Australia No known L1 speakers
zmh Makolkol Papua New Guinea No known L1 speakers
akj Aka-Jeru India No known L1 speakers
ayd Ayabadhu Australia No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2003)
kpn Kepkiriwát Brazil No known L1 speakers
axl Aranda, Lower Southern Australia No known L1 speakers
fln Flinders Island Australia No known L1 speakers
yil Yindjilandji Australia No known L1 speakers
ntg Ngantangarra Australia No known L1 speakers
vmi Miwa Australia No known L1 speakers
kda Worimi Australia No known L1 speakers
hor Horo Chad No known L1 speakers
nju Ngadjunmaya Australia No known L1 speakers. Probably recently extinct (Wurm 2007)
typ Thaypan Australia No known L1 speakers
ppu Papora-Hoanya China–Taiwan No known L1 speakers
umd Umbindhamu Australia No known L1 speakers
nsz Nisenan United States No known L1 speakers
gli Guliguli Solomon Islands No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Extinct for decades (Wurm 2007)
bjy Bayali Australia No known L1 speakers
gyf Gungabula Australia No known L1 speakers
tbh Thurawal Australia No known L1 speakers
zmk Mandandanyi Australia No known L1 speakers
zme Mangerr Australia No known L1 speakers
aci Aka-Cari India No known L1 speakers
acs Acroá Brazil No known L1 speakers
ait Arikem Brazil No known L1 speakers
ome Omejes Colombia No known L1 speakers
skw Skepi Creole Dutch Guyana No known L1 speakers
lkm Kalaamaya Australia No known L1 speakers
ayy Ayta, Tayabas Philippines No known L1 speakers
zmc Margany Australia No known L1 speakers
sni Sensi Peru No known L1 speakers
mys Mesmes Ethiopia No known L1 speakers
ywr Yawuru Australia No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Recently extinct
ekc Karnic, Eastern Australia No known L1 speakers
bmn Bina Papua New Guinea No known L1 speakers
ave Avestan Iran No known L1 speakers
dze Djiwarli Australia No known L1 speakers
hrp Nhirrpi Australia No known L1 speakers
psy Piscataway United States No known L1 speakers
avs Aushiri Peru No known L1 speakers
dyg Agta, Villa Viciosa Philippines No known L1 speakers
dyd Dyugun Australia No known L1 speakers
dyb Dyaberdyaber Australia No known L1 speakers
veo Ventureño United States No known L1 speakers
jbw Yawijibaya Australia No known L1 speakers
bxv Berakou Chad No known L1 speakers
yww Yawarawarga Australia No known L1 speakers
yxa Mayawali Australia No known L1 speakers
znk Manangkari Australia No known L1 speakers
bvv Baniva Venezuela No known L1 speakers
yty Yatay Australia No known L1 speakers
tvy Pidgin, Timor East Timor No known L1 speakers
coq Coquille United States No known L1 speakers
nwg Ngayawung Australia No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death unknown
rem Remo Peru No known L1 speakers
bpb Barbacoas Colombia No known L1 speakers
jbi Badjiri Australia No known L1 speakers
aux Aurá Brazil No known L1 speakers
uun Kulon-Pazeh China–Taiwan No known L1 speakers
nil Nila Indonesia No known L1 speakers
wnm Wanggamala Australia No known L1 speakers
ktk Kaniet Papua New Guinea No known L1 speakers
cop Coptic Egypt No known L1 speakers
nid Ngandi Australia No known L1 speakers
rer Rer Bare Ethiopia No known L1 speakers
wnn Wunumara Australia No known L1 speakers
nxn Ngawun Australia No known L1 speakers
yub Yugambal Australia No known L1 speakers
zmu Muruwari Australia No known L1 speakers
acl Akar-Bale India No known L1 speakers
nrr Nora India No known L1 speakers
zmv Mbariman-Gudhinma Australia No known L1 speakers
eaa Karenggapa Australia No known L1 speakers
lja Golpa Australia No known L1 speakers
crz Cruzeño United States No known L1 speakers
lkd Lakondê Brazil 1 (2007)
mje Muskum Chad No known L1 speakers
obi Obispeño United States No known L1 speakers
umr Umbugarla Australia No known L1 speakers
ugb Kuku-Ugbanh Australia No known L1 speakers
tux Tuxináwa Brazil No known L1 speakers
yxy Yabula Yabula Australia No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death unknown
nlw Walangama Australia No known L1 speakers
axe Ayerrerenge Australia No known L1 speakers
ynd Yandruwandha Australia No known L1 speakers
szd Seru Malaysia No known L1 speakers
coy Coyaima Colombia No known L1 speakers
gma Gambera Australia No known L1 speakers
cum Cumeral Colombia No known L1 speakers
zkp Kaingáng, São Paulo Brazil No known L1 speakers
nug Nungali Australia No known L1 speakers
yvt Yavitero Venezuela 1 (Crevels 2007)
urf Uradhi Australia No known L1 speakers
spi Saponi Indonesia No known L1 speakers
wnw Wintu United States No known L1 speakers
koc Kpati Nigeria No known L1 speakers
prr Puri Brazil No known L1 speakers
bsv Baga Sobané Guinea No known L1 speakers
bwh Bishuo Cameroon No known L1 speakers
ten Tama Colombia No known L1 speakers
tep Tepecano Mexico No known L1 speakers
nyt Nyawaygi Australia No known L1 speakers
duy Agta, Dicamay Philippines No known L1 speakers
yxm Yinwum Australia No known L1 speakers
duz Duli Cameroon No known L1 speakers
myz Mandaic, Classical Iran No known L1 speakers in Iran
ktg Kalkutung Australia No known L1 speakers
yxg Yagara Australia No known L1 speakers
err Erre Australia No known L1 speakers
lba Lui India No known L1 speakers
nyv Nyulnyul Australia No known L1 speakers
vil Vilela Argentina No known L1 speakers (2011 M. Del Pozzi)
yob Yoba Papua New Guinea No known L1 speakers
tve Te’un Indonesia No known L1 speakers
ljx Yuru Australia No known L1 speakers
nhf Nhuwala Australia No known L1 speakers. May have no remaining speakers (Wurm 2007)
nyx Nganyaywana Australia No known L1 speakers
yxu Yuyu Australia No known L1 speakers
pld Polari United Kingdom No known L1 speakers
jan Jandai Australia No known L1 speakers (1996 AUSTLANG)
mpy Mapia Indonesia No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: The ethnic group emigrated to Micronesia and probably now speak either Palauan [pau], Sonsorol [sov], or Tobian [tox]
byq Basay China–Taiwan No known L1 speakers
xin Xinca Guatemala No known L1 speakers
xip Xipináwa Brazil No known L1 speakers
wif Wik-Keyangan Australia No known L1 speakers
apq A-Pucikwar India No known L1 speakers
xgw Guwa Australia No known L1 speakers
mwu Mittu South Sudan No known L1 speakers
csi Miwok, Coast United States No known L1 speakers
wie Wik-Epa Australia No known L1 speakers
aoh Arma Colombia No known L1 speakers
nmp Nimanbur Australia No known L1 speakers
dit Dirari Australia No known L1 speakers
xjt Jaitmatang Australia No known L1 speakers
xjb Minjungbal Australia No known L1 speakers
xgu Unggumi Australia No known L1 speakers
xgm Dharumbal Australia No known L1 speakers
pmc Palumata Indonesia No known L1 speakers
pmd Pallanganmiddang Australia No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death unknown
xdk Dharuk Australia No known L1 speakers
dhu Dhurga Australia No known L1 speakers
xbx Kabixí Brazil No known L1 speakers
dhx Dhungaloo Australia No known L1 speakers
ihb Iha Based Pidgin Indonesia No known L1 speakers
xgg Goreng Australia No known L1 speakers
xgi Garingbal Australia No known L1 speakers
xgd Gudang Australia No known L1 speakers
bqf Baga Kaloum Guinea No known L1 speakers
pej Pomo, Northern United States 1 (Golla 2007). One elderly speaker at Sherwood Rancheria, near Willits (Golla 2007)
pml Lingua Franca Tunisia No known L1 speakers
mwy Mosiro Tanzania No known L1 speakers
ggd Gugadj Australia No known L1 speakers
swn Sawknah Libya No known L1 speakers
kqu Seroa South Africa No known L1 speakers
zrp Zarphatic France No known L1 speakers
luf Laua Papua New Guinea No known L1 speakers
xmp Kuku-Mu’inh Australia No known L1 speakers
kba Kalarko Australia No known L1 speakers
cbe Chipiajes Colombia No known L1 speakers
inz Ineseño United States No known L1 speakers
xmu Kamu Australia No known L1 speakers
tmz Tamanaku Venezuela No known L1 speakers
gez Geez Ethiopia No known L1 speakers in Ethiopia
ans Anserma Colombia No known L1 speakers
djw Djawi Australia No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2003)
gtu Aghu-Tharnggala Australia No known L1 speakers
tni Tandia Indonesia No known L1 speakers
cbh Cagua Colombia No known L1 speakers
dja Djadjawurrung Australia No known L1 speakers. Date of the last speaker’s death unknown
crf Caramanta Colombia No known L1 speakers
dgn Dagoman Australia No known L1 speakers
djf Djangun Australia No known L1 speakers
wga Wagaya Australia No known L1 speakers
css Ohlone, Southern United States 1 (2009)
sdt Shuadit France No known L1 speakers
wgg Wangganguru Australia No known L1 speakers
sds Sened Tunisia No known L1 speakers
pev Pémono Venezuela No known L1 speakers
lox Loun Indonesia No known L1 speakers
apl Apache, Lipan United States No known L1 speakers
toz To Cameroon No known L1 speakers in Cameroon
wth Wathawurrung Australia No known L1 speakers
ccr Cacaopera El Salvador No known L1 speakers
sbo Sabüm Malaysia No known L1 speakers
wsv Wotapuri-Katarqalai Afghanistan No known L1 speakers
phv Pahlavani Afghanistan No known L1 speakers
dgt Ndra’ngith Australia No known L1 speakers. No information on the date of the last speaker’s death
ikr Ikaranggal Australia No known L1 speakers
wky Wangkayutyuru Australia No known L1 speakers
wur Wurrugu Australia No known L1 speakers
plp Palpa Nepal No known L1 speakers
pij Pijao Colombia No known L1 speakers
wlk Wailaki United States No known L1 speakers
wrz Waray Australia No known L1 speakers
cht Cholón Peru No known L1 speakers
wma Mawa Nigeria No known L1 speakers
wri Wariyangga Australia No known L1 speakers
wrb Warluwara Australia No known L1 speakers
wrg Warungu Australia No known L1 speakers
wly Waling Nepal No known L1 speakers
chu Slavonic, Old Church Russian Federation No known L1 speakers
cea Chehalis, Lower United States No known L1 speakers
pli Pali India No known L1 speakers in India
wrw Gugu Warra Australia No known L1 speakers
rxw Karuwali Australia No known L1 speakers
wlu Wuliwuli Australia No known L1 speakers
kgm Karipúna Brazil No known L1 speakers
wux Wulna Australia 1 (2011 SIL)
wir Wiraféd Brazil No known L1 speakers
wmi Wamin Australia No known L1 speakers
dhr Dhargari Australia 1 (Wurm 2007)
xar Karami Papua New Guinea No known L1 speakers
toe Tomedes Colombia No known L1 speakers
pey Petjo Indonesia There are some L1 speakers (Wurm 2007)
xbd Bindal Australia No known L1 speakers
xbj Birrpayi Australia No known L1 speakers
xbp Bibbulman Australia No known L1 speakers
wil Wilawila Australia No known L1 speakers
xbg Bunganditj Australia No known L1 speakers
xbe Bigambal Australia No known L1 speakers
aor Aore Vanuatu No known L1 speakers
xam |Xam South Africa No known L1 speakers
wwr Warrwa Australia No known L1 speakers
kgl Kunggari Australia No known L1 speakers
iin Thiin Australia No known L1 speakers
wwb Wakabunga Australia No known L1 speakers
nbg Nagarchal India No known L1 speakers
wxw Wardandi Australia No known L1 speakers
wyi Woiwurrung Australia No known L1 speakers
cca Cauca Colombia No known L1 speakers
xaj Ararandewára Brazil No known L1 speakers (Campbell and Grondona 2012)
try Turung India No known L1 speakers
wka Kw’adza Tanzania No known L1 speakers. C. Ehret reportedly worked with the last speaker (1976 M. Bender). Confirmed by R. Kiessling (1999)
kox Coxima Colombia No known L1 speakers
msp Maritsauá Brazil No known L1 speakers
xmq Kuku-Mangk Australia No known L1 speakers
xyb Yandjibara Australia No known L1 speakers
xyj Mayi-Yapi Australia No known L1 speakers
xya Yaygir Australia No known L1 speakers
xxr Koropó Brazil No known L1 speakers
xww Wemba Wemba Australia No known L1 speakers
hvc Haitian Vodoun Culture Language Haiti No known L1 speakers
xyk Mayi-Kulan Australia No known L1 speakers
xyt Mayi-Thakurti Australia No known L1 speakers
kae Ketangalan China–Taiwan No known L1 speakers
uln Unserdeutsch Papua New Guinea No known L1 speakers (2002 SIL). May be extinct (2002 J. Brownie)
abj Aka-Bea India No known L1 speakers
tkf Tukumanféd Brazil No known L1 speakers
xyy Yorta Yorta Australia No known L1 speakers. Likely still spoken (AUSTLANG)
xwt Wotjobaluk Australia No known L1 speakers
pod Ponares Colombia No known L1 speakers
amg Amurdak Australia 1 (2007 B. Birch)
xul Ngunawal Australia No known L1 speakers
xud Umiida Australia No known L1 speakers
xtv Thawa Australia No known L1 speakers
xmy Mayaguduna Australia No known L1 speakers
kwz Kwadi Angola No known L1 speakers
xun Unggaranggu Australia No known L1 speakers
xut Kuthant Australia No known L1 speakers
awg Anguthimri Australia No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death is unknown
xwj Wajuk Australia No known L1 speakers
pnv Pinigura Australia No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007)
bsl Basa-Gumna Nigeria No known L1 speakers
oti Oti Brazil No known L1 speakers
gku ‡Ungkue South Africa No known L1 speakers
nnv Nugunu Australia No known L1 speakers
nae Naka’ela Indonesia No known L1 speakers
onx Onin Based Pidgin Indonesia No known L1 speakers
gdj Gurdjar Australia 1 (Wurm 2007)
llk Lelak Malaysia No known L1 speakers
sar Saraveca Bolivia No known L1 speakers
gwu Guwamu Australia No known L1 speakers
nny Nyangga Australia No known L1 speakers
gdc Gugu Badhun Australia No known L1 speakers
byb Bikya Cameroon No known L1 speakers
bpt Barrow Point Australia No known L1 speakers
woa Tyaraity Australia No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007)
pkn Pakanha Australia No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007)
cmt Camtho South Africa No known L1 speakers
akx Aka-Kede India No known L1 speakers
aky Aka-Kol India No known L1 speakers
tjn Tonjon Côte d’Ivoire No known L1 speakers
byt Berti Sudan No known L1 speakers
brk Birked Sudan No known L1 speakers
tju Tjurruru Australia No known L1 speakers
rna Runa Colombia No known L1 speakers
lmc Limilngan Australia No known L1 speakers
gwm Awngthim Australia No known L1 speakers
huw Hukumina Indonesia No known L1 speakers
pom Pomo, Southeastern United States 1 (2014 G. Reece)
bjb Barngarla Australia No known L1 speakers
luw Luo Cameroon 1 (1995 B. Connell)
rmu Romani, Tavringer Sweden No known L1 speakers
bym Bidyara Australia No known L1 speakers. No remaining speakers (Ruhlen 1987)
luq Lucumi Cuba No known L1 speakers
tqr Torona Sudan No known L1 speakers
wdu Wadjigu Australia No known L1 speakers
xoc O’chi’chi’ Nigeria No known L1 speakers
jgb Ngbee Democratic Republic of the Congo No known L1 speakers
xpt Punthamara Australia No known L1 speakers
wdk Wadikali Australia No known L1 speakers
xrd Gundungurra Australia No known L1 speakers
awk Awabakal Australia No known L1 speakers
xrg Minang Australia No known L1 speakers
xre Kreye Brazil No known L1 speakers
pmz Pame, Southern Mexico No known L1 speakers
wdy Wadjabangayi Australia No known L1 speakers
iap Iapama Brazil No known L1 speakers
nmv Ngamini Australia No known L1 speakers
chg Chagatai Turkmenistan No known L1 speakers
ser Serrano United States No known L1 speakers
tmg Ternateño Indonesia No known L1 speakers
pit Pitta Pitta Australia No known L1 speakers
xpa Pirriya Australia No known L1 speakers
dmd Madhi Madhi Australia No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death unknown
wea Wewaw Myanmar No known L1 speakers
xpj Mpalitjanh Australia No known L1 speakers
amz Atampaya Australia No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2003)
gjm Gunditjmara Australia No known L1 speakers
xrq Karranga Australia No known L1 speakers
axb Abipon Argentina No known L1 speakers
ash Abishira Peru No known L1 speakers
xnk Nganakarti Australia No known L1 speakers
sej Sene Papua New Guinea No known L1 speakers
xth Yitha Yitha Australia No known L1 speakers
bzr Biri Australia No known L1 speakers
gdt Kungardutyi Australia No known L1 speakers
tmr Jewish Babylonian Aramaic Israel No known L1 speakers
otu Otuke Brazil No known L1 speakers
wmn Waamwang New Caledonia No known L1 speakers
mhg Margu Australia 1 (2011 SIL)
sgm Singa Kenya No known L1 speakers
oum Ouma Papua New Guinea No known L1 speakers
gvy Guyani Australia No known L1 speakers
xnu Nukunul Australia No known L1 speakers
rsi Rennellese Sign Language Solomon Islands No known L1 users
pnj Pinjarup Australia No known L1 speakers
pnk Paunaka Bolivia No known L1 speakers
lnj Leningitij Australia No known L1 speakers
lnw Lanima Australia No known L1 speakers
caw Callawalla Bolivia No known L1 speakers
csr Costa Rican Sign Language Costa Rica
keh Keak Papua New Guinea
csa Chinantec, Chiltepec Mexico Only a few older speakers (2011 J. Williams). Some possible monolinguals
fly Flaaitaal South Africa
csn Colombian Sign Language Colombia
csf Cuba Sign Language Cuba
esn Salvadoran Sign Language El Salvador
csd Chiangmai Sign Language Thailand
quq Quinqui Spain
cpi Chinese Pidgin English Nauru Several thousand speakers, spoken by most in Nauru (Wurm 2007)
stl Stellingwerfs Netherlands
kkg Kalinga, Mabaka Valley Philippines
nol Nomlaki United States
fah Fali of Baissa Nigeria Few left (Crozier and Blench 1992)
srz Shahmirzadi Iran
hmf Hmong Don Viet Nam
bqu Boguru Democratic Republic of the Congo Population total all countries: 0
hmv Hmong Dô Viet Nam
sta Settla Zambia
leo Leti Cameroon
esh Eshtehardi Iran
csl Chinese Sign Language China
rat Razajerdi Iran
mzy Mozambican Sign Language Mozambique
wep Westphalien Germany
sdz Sallands Netherlands
tmo Temoq Malaysia
kvk Korean Sign Language South Korea
ned Nde-Gbite Nigeria
tsm Turkish Sign Language Turkey
rtc Chin, Rungtu Myanmar 0 monolinguals
sdl Saudi Arabian Sign Language Saudi Arabia
xkj Kajali Iran
xkp Kabatei Iran
tne Kallahan, Tinoc Philippines
nef Nefamese India Population unknown. May be replaced by Hindi [hin] (2006 Y. Modi)
xsh Shamang Nigeria
shm Shahrudi Iran
rod Rogo Nigeria
xwd Wadi Wadi Australia
asw Australian Aborigines Sign Language Australia
doq Dominican Sign Language Dominican Republic
xtw Tawandê Brazil
shl Shendu India
jhs Jhankot Sign Language Nepal
jut Jutish Denmark
gsm Guatemalan Sign Language Guatemala
rof Rombo Tanzania
jos Jordanian Sign Language Jordan
giu Mulao China A few elderly speakers
ils International Sign Italy
lsp Panamanian Sign Language Panama
wle Wolane Ethiopia
tov Taromi, Upper Iran
ccj Kasanga Guinea-Bissau May be a few elderly speakers left (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007)
lso Laos Sign Language Laos
lsg Lyons Sign Language France
gib Gibanawa Nigeria
wmx Womo Papua New Guinea
lat Latin Vatican State
pks Pakistan Sign Language Pakistan
pgs Pangseng Nigeria
aox Atorada Guyana Few in Guyana
ruh Ruga India
def Dezfuli Iran
peb Pomo, Eastern United States Speakers on the west side of Clear Lake (Golla 2007)
xkc Kho’ini Iran
lov Lopi China
ihi Ihievbe Nigeria
lsy Mauritian Sign Language Mauritius
bfk Ban Khor Sign Language Thailand
pfl Pfaelzisch Germany
peq Pomo, Southern United States Speakers in the Cloverdale and Geyserville areas
rmw Romani, Welsh United Kingdom
vsl Venezuelan Sign Language Venezuela
aed Argentine Sign Language Argentina
hos Ho Chi Minh City Sign Language Viet Nam
pwi Patwin United States
fum Fum Nigeria
mby Memoni Pakistan
rdb Rudbari Iran
aen Armenian Sign Language Armenia
twd Twents Netherlands
hps Hawaii Sign Language United States
txj Tarjumo Nigeria
puk Pu Ko Laos
hds Honduras Sign Language Honduras
sqh Shau Nigeria
avd Alviri-Vidari Iran
act Achterhoeks Netherlands
zhi Zhire Nigeria
nsc Nshi Nigeria
goz Gozarkhani Iran
zgh Tamazight, Standard Moroccan Morocco
nsi Nigerian Sign Language Nigeria
nsr Maritime Sign Language Canada
ayk Akuku Nigeria
tyt Tày Tac Viet Nam
rax Rang Nigeria
haf Haiphong Sign Language Viet Nam
hsl Hausa Sign Language Nigeria
drt Drents Netherlands
okh Koresh-e Rostam Iran
prl Peruvian Sign Language Peru
vki Ija-Zuba Nigeria
obl Oblo Cameroon
vmd Koraga, Mudu India
olm Oloma Nigeria
vor Voro Nigeria
rmg Norwegian, Traveller Norway
ygu Yugul Australia
vmh Maraghei Iran
hab Hanoi Sign Language Viet Nam
nzu Teke-Nzikou Congo
bme Limassa Central African Republic Few in Ngundi [ndn] villages
yry Yarluyandi Australia
gmg Magiyi Papua New Guinea
bmf Bom Sierra Leone A few hundred speakers (2014 T. Childs)
vel Veluws Netherlands
smv Samvedi India
vit Viti Nigeria
psc Persian Sign Language Iran
psd Plains Indian Sign Language United States Mostly elderly hearing people and some middle-aged or older deaf people. 0 monolinguals
ljw Yirandali Australia
nqo N’ko Guinea

2015.07.26., 22:30




Olvasónapló

Régesrég tervben volt, hogy közzéteszem ezt a listát – most a születésnapja adott alkalmat rá. Piliscsabán, mint említettem, elkezdtem fölolvasni egy könyvet Krisznek, az Abigélt, tévében már látta; persze már itthon fejeztük be. S ez meg is maradt még közel négy évig szokásunknak, könyveket olvastam neki, mindig Palmról, mert ő a nyomtatott könyvvel is, a Palmmal is nehezen boldogult, már jó néhány éve; azelőtt sokat olvasott. És fölírogattam, hogy miket olvastunk. Dátumok csak néhány helyen vannak mellettük.
  Kezdtük tehát 2006. május 15-én az Abigéllel, és Szabó Magdával folytattuk, a Zsófikát nyilvánvalóan muszáj volt. Aztán jött az Én, a robot, bár aggódott Asimov miatt, hogy fog-e neki tetszeni, biztosan annyira más világ – aztán imádta. Következett az Alapítvány és Birodalom, majd a Második Alapítvány, az Alapítvány, az Acélbarlangok – és itt lett a kedvenc regényhőse R. Daneel Olivaw. Szerintem senki regényalakot nem szeretett annyira, mint Daneelt, kivéve persze a sajátjainkat. Úgyhogy A mezítelen Nappal és A Hajnal bolygó robotjaival folytattuk, erről van megint felírva dátum, október 16-án fejeztük be, szóval ez eddig kerek öt hónap. A Robotok és Birodalom után ugrottunk egy kicsit, Kavics az égben, Az űr áramlatai; aztán megpróbáltunk valami mást, rábeszéltem Wodehouse-ra, de Az életművész nem volt jó választás, két nap és néhány fejezet után abbahagytuk, nem tetszett neki, hogy Ukridge folyton becsap mindenkit, még a legjobb barátját is. Visszatértünk Asimovhoz: A csillagok, akár a por, Az Alapítvány előtt, Az Alapítvány pereme, ezzel léptünk át 2007-be. Alapítvány és Föld, ez megint nagyon tetszett neki, ujjongott, amikor Daneel színre lépett. Végül a Tükörképpel befejeztük a sagát (az Előjáték az Alapítványhoz nem neki való, depis, szomorú regény, én se szeretem, neki pedig kimondottan tilalmas, csak vázlatos ismertetést adtam róla).
  Január végén megint váltottunk, Harrisonra, A technicolor időgép szintén kevésbé tetszett neki, az időutazásos történetek nem igazán az ő világa, még ha írtunk is egyet közösen. Aztán megint Wodehouse, Hübele Sámuel, ezt viszont élvezte.
  És vissza Asimovhoz, az Űrvadász-történetek közül öt (a hatodik valahol elveszett akkoriban): A Szaturnusz gyűrűi, A Merkúr óriás napja, A Vénusz óceánja, Az aszteroidák kalózai, A Jupiter holdjai. Aztán a Nemezis.
  Megint új szerző, Hal Clement, Az elveszett rakéta, de nehezen tudott vele azonosulni. Úgyhogy elővettük megint Asimovot, A Hold tragédiáját.
  2007 decemberében megint új szerző, Arthur Hailey, a Hotel nagyon tetszett neki, ezzel léptünk az újévbe, aztán elolvastuk a Villantót Fazekas Lászlótól.
  Itt van egy lyuk, több mint négy hónapig nincs felírva semmi, de biztos vagyok benne, hogy ezalatt is olvastunk. Mivel olvastuk együtt az Álarcosbált, de nincs felírva, ebben az időben kellett lennie, logikusan a Születésnap előtt, ami a lyuk után volt. Aztán megint Hailey, a Keserű pirula, majd még két Asimov, a Fantasztikus utazás és Az Űrvadász, a Lucky Starr-sorozat kezdő darabja. De itt is lehet valami hiány, mert ez utóbbi állítólag három hónapig tartott, márpedig egy ekkora könyvet mi pár nap alatt olvastunk ki. Mindenesetre már 2009-ben értünk a végére. És az ezt követő Autóváros se tarthatott négy hónapig; igaz, ennek egy részében betegek voltunk. Grisham volt az utolsó: egy hónap volt A csodatevő, s végül még egy Az ítélet eladó. Szeptember 15-én értünk a végére, akkor Krisz már elég beteg volt, Kissyt akart olvasni, az elejéről újra. A harmadik rész közepéig jutottunk.
  Amibe még biztosan tudom, hogy belekezdtünk valamikor, az a Martina újra táncol Dědkovától, de teljesen rossz választás volt, Martinának meghaltak a szülei, a halál folyamatosan jelen volt a történetben, abbahagyatta velem a legelején. Ugyanezért nem szerepelt A Halhatatlanság halála, irtózott a címétől, de mivel időutazásos történet, nem is erőltettem, csak elmondtam vázlatosan, hogy mi van benne. Hasonlóképpen olyan művekkel, mint Az istenek is…, Leszáll az éj, Heinleintől A galaxis polgára, Thury Zsuzsától A tűzpiros üveggömb és alighanem még sok, amikről csak elmondtam, hogy mi van bennük.
  Valamikor kellett hogy legyen A manipulátor is.
  És hát tömérdek nagyszerű mű kimaradt. Folytatni kellett volna még évtizedeken át.
  Most összeszedtem azokat, amikről tudom, hogy olvastuk (kettőnek csak egy részét). Negyven kötet, több mint húszmillió betű, kicsit kevesebb mint négy év alatt. Szerintem nem rossz.

2015.07.16., 01:53




Megjegyzések egy homofóbnak

(Egy facebookos vitából, amit egy homofóbbal folytattam, aki azt állítja, hogy keresztény, korábban szimpatizált a fasizmussal, de nem gyűlöl senkit, csak homofób, mert Jézus is az volt, hiszen a homoszexualitás bűn.)

Persze senki nem készít kimerítő listát arról, hogy kiket gyűlöl. Pedig jó lenne. Viselhetnének a ruhájukon megkülönböztető jelzéseket, amiből az emberek tudnák, hogy ők kiket gyűlölnek, és nem állnának szóba velük, ha az adott gyűlölet nem tetszik nekik. Például a homofóbok rózsaszín háromszöget, de nem csúcsával lefelé, mint a melegek a vészkorszakban, hanem csúcsával fölfelé, ez mutatja felsőbbrendűségüket, és hogy ha meleget látnak, akkor föláll nekik.

Egyszer beszélgettem egy sráccal, aki a hungarizmus elnevezést akarta használni hazafias világnézetére. Fölhomályosítottam, hogy ez a név már foglalt, Szálasiék használták, és ha hungaristának mondja magát, akkor mindenki nyilasként értelmezi. Azt nem tudtam meg, hogy választott-e másik elnevezést vagy sem, de elgondolkodott.
  No, a homofób elnevezés is foglalt. Olyan emberekre használják, akik gyűlölik a buzikat és legszívesebben a Dunába lődöznék őket, pusztán azért, mert nem érdeklik őket az ellenkező neműek. Ez elég értelmetlen fajta gyűlölet, mert még olyan mese sincsen mögötte, mint Hitleré a német élettérrel meg a zsidó befolyásra tönkretett Németországról, ezeket akkoriban a legtöbb német elhitte. A homofób gyűlöletnek még meséje sincs, amit el lehetne hinni, netán vitatkozni vele. Tehát ha nem gyűlölöd a buzikat, akkor légyszi találj ki valami elnevezést az ideológiádra.
  A jézusozós része engem nem érdekel, a te problémád, hogy ókori mesehősök határozzák meg a világképedet. Speciel Sziporka, de még Asterix is simábban lenne követhető, szóval ezzel engem hagyj, légyszi.

Nem gondolkodsz önállóan, átveszel készen gyártott eszmerendszereket. Ha bármi helytelent látok az eszméidben, azt nem tudom veled megbeszélni, mert nem saját magad találtad ki őket. (Windowsra öt perc alatt írok olyan programot, amelyik véletlenszerűen választ rendelkezésre álló programok közül és adott időközönként másikat indít el, de ettől a Windows még nem gondolkodik, csak programokat hajt végre.) Ha bajom van a kereszténységgel, Pál apostollal vagy akár Jézussal kellene megbeszélnem, de ők már meghaltak. Ha a fasizmussal van bajom, Nietzschétől Rosenbergen át Hitlerig és Szálasiig sok ideológus közül választhatok, de ők is meghaltak. Ők létrehozták az eszmerendszert, voltak gondolataik – gonoszak, de voltak. Te csak tartalmazod ezeket az eszméket, mint egy memóriakártya, de vitatkozni azzal se tudok.
  A homoklobbi kifejezés egyébként a fasiszta nyelvi terror része, bőven nem igaz az, hogy te csak régebben voltál fasiszta, hiszen most is használod a kifejezéseiket, szajkózod a szóhasználatukat, vallod az eszméiket. Soha nem szóltak, hogy a két kulcsszó: kereszténység – szeretet, fasizmus – gyűlölet, és ez a kettő nem igazán illeszthető össze? Nem került rád a másolás során, igaz?

Értem én, hogy ezek állati kényelmetlen ideológiák. Gyűlölni a mit sem vétett buzikat egy olyan világban, ahol egyetlen értelmes ember se gyűlöli őket, hisz minek tenné, de ti szerencsétlenek nem tudtok micsinálni, a zsigeri gyűlölet már bennetek van, muszáj legalább a saját szemetekben jóra hozni magatokat, hát kitaláljátok, hogy de mert bűn, ugyanis Jézus ezt mondta. Vagy Kim elvtárs vagy a Führer, tökmindegy, csak legyen egy megfellebbezhetetlen tekintély, akire untalan hivatkoztok, ha gyűlölködni rosszaság, akkor ő a rossz, ti csak követitek, mossátok kezeiteket. És nekiálltok átdefiniálni a fogalmakat. Nem igaz, hogy én uszítok, mert az valójában egy ősi kelta napszimbólum, tehát én a bűncselekményt nem követtem el, tisztelt bíróság, tetszenek érteni? A cigány mást jelent ám, tisztelt bíróság, mert valójában csak a speciálisan élősködő életmódot folytatókat nevezem cigánynak, tetszenek érteni? A homoklobbi semleges kifejezés, igaz ugyan, hogy a lényege a melegek gyűlölete, de én egy egészen másik kifejezéssel gyűlölöm őket, mint a nácik, tehát én nem vagyok náci, tisztelt bíróság, tetszenek érteni? Az egy sokkal ősibb jelkép ám igazából, hiszen Árpád vezér mégse lehetett Hitler híve, tisztelt bíróság, tetszenek érteni? Jézus homofób volt, hiszen ha nem lett volna, akkor én itt állnék egy szál magammal a gyűlöletemmel és nem lenne kire hivatkoznom, tehát ővele tessék ezt lebokszolni, tetszenek érteni?
  Igen, értjük. A gyűlölet forrása sok minden lehet – a puszta tudatlanság csak a táptalaja –, például a kompenzálatlan, végletes kisebbrendűségi komplexus, ezt nehéz földeríteni. A gyűlölet megélését könnyebb. Senki se mond ki szívesen olyasmit a nyilvánosság előtt önmagáról, hogy „én, X. Y., gyűlölök mindenkit, aki tőlem különbözik, mert hatalmi tébolyban szenvedek, azt képzelem magamról, hogy jogom van kijelenteni emberekről, hogyan helyes élni, milyennek szabad születni, jogom van az emberiségnek kinyilatkoztatásokat tenni és parancsokat osztogatni”. Túl azon, hogy ezért valaha diliházba került volna az ember, egyszerűen nem kényelmes, kinézik az embert a társaságból. Ezért inkább hozzátold egy záradékot: „…mert én hiszek az én vezetőmben, N. N.-ben, akinek megvan ez a joga és énrám is átruházta”. És kész, nincs mivel, kivel vitatkozni, ugyanebben a szuperlényben még ezrek vagy milliók hisznek, hiszen valamennyi ilyen hatalmi tébolyultnak szüksége van egy ilyen záradékra, tehát az ilyen komplexust már nem lehet, pontosabban nem célszerű kétségbe vonni, minél többen vannak, akik ugyanazt nevezik meg a záradékban, annál kevésbé. Ha az ember nem akar máglyára kerülni.
  Csak hát mindez semmit sem változtat azon, hogy nem a Tévedhetetlen Igazság volt előbb, amelyik azt mondta: „ők rosszak, gyűlöljétek őket”, hanem a gyűlölet. Aztán jött a Tévedhetetlen Igazság és bólintott. „Igen, látom, hogy gyűlölitek őket. Jól teszitek, mert rosszak!” Hiszen ez a világon a legjobb biznisz, gyűlöletben utazni.

(Végül kijelentette, hogy a homoszexualitás betegség. Megkérdeztem, hogy most bűn vagy betegség. Minden betegség bűn miatt van. Milyen bűn miatt? Az Eredeti Bűn miatt!)

Én arra gondoltam, hogy a két darab állítólag létezett, de még teológusok szerint is allegorikusan értelmezendő ember tökéletesen természetes és normális egy darab dugása miatt állítólag hatezer éve az egész emberiséget vaskegyetlenül kínzó, őskori istened egy rohadék nyomoronc, aki csak arra tud élvezni, ha emberek sikoltoznak fájdalmukban. Menj te a jó büdös… tiltólistára.

2015.07.15., 22:33


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